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1

Design Theory

A way to direct design based on a system of beliefs or philosophy.

2

Theory

A mental construct of how and why things happen, which is often used to predict future events or actions.

3

Theory can be based on . . .

the designer's personal worldview, historic precedent, environmental design research, functional needs, how humans perceive their environments, a particular process of design, or any number of factors.

4

For interior designers, Gestalt psychology suggests that...

individual elements cannot be placed or designed as single entities but must be seen as part of a larger environment, and that people will bring to the setting their own ideas about what things are.

5

Among other theories, the Gestalt psychology explains the phenomenon known as simultaneous contrast with color, in which....

the same color appears to change depending on the background color it is seen against.

6

What are some of the principles of Gestalt psychology?

The concept of grouping, Closure (or form constancy), Continuity, Simplicity, Figure-ground

7

The concept of grouping

states that humans perceive separate units in the visual field as a group. There are several means by which this can occur, including proximity, similarity, direction and context ( or past experiences)

8

Closure (or form constancy)

The tendency to perceive incomplete forms as complete.

9

Continuity

The tendency to see a line or shape as continuing in a particular direction rather than making a sharp turn.

10

Simplicity

As part of Gestalt psychology states that people prefer the simplest, most stable organization of forms or the overall structure of elements in the visual field rather than complex individual parts.

11

Figure-ground

Describes the way people distinguish a form from its surroundings. (e.g. black and white vase profile)

12

Perceptual Constancy

The mechanism that allows humans to perceive an object or space as essentially the same regardless of the exact image on the retina of the eye.

13

What are the different types of perceptual constancy?

Shape constancy, size constancy, lightness constancy, and color constancy

14

Shape Constancy

Type of perceptual constancy, meaning that people perceive objects as having their original shapes regardless of a change in orientation of the object or point of view of the observer.

15

Size Constancy

Type of perceptual constancy, meaning that people tend to perceive an object as having the same size regardless of the changes in viewing distance to the object.

16

Lightness Constancy

Type of perceptual constancy, meaning that people perceive the lightness or darkness of an object as the same regardless of the illumination of the space in which the object is viewed.

17

Color Constancy

Type of perceptual constancy, meaning that people perceive the color of an object as the same regardless of the lighting conditions under which the object is viewed.

18

Binocular Disparity

The difference in what each eye sees. It is most prevalent at distances under about 10 ft.

19

Interposition

The overlap of a distant object with a closer object.

20

Linear Perspective

The common experience of parallel lines appearing to recede toward a point in the distance.

21

Atmospheric Perspective

Because there are small particles in the air, more distant objects appear to be hazy and may even change color. This is seldom any consequence for interiors.

22

Texture Perspective

The density of a texture seems to increase as the distance from the viewer increases.

23

Size Clues

When two objects are the same size, the more distant one will make a smaller image on the retina than the closer one.

24

Relative closeness of objects to the horizon line

For objects below the horizon line (on the ground), the closer objects are to the horizon line, the farther away they are. For objects above the horizon line (in the sky or above the observer), the same holds true, but more distant objects are lower in the visual field than close objects.

25

What are the social and cultural influences on perception?

Political conditions, economic conditions, cultural attitudes, symbolism and regionalism.

26

Generally, a good concept statement can be made into __ to __ sentences.

1 to 4

27

What are the different types of plan arrangement?

Open, Linear, Axial, Centralized, Grid, Clustered

28

Describe an open plan arrangement.

There are no space-defining partitions within the existing limits of the building. The only objects are furniture and accessories. This concept typically cannot be used by iteself because of the need for security, light-control, accoustical isolation or privacy. This is used when a display of hierarchy is not wanted and when function requires a free flow of people, materials or ideas, or where individual functional areas change frequently.

29

Describe a linear concept arrangement.

Spaces are arranged in rows, either connected to each other directly or related to a linear element, such as a corridor. Variations include L- or U- shapes. These arrangements are used for practical reasons as an efficient way to connect many types and sizes of spaces with a circulation corridor and to provide for exit access. Thsi concept is often used to separate groups of enclosed spaces with a large open space.

