Architecture Form Space & Order ch 1-7 Flashcards Preview

Uncategorized > Architecture Form Space & Order ch 1-7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Architecture Form Space & Order ch 1-7 Deck (134):
1

We percieve all things as either a positive or negative. Positive elements are seen as ____ while negative elements are the ______.

Figures

Background

2

Stepping up to a space might express the extroverted nature or ___ of a space, while lowering a space might indicate it's ________ qualities

Significance

Sheltering

3

What are seven theories of proportion?

Golden Section (or ratio)

Classical Orders

Renaissance Theories

Modular

Ken

Anthropometric

Scale

4

Describe a subtractive transformation

Subtractive transformation is the removal of a portion of an objects volume.  It can remain in the same family of forms or be transformed into a form from another family

i.e.: a cube can have a portion removed and still remain a cube, or it can be transformed into a polygon that begins to look like a sphere.

5

Describe an interlocking space.

The field of a space overlaps the volume of another space

6

Proportion refers to the ________ of ratios

Equality

7

4 ways a form can be articulated

*Different material, color, texture or pattern on adjoining planes

*Develop corners as distinct linear elements independent of abuting planes

*Remove corners to physically separate neighboring planes

*Lighting the form to create sharp contrasts in tonal values along edges and corners

8

The visual and tactile quality given to a surface by the size, shape, arrangement and proportion of the parts is the __________.  (Also determines the degree to which the surfaces of a form reflects or absorbs incident light.

Texture

9

Anthropometry:

There are 3 types of fit between a person and their environment.

These are static, dynamic and social distance. Briefly describe each of these.

Static - sitting in a chair or leaning against a railing

Dynamic - Entering a foyer, walking up a stairway

Social Distance - the ability to control our personal space

10

What is a line with the following properties:

Length and width

shape

surface

orientation

position

A plane

11

Describe grid organization

Spaces within the field of a structural grid or other 3-dimensional framework

12

What does transitional transformation refer to?

Altering one or more dimensions, but still retain its identity as a member of a family of forms

13

An ____ plane can define a transitional space between the interior and exterior of a building. Comined with a roof it develops into a semi-private porch or veranda

Elevated

14

Proportion refers to the proper or harmonious relation of one part to the _________

Whole

15

What are 2 ways besides going thru a door that can signify an entryway to a space.

Going between 2 pillars or under an overhead beam

or

a change in level

16

A regularly spaced series of columns or similar vertical elements form a _________. It may also engage a wall and become a ______ that supports the wall, articulates its surcace and tempers the scale, rhythm and proportioning of its bays.

Collonade

pillastrade

17

Creating a stepped, terraced or ramped transition from one level to the other helps provide ____ between a sunken space and the raised area around it

Continuity

18

Of the three dimensions of a room (length, width and height) which has the greatest effect on how large a space appears?

The ceiling height

19

A frontal view of a plane reveals its true shape while an oblique angle __________ it.

Distorts

20

What influences our perception of the shape, size, scale, proportion and visual weight of an object?

 

It's surface properties and visual context

21

What do texture and color together affect?

The visual weight and scale, and the degree it absorbs or reflects light and sound

22

A long narrow opening, either vertical or horizontal can . . . . .

Hint at what lies beyond

23

Renaissance Theories

How was the height of a room with a flat ceiling deteremined?

a vaulted ceiling determined?

Flat ceiling - the ceiling height equalled the width of the room

Vaulted ceiling - the ceiling height equalled 1 1/3 of the width.

24

List 6 properties of enclosure:

Shape

Surface

Edges

Dimensions

Configuration

Openings

25

The physical dimensions of length, width and depth of a form determine the _______.  The scale is determined by this in relation to othe forms in its context.

Size

26

What tpe of configuration of planes defines a volume of space oriented axially toward 2 open ends

Parallel planes

27

Turning a corner with a horizontal opening reinforce ______ ______ of a space and broadens the panoramic view.  If the opening continues around the space it will visually lift the ceiling plane from the walls, isolate it and give it a feeling of ____________

Horizontal layering

Lightness

28

What type of plane articulates the surface on which it fronts

A single vertical plan

29

A series of forms arrange sequentially in a row is a _______ form.

Linear

30

Anthropometry refers to the measurement of the size and proportions of the ____ _____.

