We percieve all things as either a positive or negative. Positive elements are seen as ____ while negative elements are the ______.
Stepping up to a space might express the extroverted nature or ___ of a space, while lowering a space might indicate it's ________ qualities
What are seven theories of proportion?
Golden Section (or ratio)
Describe a subtractive transformation
Subtractive transformation is the removal of a portion of an objects volume. It can remain in the same family of forms or be transformed into a form from another family
i.e.: a cube can have a portion removed and still remain a cube, or it can be transformed into a polygon that begins to look like a sphere.
Describe an interlocking space.
The field of a space overlaps the volume of another space
Proportion refers to the ________ of ratios
4 ways a form can be articulated
*Different material, color, texture or pattern on adjoining planes
*Develop corners as distinct linear elements independent of abuting planes
*Remove corners to physically separate neighboring planes
*Lighting the form to create sharp contrasts in tonal values along edges and corners
The visual and tactile quality given to a surface by the size, shape, arrangement and proportion of the parts is the __________. (Also determines the degree to which the surfaces of a form reflects or absorbs incident light.
There are 3 types of fit between a person and their environment.
These are static, dynamic and social distance. Briefly describe each of these.
Static - sitting in a chair or leaning against a railing
Dynamic - Entering a foyer, walking up a stairway
Social Distance - the ability to control our personal space
What is a line with the following properties:
Length and width
Describe grid organization
Spaces within the field of a structural grid or other 3-dimensional framework
What does transitional transformation refer to?
Altering one or more dimensions, but still retain its identity as a member of a family of forms
An ____ plane can define a transitional space between the interior and exterior of a building. Comined with a roof it develops into a semi-private porch or veranda
Proportion refers to the proper or harmonious relation of one part to the _________
What are 2 ways besides going thru a door that can signify an entryway to a space.
Going between 2 pillars or under an overhead beam
a change in level
A regularly spaced series of columns or similar vertical elements form a _________. It may also engage a wall and become a ______ that supports the wall, articulates its surcace and tempers the scale, rhythm and proportioning of its bays.
Creating a stepped, terraced or ramped transition from one level to the other helps provide ____ between a sunken space and the raised area around it
Of the three dimensions of a room (length, width and height) which has the greatest effect on how large a space appears?
The ceiling height
A frontal view of a plane reveals its true shape while an oblique angle __________ it.
What influences our perception of the shape, size, scale, proportion and visual weight of an object?
It's surface properties and visual context
What do texture and color together affect?
The visual weight and scale, and the degree it absorbs or reflects light and sound
A long narrow opening, either vertical or horizontal can . . . . .
Hint at what lies beyond
How was the height of a room with a flat ceiling deteremined?
a vaulted ceiling determined?
Flat ceiling - the ceiling height equalled the width of the room
Vaulted ceiling - the ceiling height equalled 1 1/3 of the width.
List 6 properties of enclosure:
The physical dimensions of length, width and depth of a form determine the _______. The scale is determined by this in relation to othe forms in its context.
What tpe of configuration of planes defines a volume of space oriented axially toward 2 open ends
Turning a corner with a horizontal opening reinforce ______ ______ of a space and broadens the panoramic view. If the opening continues around the space it will visually lift the ceiling plane from the walls, isolate it and give it a feeling of ____________
What type of plane articulates the surface on which it fronts
A single vertical plan
A series of forms arrange sequentially in a row is a _______ form.
Anthropometry refers to the measurement of the size and proportions of the ____ _____.
What is the degree of concentraton and stability of a form? (Depends on its geometry as well as its orientation relative to the ground plane, the pull of gravity and the line of sight)
An axis can be created by a _______ arrangement of forms and spaces
A number of secondary forms clustered about a dominant, central parent form is a ___________
What is a point with length, direction and position?
Edges, nodes and terminations of the path determine the _____ - ________ relationship
path - space
A balanced arrangement of similar elements on opposite sides of a median axis that cuts the plane in identical halves is called a______ symmetry
What can aid our perception of size and scale of an object?
Elements of known size (a person standing within a space)
For the Greeks and the Romans all dimensions of a column, from the shaft, the capital, the pedestal and entablature as well as the spacing of columns was based on the diameter of the column. This is known as ___________ ____________.
A small opening can ______ a view and be seen as a _______.
Describe clustered organization
Spaces grouped by proximity or the sharing of a common visual trait or relationship
In this type of relationship, the forms share a common edge and can pivot about that edge
Edge - to - edge contact
Describe spaces linked by a common space
Two spaces may rely on an intermediate space for their relationahip
Renaissance Theories are base on Pythagoras' theory of mathmatics, which was translated into __ ______ __ ________.
a theory of proportion.
i.e.1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 . . . . .
1, 3, 9, 27, 81. . . . . . . .
The physical dimensions of length, width, and depth of a form determine its _______. While these dimensions determine theh proportions of a form, its scale is determined by this in relation to other forms in its context.
What are 3 ways that interlocking spaces can be interpretted?
