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Flashcards in APUSHch27 Deck (41):
1

Dwight Eisenhower

United States general who supervised the invasion of Normandy and the defeat of Nazi Germany. 34th President of the United States (1890-1961)

2

Richard Nixon

Vice President under Eisenhower and 37th President of the United States. resigned after the Watergate scandal in 1974 (1913-1994)

3

modern Republicanism

President Eisenhower's views. Claiming he was liberal toward people but conservative about spending money, he helped balance the federal budget and lower taxes without destroying existing social programs.

4

Oveta Culp Hobby

Director of the Women's Army Corps during World War II; she held the rank of colonel and later became the second woman cabinet member, serving as secretary of health, education, and welfare.

5

soil-bank program

paid farmers to non use land, goal: decrease farm production to increase cost/income

6

Highway Act

was enacted on June 29, 1956, when a hospitalized Dwight D. Eisenhower signed this bill into law. Appropriating $25 billion for the construction of 40,000 miles (64,000 km) of interstate highways over a 10-year period, it was the largest public works project in American history to that point.

7

interstate highway system

Ike backed the interstate highway act of 1956, a $27 billion plan to build forty-two thousand miles of sleek, fast motorways.

8

John Foster Dulles

United States diplomat who (as Secretary of State) pursued a policy of opposition to the USSR by providing aid to American allies (1888-1959)

9

brinksmanship

The principle of not backing down in a crisis, even if it meant taking the country to the brink of war. Policy of both the U.S. and U.S.S.R. during the Cold War.

10

massive retaliation

Eisenhower's policy; it advocated the full use of American nuclear weapons to counteract even a Soviet ground attack in Europe

11

Third World

Term applied to a group of developing countries who professed nonalignment during the Cold War.

12

Iran

a theocratic islamic republic in the Middle East in western Asia. It was the core of the ancient empire that was known as Persia until 1935; rich in oil; involved in state-sponsored terrorism

13

covert action

undercover intervention in foreign government by the CIA during Eisenhower's presidency.

14

Indochina

a peninsula of southeastern Asia that includes Myanmar and Cambodia and Laos and Malaysia and Thailand and Vietnam

15

Geneva Conference

A conference between many countries that agreed to end hostilities and restore peace in French Indochina and Vietnam.

16

Ho Chi Minh

Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969)

17

Vietnam

a prolonged war (1954-1975) between the communist armies of North Vietnam who were supported by the Chinese and the non-communist armies of South Vietnam who were supported by the United States

18

domino theory

the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control

19

Southeast Asia Treaty Organization

an international organization for collective defense to block further communist gains is Southeast Asia - 1954

20

Suez Canal Crisis

Ike prevents war between Egypt, Israel and Britain over the nationalizing of this thing by condemning his allies (1956)

21

Eisenhower Doctrine

policy of the US that it would defend the middle east against attack by any communist country

22

Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries

Organization of oil-producing nations who cut off oil to the US for supporting Israel

23

spirit of Geneva

USSR and US conferring on peace in 1955, couldn't agree on demilitarization or Open Skies but suspended nuclear tests

24

open-skies crises

The Soviets rejected this proposal for open aerial photography by the opposing nation in order to eliminate surprise nuclear attack.

25

Nikita Khrushchev

ruled the USSR from 1958-1964; lessened government control of soviet citizens; seeked peaceful coexistence with the West instead of confrontation

26

peaceful coexistence

the two sides in the Cold War decide to cooperate in such areas as space, trade, education, and science

27

Hungarian revolt

1956 - Hungary tried to overthrow the Communist government, partly encouraged by the U.S. The rebellion was quickly crushed.

28

Warsaw Pact

treaty signed in 1945 that formed an alliance of the Eastern European countries behind the Iron Curtain; USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania

29

Sputnik

The world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.

30

National Aeronautics and Space Administration

an independent agency of the United States government responsible for aviation and spaceflight

31

U-2 incident

A 1960 incident in which the Soviet military used a guided missile to shoot down an American U-2 spy plane over Soviet territory, revealing a formerly secret American tactic of war.

32

Fidel Castro

Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba (born in 1927)

33

Cuba

became Communist and Soviet Union's alliance and have missiles pointed to Washington D.C

34

military-industrial complex

Eisenhower's term for the close ties between the defense industry and the Pentagon that might influence government policy.

35

civil rights

Policies designed to protect people against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government officials or individuals

36

Jackie Robinson

The first African American player in the major league of baseball. His actions helped to bring about other opportunities for African Americans.

37

NAACP

The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People tried to protect the constitutional right of African Americans. An act that wasn't passed by congress.

38

desegregation

the action of incorporating a racial or religious group into a community

39

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka

In a 9-0 vote, the separate but equal doctrine was abandoned when it was decided that the education system was not equal.

40

Earl Warren

Chief Justice during the 1950's and 1960's who used a loose interpretation to expand rights for both African-Americans and those accused of crimes. Presided of Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka.

41

Little Rock Crisis

1957 - Governor Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine Black students from entering Little Rock Central High School. Eisenhower sent in U.S. paratroopers to ensure the students could attend class.