Human body

31

What is the degree of concentraton and stability of a form?  (Depends on its geometry as well as its orientation relative to the ground plane, the pull of gravity and the line of sight)

Visual inertia

32

An axis can be created by a _______ arrangement of forms and spaces

Symmetrical

33

A number of secondary forms clustered about a dominant, central parent form is a ___________

Centralized form

34

What is a point with length, direction and position?

A line

35

Edges, nodes and terminations of the path determine the  _____ - ________ relationship

path - space

36

A balanced arrangement of similar elements on opposite sides of a median axis that cuts the plane in identical halves is called a______ symmetry

Bilateral

37

What can aid our perception of size and scale of an object?

Elements of known size (a person standing within a space)

38

For the Greeks and the Romans all dimensions of a column, from the shaft, the capital, the pedestal and entablature as well as the spacing of columns was based on the diameter of the column.  This is known as ___________ ____________.

Classical Orders

39

A small opening can ______ a view and be seen as a _______.

Frame

Picture

40

Describe clustered organization

Spaces grouped by proximity or the sharing of a common visual trait or relationship

41

Grouping:

In this type of relationship, the forms share a common edge and can pivot about that edge

Edge - to - edge contact

42

Describe spaces linked by a common space

Two spaces may rely on an intermediate space for their relationahip

43

Renaissance Theories are base on Pythagoras' theory of mathmatics, which was translated into __ ______ __ ________.

a theory of proportion.  

i.e.1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 . . . . .

or

1, 3, 9, 27, 81. . . . . . . .

44

The physical dimensions of length, width, and depth of a form determine its _______.  While these dimensions determine theh proportions of a form, its scale is determined by this in relation to other forms in its context.

Size

45

What are 3 ways that interlocking spaces can be interpretted?

*Share equally between the two spaces

*It can merge with one of the two spaces

*It can develop its own integreity as a space that links the two spaces

46

What is a plane the with following properties:

length, width & depth

form and space

surface

orientation

position

A volume

47

Multiple openings can be clustered to form a unified composition or be staggered or dispersed to create______  ________

Visual Movement

48

Articulation refers to____________

the manner in which the surfaces of a form come together to define its shape and volume.

An articulated form clearly reveals the precise nature of its parts nad their relainships to each other and to the whole.

49

Corridors, halls, galleries, stairways and rooms form the _____________ path

Circulation

50

An oblique approach enhances the effect of __________ on the front facade and form of the building. If the approaching angle is extreme the entrance can . . . .. . .  to be more visible.

Perspective

extend beyond the facade

51

A ratio refers to comparison of __ ______________ ____________

two similar things

52

Wood is a _________ and __________ material which can be used as posts, beams, planar boards and as a volumetric element in log cabin construction

Flexible and elastic

53

How is the significance of a space shown in a clustered plan?

Size, form or orientation withing the pattern

54

A frontal approach to a bulding is the most direct. It can be the entire front ______ or an elaborate _______ withing the plane.

facade

entrance

55

Texture and color together affect the _____ ______ and ________ of a plane and the degree to which it absorbs or reflects ___________ and ___________.

Visual weight

Scale

Light and sound

56

Order without diversity can create __________ and ___________

Monotony and Boredom

57

Classical Orders:

All dimensions of a building  were ___________ and in __________ with one another.

Proportionate

Harmony

58

What is visual scale?

How large something appears in relation to what is around it

59

Describe the Fibinocci Series of numbers

Each number is the sum of the 2 preceeding numbers

i.e: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55 . . . .  to infinity)

This is very similar to the Golden Ratio

60

Describe a space within a space?

A space that is completely contained within another space.

61

The science applied to the coordination of the design of objects and how the human body interacts with it is _______?

Ergonomics

62

In this type of relationship, the forms interpentrate each other space. The forms need not hsare any visual traits.

Interlocking volumes

63

What will increase or decrease the visual weight of an object?

Modifying the tonal value

64

Grouping:

This type of relationship relies on the close proximity of the forms or their sharing of a common visual trait, such as shape, color or material

Spatial tension

65

Describe centralized organization

A dominant space which a number of secondary spaces are grouped around

66

Brick is an example of a ___________ form because it depends on its mass for strength

Volumetric

67

The distant view of building is called the _________

Approach

68

Describe radial organization

A central space about which linear organizaton are arranged in a radial manner

69

What is the critical dimension of a beam in determining the load it can carry?

its depth

70

A distinct contrast between the surface color of a plane and that of the surrounding field can clarify its __________, while modifying its tonal value can either increase or decrease its _____________    ___________.

