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Flashcards in APUSHch21 Deck (33)
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A way of thinking or an attitude that stresses the value of being practical, realistic, and useful, developed by William James and John Dewey


Frederick W. Taylor

The original "efficiency expert" who, in the book The Principles of Scientific Management from 1911, preached the gospel of efficient management of production time and costs, the proper routing and scheduling of work, standardization of tools and equipment, and the like.


Lincoln Steffans

He was another muckraking journalist that worked for McClure's. He is known for exposing corruption in major American cities. His first installment- "Tweed Days in St. Louis" may have been the "first muckraking article". He also wrote an autobiography that Dr. Ferdon liked called the Autobiography of Lincoln Steffens. He said after returning from Communist Russia, "I've seen the future and it works."


Ida Tarbell

A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.


Jacob Riis

Early 1900's muckraker who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. with his novel "How The Other Half Lives"; exposed the poor conditions of the poor tenements in NYC and Hell's Kitchen


Theodore Dreiser

Wrote two novels "The Financier" and "The Titan" which portrayed the avarice and ruthlessness of industrialists.


Robert La Folette

The Progressive Governor of Wisconsin who developed the Direct Primary Method as well as the "Wisconsin Idea".


17th Amendment

Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.



The right of citizens to place a measure or issue before the voters or the legislature for approval.



The practice of letting voters accept or reject measures proposed by the legislature.



The act of removing an official by petition


Square Deal

Progressive concept by Roosevelt that would help capital, labor, and the public. It called for control of corporations, consumer protection, and conservation of natural resources. It denounced special treatment for the large capitalists and is the essential element to his trust-busting attitude. This deal embodied the belief that all corporations must serve the general public good.


anthracite coal miners strike

(Pennsylvania) miners demanded 20% increase in pay and reduction of the working day from 10 to 9 hours; owners refused to negotiate because they were confident that the public would react against the miners; Roosevelt threatened to seize control of mines; owners agreed to 10% pay boost and 9 hour work day


Elkins Act

Act that specifically targeted at the use of rebates by railroads. It allowed for heavy fining of companies who used rebates and those who accepted them.


Hepburn Act

1906, Gives the ICC the power to set maximum railroad rates, finally giving the agency enforcement power


Upton Sinclair

Muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things Sinclair had seen.


Pure Food and Drug Act

Forbade the manufacture or sale of mislabeled or adulterated food or drugs, it gave the government broad powers to ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in order to abolish the "patent" drug trade. Still in existence as the FDA.


Meat Inspection Act

1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.


Newlands Reclamation Act

1902 act authorizing federal funds from public land sales to pay for irrigation and land development projects, mainly in the dry Western states


Gifford Pinchot

Head of the U.S. Forest Service under Roosevelt, who believed that it was possible to make use of natural resources while conserving them


Mann-Elkins Act

Passed in 1910, it empowered the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) for the first time to initiate rate changes, extend regulation to telephone and telegraph companies and set up a Commerce Court to expedite appeals from the ICC rulings


16th Amendment

Authorized the collection of income tax. This made the rich pay their fair share to the government as well as allowing the Underwood-Simmons Tariff of 1913 to lower many tariffs


Bull Moose Party/New Nationalism

The Republicans were badly split in the 1912 election, so Roosevelt broke away forming his own Progressive Party (or Bull Moose Party because he was "fit as a bull moose...") with the platform of New Nationalism. Wanted more government regulation of business and unions, women's suffrage, and more social welfare programs. His loss led to the election of Democratic nominee Woodrow Wilson, but he gained more third party votes than ever before.


New Freedom

Woodrow Wilson's program in his campaign for the presidency in 1912, the New Freedom emphasized business competition and small government. It sought to reign in federal authority, release individual energy, and restore competition. It echoed many of the progressive social-justice objectives while pushing for a free economy rather than a planned one.


Federal Reserve Act

This 1914 act created a central banking system, consisting of twelve regional banks governed by the Federal reserve Board. It was an attempt to provide the United States with a sound yet flexible currency. The Board it created still plays a vital role in the American economy today.


Clayton Antitrust Act

Corrected the problems of the Sherman Antitrust Act; outlawed certain practices that restricted competition; unions on strike could no longer be considered violating the antitrust acts


Niagara Movement

In 1905, W E B Du Bois met with a group of black intellectuals in Niagara Falls, Canada, to discuss a program of protest and action aimed at securing equal rights for blacks. They and others who later joined the group became known as this.



National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, founded in 1909 to abolish segregation and discrimination, to oppose racism and to gain civil rights for African Americans, got Supreme Court to declare grandfather clause unconstitutional.


National Urban League

Tried to improve job opportunities and houseing for african americans especially for migrants moving north from the southern states; worked closely with NAACP to achieve its goals; "Not Alms But Opportunity"


Carrie Chapman Catt/League of Women Voters

Run by Carrie Chapman Catt and made to educate women about political issues and candidates running for office