*Share equally between the two spaces
*It can merge with one of the two spaces
*It can develop its own integreity as a space that links the two spaces
What is a plane the with following properties:
length, width & depth
form and space
Multiple openings can be clustered to form a unified composition or be staggered or dispersed to create______ ________
Articulation refers to____________
the manner in which the surfaces of a form come together to define its shape and volume.
An articulated form clearly reveals the precise nature of its parts nad their relainships to each other and to the whole.
Corridors, halls, galleries, stairways and rooms form the _____________ path
An oblique approach enhances the effect of __________ on the front facade and form of the building. If the approaching angle is extreme the entrance can . . . .. . . to be more visible.
extend beyond the facade
A ratio refers to comparison of __ ______________ ____________
two similar things
Wood is a _________ and __________ material which can be used as posts, beams, planar boards and as a volumetric element in log cabin construction
Flexible and elastic
How is the significance of a space shown in a clustered plan?
Size, form or orientation withing the pattern
A frontal approach to a bulding is the most direct. It can be the entire front ______ or an elaborate _______ withing the plane.
Texture and color together affect the _____ ______ and ________ of a plane and the degree to which it absorbs or reflects ___________ and ___________.
Light and sound
Order without diversity can create __________ and ___________
Monotony and Boredom
All dimensions of a building were ___________ and in __________ with one another.
What is visual scale?
How large something appears in relation to what is around it
Describe the Fibinocci Series of numbers
Each number is the sum of the 2 preceeding numbers
i.e: 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55 . . . . to infinity)
This is very similar to the Golden Ratio
Describe a space within a space?
A space that is completely contained within another space.
The science applied to the coordination of the design of objects and how the human body interacts with it is _______?
In this type of relationship, the forms interpentrate each other space. The forms need not hsare any visual traits.
What will increase or decrease the visual weight of an object?
Modifying the tonal value
This type of relationship relies on the close proximity of the forms or their sharing of a common visual trait, such as shape, color or material
Describe centralized organization
A dominant space which a number of secondary spaces are grouped around
Brick is an example of a ___________ form because it depends on its mass for strength
The distant view of building is called the _________
Describe radial organization
A central space about which linear organizaton are arranged in a radial manner
What is the critical dimension of a beam in determining the load it can carry?
A distinct contrast between the surface color of a plane and that of the surrounding field can clarify its __________, while modifying its tonal value can either increase or decrease its _____________ ___________.
What is the critical dimension of a column which determines the load it can carry?
Ordering Principals - Axis
Since an axis is a linear condition it has qualities of length and direction, and induces movement and promotes views along its path. For definition it must be terminated at both ends by .....
A significant space or form
What are 11 qualities of space?
Form - Color - Texture
Pattern - Sound - Proportion
Scale - Definition - Degree of Enclosure
View or Outlook - Light
A composition of linear forms extending outware from a central form is a __________ form
The location of a form relative to its environment or the visual field within which it is seen is its ___________.
A collection of forms grouped together by proximity or the sharing of a common visual point is a __________ form.
Describe linear organization
A linear sequence of repetitive spaces
Architectural form occurs at the juncture between _____ and _________
Mass and space
The direction of a form relative to the ground plane, the compass points, other forms, or to the person viewing the form is its _____________.
All building materials have distinct properties of __________, ___________ and __________ as well as an ultimate strength beyond which they cannot exceed without ______________-, __________ or _____________.
Elasticity, hardness and durability
Fracturing, breaking or collapsing
Directional or oversized optical patterns can ______ the shape or _____ the proportions of a plane
Distort or exaggerate
What are the three means of determining the height of a space?
Arithmetic: c-b/b-a = c/c (1, 2, 3 or 6, 9, 12)
Geometirc: c-b/b-a = c/b (1, 2, 4... or 4, 6, 9)
Harmonic: c-b/b-a = c/a (2, 3, 6... or 6, 8, 12)
In each case the height of a room is equal to the mean (b) between the two extremes of the width (a) and the length (c) of the room
What is the most common type of spacial relationship?
Diversity without order can produce _______
What is articulation?
It refers to the way surfaces of a form come together to define shape and volume
What are the 3 types of transformations of an object?
Dimensional, subtractive, additive
What are 3 ways to visually reinforce an entrance?
*Make the opening lower, wider or narrower than anticipated
*make the entrance deep and circuitous
*Articulate the opening with ornamentation or decorative embellishment
The separating plane between 2 adjacent spaces may (4 things):
*Limit visual and physical access, reinforce the individuality of each space and accomodate their differences
*Appear as a freestanding plane
*Be defined with a row of columns that allows a high degree of spacial continuity
*Be only implied be a change in level or a contrast in surface material
What is the Ken modular system proportions.
A takami mat is 1 lenth x 1/2 length. One length is a ken and all rooms in Japanese architeture is based on this unit. Ceiling height is established by multiplying the number of mats by 0.3
What type of vertical plane generates a field of space from its corner outward along a diagonal plane?