Shape

Visual weight

71

What is the critical dimension of a column which determines the load it can carry?

Its thickness

72

Ordering Principals - Axis

Since an axis is a linear condition it has qualities of length and direction, and induces movement and promotes views along its path.  For definition it must be terminated at both ends by .....

A significant space or form

73

What are 11 qualities of space?

Form - Color - Texture

Pattern - Sound - Proportion

Scale - Definition - Degree of Enclosure

View or Outlook - Light

74

A composition of linear forms extending outware from a central form is a __________ form

Radial

75

The location of a form relative to its environment or the visual field within which it is seen is its ___________.

Position

76

A collection of forms grouped together by proximity or the sharing of a common visual point is a __________ form.

Clustered

77

Describe linear organization

A linear sequence of repetitive spaces

78

Architectural form occurs at the juncture between _____ and _________

Mass and space

79

The direction of a form relative to the ground plane, the compass points, other forms, or to the person viewing the form is its _____________.

Orientation

80

All building materials have distinct properties of __________, ___________ and  __________ as well as an ultimate strength beyond which they cannot exceed without ______________-, __________ or _____________.

Elasticity, hardness and durability

Fracturing, breaking or collapsing

81

Directional or oversized optical patterns can ______ the shape or _____ the proportions of a plane

Distort or exaggerate

82

Renaissance Theories:

What are the three means of determining the height of a space?

Arithmetic: c-b/b-a = c/c (1, 2, 3 or 6, 9, 12)

Geometirc: c-b/b-a = c/b (1, 2, 4... or 4, 6, 9)

Harmonic: c-b/b-a = c/a (2, 3, 6... or 6, 8, 12)

In each case the height of a room is equal to the mean (b) between the two extremes of the width (a) and the length (c) of the room

83

What is the most common type of spacial relationship?

Adjoining

84

Diversity without order can produce _______

Chaos

85

What is articulation?

It refers to the way surfaces of a form come together to define shape and volume

86

What are the 3 types of transformations of an object?

Dimensional, subtractive, additive

87

What are 3 ways to visually reinforce an entrance?

*Make the opening lower, wider or narrower than anticipated

*make the entrance deep and circuitous

*Articulate the opening with ornamentation or decorative embellishment

88

The separating plane between 2 adjacent spaces may (4 things):

*Limit visual and physical access, reinforce the individuality of each space and accomodate their differences

*Appear as a freestanding plane

*Be defined with a row of columns that allows a high degree of spacial continuity

*Be only implied be a change in level or a contrast in surface material

89

What is the Ken modular system proportions.

A takami mat is 1 lenth x 1/2 length.  One length is a ken and all rooms in Japanese architeture is based on this unit.  Ceiling height is established by multiplying the number of mats by 0.3

90

What type of vertical plane generates a field of space from its corner outward along a diagonal plane?

An L-shaped plane

91

What elements define the perpendicular edges of a volume of space

Vertical linear elements

92

What indicates a position in space?

A point

93

An opening located completely within a wall or ceiling plane will appear as a bright figure on a contrasting background.  If centered it will appear stable and ______ _________ the surface around it.

Moving the opening off-center will create a degree of ______   ________ between the opening and the edges of the plane toward which it is moved.

Visual Organize

Visual Tension

94

Describe the golden section (or ratio)

An object is divided into 2 sections with the smaller in proportion to the larger as the larger is to the whole

Written algebraically as a/b = b/a+b

 

95

What are four reasons for modifying the ceiling plane of a structure?

*Define and articulate a space within a room

*Alter the scale of a space

*Define a path of movement thru a space

*Allow natural light to enter a space

96

A set of modular forms related and regulated by a three dimensional grid is a __________ form.

Grid.

97

While a window wall weakens the vertical boundaries of a space it creates the potential for __________ _____________ the space beyond its physical boundaries

visually expanding

98

What are the three ways a space can be called out as being more important in a hierarchal scheme?

Size

Shape

Placement or Orientation

99

An element that refers to a line, plane or volume of reference to which other elements in a composition can relate is called a _______.

