Haemorrhoids Flashcards Preview

Gastrointestinal > Haemorrhoids > Flashcards

Flashcards in Haemorrhoids Deck (19):
1

How many people do haemorrhoids affect.

Haemorrhoids affect 50% of the population over the age of 50.

2

What are some predisposing conditions for developing haemorrhoids. (2)

Straining with defaecation.
Pregnancy.

3

What are haemorrhoids.

Displacement and dilatation of one or more anal cushions. (vascular tissue)

4

How are haemorrhoids classified.

They are classified into grades 1 to 4.

5

What is a grade 1 haemorrhoid.

A grade one haemorrhoid will only bleed.

6

What is a grade 2 haemorrhoid.

A grade two haemorrhoid will prolapse, but will spontaneously reduce.

7

What is a grade 3 haemorrhoid.

A grade three haemorrhoid will prolapse and require manual replacement.

8

What is a grade 4 haemorrhoid.

A grade 4 haemorrhoid will be permanently prolapsed.

9

What are the symptoms of haemorrhoids. (4)

Painless red PR bleeding (usually after defecation).
Perianal lump.
Mucous discharge.
Pruritus ani.

10

What are the signs of haemorrhoids. (2)

Visible prolapsed haemorrhoids.
Anaemia. (if the bleeding is brisk)

11

What should you always do if someone presents with PR bleeding. (4)

Examine the abdomen for masses.
PR exam.
Proctoscopy.
Sigmoidoscopy.

12

Where are the anal cushions situated.

At 3 o'clock.
At 7 o'clock.
At 11 o'clock.
As viewed form the lithotomy position.

13

What are anal cushions.

Anal cushions are where the 3 major arteries that feed the vascular plexuses enter the anal canal.

14

What is another name for haemorrhoids.

Piles.

15

What is the differential diagnosis for haemorrhoids. (5)

Perianal haematoma.
Anal fissure.
Abscess.
Tumour.
Proctalgia fugax.

16

Define proctalgia fugax.

It is severe pain deep in the rectum that comes on suddenly.
It only lasts for a short time.
It is not due to organic disease.

17

What are some alarm symptoms for a patient presenting with anal bleeding. (3)

Change in bowel habit.
Weight loss.
Tenesmus.

18

What is the most common cause of rectal bleeding.

Haemorrhoids.

19

What are primary, second degree, and third degree haemorrhoids. (3)

Primary - internal.
Second degree - prolapsing.
Third degree - prolapsed.