30

Describe an axial arrangement.

Aligns spaces on a significant feature or features, such as the entry to the spaces, a view or an important architectural feature. This combines some of the features of a centralized concept and a linear concept. The space is significant, either symbolically or functionally, and the direction of the axis focuses attention not on the space but usually on something at one or both ends of the axis.

31

Describe a centralized arrangement.

Centralized concepts use a single, dominant space with a secondary spaces grouped around it. As a concept, the centralized plan is nondirectional and focuses attention on the central space. The central space may have symbolic or functional importance.

32

Describe a grid concept.

A grid concept arranges spaces on a predefined, regular pattern of points or intersecting parallel lines. It is a useful way to organize many different types and sizes of spaces while maintaining an overall regularity and pattern.

33

What are the 4 types of space relationships?

Adjacent Spaces, Overlapping Spaces, Sharing a Common Space & Space within a Space

34

Describe the space relationship of "Adjacent Spaces".

Adjacent spaces is the most common type of interior relationship, in which each space or room has its own use and functional requirements and is separated by a partition or other construction element.

35

Describe the space relationship of "Overlapping Spaces".

Overlapping spaces consist of 2 spaces whose unique limits can be perceived but that share a common space. The overlapping portion can be used for a function common to both spaces, can serve to visually tie the two spaces together or can purposely create a unique third space by impliction.

36

Describe the space relationship of "Spaces Sharing a Common Space".

Spaces sharing a common space retain their unique identity and are linked with a third space that has its own identity, e.g. a corridor being used as the common space or a house built around a courtyard. Unlike "Overlapping Spaces" the common space has its own identity.

37

Describe the space relationship of "Space within Another Space".

A Space within Another Space is created when a clearly identifiable space or room is placed as an object within a larger open space. In Gestalt terms, it becomes a figure-ground relationship - e.g. a totally enclosed conference room can be place within a larger open office space. A space within a space can be used to solve functional requirements (private conference in open office, or concept can signify hierarchy, status or control.

38

What are the 6 "Components of Interior Design"?

Walls, Ceilings, Floors, Steps, Doors, and Glazed Openings (Windows) - By viewing these elements on a conceptual basis in terms of their performance requirements at the beginning of design, the designer can make better choices about specific construction materials.

39

What component of interior design is the primary space-defining element in interior design?

Walls

40

What component of interior design truly makes space interiors?

Ceilings

41

What component of interior design establishes the stability and a fixed reference plane?

Floors

42

What component of interior design create vertical movement and define space?

Steps / Changes in Horizontal Level

43

What are the functions that doors serve?

Control movement, vision, sound, light and weather, and security

44

What component of interior design is a unique material that establishes separation and conncection simultaneously?

Glazing

45

What are the 3 purposes details serve?

1 - A way of fitting the larger components together

2 - To solve functional problems

3 - To enhance the design intent of the overall design concept

46

What is one of the most emotionally charged components of design?

Color

47

How should color selection be approached during Concept Development?

The designer may select very broad palettes of color for the client's review and approval without selecting specific colors. This eliminated undesirable color ranges early so the designer can focus on refining color choices during the design development phase.

48

At what point must the designer establish the exact relationships between spaces listed in the program?

After a design concept has been developed based on programming info, design theory & the application of conceptual ideas

49

__________ identifies space relationships and assigns them a hierarchy of importance.

Programming

50

Space relationships are usually recorded in these formats:

Matrix or Graphically as Adjacency Diagrams

51

What are the 3 basic types of adjacency needs?

People, Products & Information

52

When objects have to move in a definite sequence, a _______ may be used to show adjacencies as well as direction of movement.

Flow Chart with arrows

53

The programmer analyzes various types of ________ requirements and verifies them with the client

Adjacency

54

The type of adjacency diagram used when a project occupies more than one floor of a multistory building.

Stacking Diagram

55

Adjacency diagrams are also called .....

Bubble Diagrams

56

How are mandatory and more important adjacencies indicated on bubble diagrams/adjacency diagrams?

Varying weights of connecting lines or with varying numbers of lines; the more lines or the thicker the lines, the stronger the connection should be.