Datum

100

The principle of hierarchy implies that in most if not all architectural compositions, real differences exist among their forms and spaces. These differences reflect the ______ __ __________ of these forms and spaces, as well as the functional, formal and symbolic roles they play in the organization.

Degree of Importance

101

Debilitating glare caused by excessive brightness ratios between adjacent surfaces can be lessened by . . . . .

allowing daylight to enter the space from at least 2 directions.

102

What type of plane configuration establishes the boundaries off an introverted space and influences the field of space around it

Four plans or a closure

103

A path of cirulation can pass thru spaces which creates patterns of ____ and _____ within the space

Rest and movement

104

What are 2 ways to deal with expressive contrast between an opening and the plane it is in?

Illuminate the surface with a 2nd light source within the space, or a deep set opening can be formed to create illuminated surfaces between the opening and the surrounding plane.

105

The characteristic outline or surface configuration of a particular form is the ______________. 

This is the principal aspect by which we identify and categorize forms.

Shape

106

What type of plane define a volune of space oriented toward the open end?

A U-shaped plane

107

Openings located at corners give a space and the planes they are in a _______ orientation

diagonal

108

Doing this to a portion of the base plane creates a specific domain within the larger space

Elevating

109

A space can be separated from its surround area by __ it as well as elevating it

Depressing or dropping it

110

An  individual's perceptons of hue, saturation and tonal value determine the ____________.  This is the attribute that most clearly distinguishes a form from its environment and affects the visual weight of a form.

Color

111

An axial condition can exist without a symmetryical condition being ________ present, a symmetrical condition cannot exist without impying the existence of an ____ or center about which it is constructed.

Simultaneously

Axis

112

Describe adjacent spaces

Two spaces adjoin each other or share a ccommon border

113

A spiral approach emphasizes the _____ ___________ _______ of the building

three dimensional form

114

The surface articulation of the ________ or ________ plane is often used to define a zone or space within a larger context

Ground or floor plane

115

A balanced arrangement of similar, radiating elements such that the composition can be divided into similar halves by passing  plane at any angle around a centerpoint is called_________ __________.

Radial Symmetry

116

Paths of circulation can pass by spaces,which keeps the ____________ of each space

Integrity

117

Any movement characterized by a patterned recurrence of elements of motifs at regular or irregular intervals refers to the principle of ________.

Rhythm

118

Since the stresses in a material resulting from the force of gravity with size all materials also have rational ______ beyond which they cannot go.

Dimensions

119

This type of relationship requires that the two forms have corresponding planar sufaces which are parallel to each other

Face - to - face contact

120

A form can be articulated by:

differentiating adjoining planes with a change in material, color, texture or pattern

developing corners as distinct linear elements independent of the abutting planes

removing corners to physically separate neighboring planes

lighting the form to create sharp contrasts in tonal value along edges and corners

121

The characteristic outline or suface  configuration of a particular form is its ______________.  This is the primary means of characterizing forms.

Shape

122

What can you do with color to clarify an object's shape

Make a distinct contrast between the color of the object and the surrounding field.

123

Scale alludes to the size of something in relation to something __ _______ ______

of known size

124

Rhythmic patterns provide continuity and lead us to anticipate what comes next. any break in the pattern announces and emphasized the _________  of the interrupting element

Importance

125

A frontal view reveals the _________ shape of a plane, while an _______ view distorts it.

True shape

Oblique view

126

In a linear organization the significance of important spaces cna be emphasized by their location.  What are 3 examples of locations that would accomplish this?

*The end of a linear sequence

*Offset from the linear sequence

*At pivotal points in a segmented linear form

127

What does a clustered organization rely on to relate its spaces to one another?

Physical proximity

128

We tend to group in a random composition according to  (2 ways)

Their closeness to one another

or

Visual characteristics they share

129

An interlocking spacial relationship results from . . . .. . . . . .  Each space retains its identity and definition, but the resulting shared space is open to interpretation.

the overlapping of two spacial fields to ccreate a zone of shared space.

130

The configuration of the path is ___________ and mediating spaces can _____ ____ _____ within spaces

Flexible

Link the path

131

Materials like steel are stong in both ___________ and ___________ and can be formed into columns and beams as well as sheet materials

Compression and tension

132

Name the two fundamental types of symmetry

bilateral

radial

133

A circulation path can terminate in a space in which case it is an ____

Approach

134

The sequence of spaces determines the ________.

Orientation