An L-shaped plane
What elements define the perpendicular edges of a volume of space
Vertical linear elements
What indicates a position in space?
An opening located completely within a wall or ceiling plane will appear as a bright figure on a contrasting background. If centered it will appear stable and ______ _________ the surface around it.
Moving the opening off-center will create a degree of ______ ________ between the opening and the edges of the plane toward which it is moved.
Describe the golden section (or ratio)
An object is divided into 2 sections with the smaller in proportion to the larger as the larger is to the whole
Written algebraically as a/b = b/a+b
What are four reasons for modifying the ceiling plane of a structure?
*Define and articulate a space within a room
*Alter the scale of a space
*Define a path of movement thru a space
*Allow natural light to enter a space
A set of modular forms related and regulated by a three dimensional grid is a __________ form.
While a window wall weakens the vertical boundaries of a space it creates the potential for __________ _____________ the space beyond its physical boundaries
What are the three ways a space can be called out as being more important in a hierarchal scheme?
Placement or Orientation
An element that refers to a line, plane or volume of reference to which other elements in a composition can relate is called a _______.
The principle of hierarchy implies that in most if not all architectural compositions, real differences exist among their forms and spaces. These differences reflect the ______ __ __________ of these forms and spaces, as well as the functional, formal and symbolic roles they play in the organization.
Degree of Importance
Debilitating glare caused by excessive brightness ratios between adjacent surfaces can be lessened by . . . . .
allowing daylight to enter the space from at least 2 directions.
What type of plane configuration establishes the boundaries off an introverted space and influences the field of space around it
Four plans or a closure
A path of cirulation can pass thru spaces which creates patterns of ____ and _____ within the space
Rest and movement
What are 2 ways to deal with expressive contrast between an opening and the plane it is in?
Illuminate the surface with a 2nd light source within the space, or a deep set opening can be formed to create illuminated surfaces between the opening and the surrounding plane.
The characteristic outline or surface configuration of a particular form is the ______________.
This is the principal aspect by which we identify and categorize forms.
What type of plane define a volune of space oriented toward the open end?
A U-shaped plane
Openings located at corners give a space and the planes they are in a _______ orientation
Doing this to a portion of the base plane creates a specific domain within the larger space
A space can be separated from its surround area by __ it as well as elevating it
Depressing or dropping it
An individual's perceptons of hue, saturation and tonal value determine the ____________. This is the attribute that most clearly distinguishes a form from its environment and affects the visual weight of a form.
An axial condition can exist without a symmetryical condition being ________ present, a symmetrical condition cannot exist without impying the existence of an ____ or center about which it is constructed.
Describe adjacent spaces
Two spaces adjoin each other or share a ccommon border
A spiral approach emphasizes the _____ ___________ _______ of the building
three dimensional form
The surface articulation of the ________ or ________ plane is often used to define a zone or space within a larger context
Ground or floor plane
A balanced arrangement of similar, radiating elements such that the composition can be divided into similar halves by passing plane at any angle around a centerpoint is called_________ __________.
Paths of circulation can pass by spaces,which keeps the ____________ of each space
Any movement characterized by a patterned recurrence of elements of motifs at regular or irregular intervals refers to the principle of ________.
Since the stresses in a material resulting from the force of gravity with size all materials also have rational ______ beyond which they cannot go.
This type of relationship requires that the two forms have corresponding planar sufaces which are parallel to each other
Face - to - face contact
A form can be articulated by:
differentiating adjoining planes with a change in material, color, texture or pattern
developing corners as distinct linear elements independent of the abutting planes
removing corners to physically separate neighboring planes
lighting the form to create sharp contrasts in tonal value along edges and corners
The characteristic outline or suface configuration of a particular form is its ______________. This is the primary means of characterizing forms.
What can you do with color to clarify an object's shape
Make a distinct contrast between the color of the object and the surrounding field.
Scale alludes to the size of something in relation to something __ _______ ______
of known size
Rhythmic patterns provide continuity and lead us to anticipate what comes next. any break in the pattern announces and emphasized the _________ of the interrupting element
A frontal view reveals the _________ shape of a plane, while an _______ view distorts it.
In a linear organization the significance of important spaces cna be emphasized by their location. What are 3 examples of locations that would accomplish this?
*The end of a linear sequence
*Offset from the linear sequence
*At pivotal points in a segmented linear form
What does a clustered organization rely on to relate its spaces to one another?
We tend to group in a random composition according to (2 ways)
Their closeness to one another
Visual characteristics they share
An interlocking spacial relationship results from . . . .. . . . . . Each space retains its identity and definition, but the resulting shared space is open to interpretation.
the overlapping of two spacial fields to ccreate a zone of shared space.
The configuration of the path is ___________ and mediating spaces can _____ ____ _____ within spaces
Link the path
Materials like steel are stong in both ___________ and ___________ and can be formed into columns and beams as well as sheet materials
Compression and tension
Name the two fundamental types of symmetry
A circulation path can terminate in a space in which case it is an ____
The sequence of spaces determines the ________.