Gastrointestinal Perforation Flashcards Preview

Gastrointestinal > Gastrointestinal Perforation > Flashcards

Flashcards in Gastrointestinal Perforation Deck (14):
1

Is an oesophageal perforation an emergency.

Yes, it is a surgical emergency.

2

What are some causes of an oesophageal perforation. (5)

OGD (increased risk if dilatation or biopsy performed).
Foreign body.
Carcinoma.
External trauma.
Post-emesis (Boerhaave's syndrome).

3

What are the symptoms of an oesophageal perforation. (2)

Chest pain.
Odynophagia.

4

What are the clinical signs of an oesophageal perforation. (3)

Shock (tachycardia, tachypnoea, hypotension).
Surgical emphysema of neck/chest (air in tissues - produces a 'crackling' sensation on palpation and is visible on Xray).
Fever/signs of systemic sepsis will rapidly develop if undiagnosed.

5

What sort of strictures are most likely to get perforated. (3)

Malignant strictures.
Corrosive strictures.
Post-radiotherapy strictures.

6

What type of strictures can get perforated when performing an endoscopy. (4)

Malignant strictures.
Corrosive strictures.
Post-radiotherapy strictures.
Peptic strictures.

7

What is Boerhaave's syndrome.

Spontaneous oesophageal perforation, resulting from forceful vomiting and retching.

8

Why is shock a clinical features of an oesophageal perforation. (2)

Blood loss.
Occurs as the oesophageal-gastric contents enter the mediastinum and thoracic cavity.

9

What are potential complications of oesophageal perforations. (3)

Subcutaneous emphysema.
Pleural effusions.
Pneumothorax.

10

What is seen on an CXR in a patient with Boerhaave syndrome. (3)

Widened mediastinum.
Air in the mediastinum or subcutaneous air.
A pleural effusion may be present.

11

Why might a pleural effusion be present in a patient with Boerhaave syndrome.

Due to the irritation from the luminal contents.

12

What is a mallory-weiss tear.

Partial thickness oesophageal laceration caused by forceful retching.

13

What causes a mallory-weiss tear. (2)

After alcohol consumption.
Bulimia.

14

What are the clinical presentations of a mallory-weiss tear. (2)

Painful, blood streaked emesis.