Flashcards in APUSHch10 Deck (26):
Men and women from all classes ate together, and the rich and poor rode together on transportation. Most people also dressed similarly.
universal male sufferage
No religious or property owning restrictions on voting. All white males could vote.
party nominating convention
where party politicians and voters would gather in a large meeting hall to nominate the party's candidates (Anti-Masonic Party was the first to do such a thing)
Up until 1820, presidential candidates were nominated by caucuses(closed-door meeting of political party's leaders) of the two parties in Congress, but in 1834, this idea was overthrown.
In addition to being the first third party, it was the first party to hold a national nominating convention and the first to announce a platform, all of which it accomplished in 1831 when it nominated William Wirt of Maryland for president. Did not like Free-Masons.
the practice of giving offices and other favors of government to political supporters and friends, Jackson started this
In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote (Jackson did win the popular vote though), thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
Tariff of 1828; "tariff of abominations"
Tariff passed by Congress that imposed very high duties on imports ( 62% tariff on 92% of imported goods). Southerners protested because it increased the cost of the manufactured good they bought. It was said to have been passed not to raise money but to protect the interests of Northern manufacturers at the expense of Southern farmers.
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
Revolution of 1828
Running candidates for president were John Q. Adams and Andrew Jackson. There was an increased turnout of voters at this election. The large turnout proved that the common people now had the vote and the will to use it for their ends. The results of the election show that the political center of gravity was shifting away from the conservative seaboard East toward the emerging states across the mountains. The revolution was peaceful, achieved by ballots.
role of the president
representative of people and protector of the common man against abuses of power by the rich and the privileged
Peggy Eaton affair
John H. Eaton, a good friend of Jackson, was rumored to be having an affair with the married Peggy O'Neale in 1820. Peggy O'Neale's husband died in 1828. Shortly afterward, Peggy O'Neale and John H. Eaton were wed. Jackson then named Eaton as his secretary of war. Calhoun's wife led the rest of the "cabinet wives" in protest, refusing to acknowledge Peggy as a cabinet wife. Jackson demanded that they accept Peggy as a cabinet wife. Calhoun refused due to pressure from his wife. Martin Van Buren had no wife to pressure him, and he welcomed Peggy to the cabinet, giving Jackson a favorable view of Van Buren. Many cabinet members quit over this incident.
Indian Removal Act (1830)
Signed into law by President Andrew Jackson, strongly supported by the South whom was eager to gain access to the lands inhabited by the "Five Civilized Tribes." Though the act was intended to be voluntary removal, significant pressure was put onto the tribes' chiefs to vacate and led to the inevitable removal of most Indians from the states
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia
Supreme Court case which said that Cherokees were not a foreign nation with the right to sue in a federal court
Worchester v. Georgia
Supreme Court case which ruled that the laws of Georgia had no force within the boundaries of the Cherokee territory; Jackson sided with the states saying, "John Marshall has made his decision, now let him enforce it."
Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void, Jackson responded with Force bill and suggested compromising over tariff. Compromise succeeded.
It was an unplanned series of speeches in the Senate, during which Robert Hayne of South Carolina interpreted the Constitution as little more than a treaty between sovereign states, and Daniel Webster expressed the concept of the United States as one nation. The debate cemented the image of Daniel Webster, as a legendary defender of Constitution and Union
John C. Calhoun
The 7th Vice President of the United States and a leading Southern politician from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. He was an advocate of slavery, states' rights, limited government, and nullification.
Proclamation to the People of South Carolina
A proclamation written by Edward Livingston and issued by Andrew Jackson in 1832. Issued at the height of the Nullification Crisis, the proclamation says that nullification and disunion were treasonous.
The brilliant but arrogant president of the Bank of the United States. Many people believed he held an unconstitutional amount of power over the nation's financial affairs. The power struggle between Biddle and Jackson led to Jackson depositing a large amount of investments into his pet banks.
Secretary of the Treasury during Jackson's administration. Eventually replaced John Marshall as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court.
Opponent's name for state banks where Andrew Jackson placed deposits removed from the federal National Bank.
Executive order that required payment in gold/silver in order to buy land since paper money was inflating. This signified the growing economic problems which would result in the panic of 1837.
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued. Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
Martin van Buren
8th US President, Served as secretary of state during Andrew Jackson's first term, vice president during Jackson's second term, and won the presidency in 1836