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Flashcards in sectgion 2 - design concepts by braxy Deck (50):
1

The aspect of human behavior in which people need to lay claim to the spaces they occupy and the things they own is called...

Territoriality (More related to the need for self-identity and freedom of choice)

2

Basing design decisions on creditible research that links one or more environmental elements with a desired outcome is?

Evidence Based Design (EBD)

3

When 2 or more details or finishes may not be compatible with each other, considering the design intent of the space, this is known as....

Cue inconsistency

4

The theory that humans innately perceive things as a whole so that what is percieved is complete and comprehensible is known as?

Gestalt Psychology (people actively add structure to what they see rather than just reacting to it)

5

What 2 influences affect the ideas we have about the status and hierarchy an offices or homes location or size?

Social and Cultural Influences

6

Which architect responded to the human desire for connection with the earth and natural forms?

Frank Lloyd Wright

7

What are the main types of perceptual constancies?

*Shape constancy * Size constancy * Lightness constancy * Color constancy

8

Proxemics was created by

Edward T. Hall (an anthropologist)

9

What painting technique works to create the illusion of depth?

Trompe l'oiel

10

What is negative space?

The "ground" around an object

11

When humans are faced with incomplete information or an incomplete form we tend to add information to make sense of what we see. What principle of Gestalt psychology are we using?

Closure (form constancy)

12

What are the four pricinciples of grouping?

Proximity, Similarity, Direction, & Context

13

Observations and theories about how people use space is ...

Proxemics

14

When more distant objects appear to be hazy and may even change color what perception is implied?

Atmoshperic perspective

15

What is a useful concept for studying the effects of the environment on human activity?

Behavior settings - a particular place with definable boundaries and objects in which a standing pattern of behavior occurs at a particular time. (i.e. weekly meeting held in the same conference room.)

16

What is simplicity?

when people prefer the simplest, most stable organization of forms or the overall structure of elements in the visual field rather than complex individual parts.

17

The idea that a design should reflect a geographical area is an example of...

Regionalism

18

What is the design theory that bases current design on ideas and styles of the past?

Historic Precedent

19

An individuals location or position within the environment can communicate.....

Status

20

If a person expects a space to look a certain way based on their "idea" of what that space should look like, that is an example of...

Symbolism

21

The difference in what a human's two eyes can see is called?

Binocular Disparity

22

A way to direct design based on a system of beliefs or philosophy..

Design Theory

23

What is the concept of "grouping"?

Grouping states that humans percieve separate units in the visual field as a group.

24

What are the 4 proxemics distances?

1. Intimate distance (0"-18")

2. Personal distance (18" to 4')

3. Social distance (4' to 12')

4. Public space (12' plus)

25

What are the 6 perceptual elements that allows artists to give depth to two dimensional paintings??

1. Interposition 2. Linear perspective 3. Atmosphereic perspective 4. Texture perspective 5. Size clues 6. Relative closeness of objects to the horizon line

26

A row of filing cabinets dividing two workspaces is provides...

Territorality

27

Binocular disparity is most prevalent at distances under about...

10 feet

28

Objects closest together are seen as belonging together, which grouping principle is occuring?

Proximity

29

Examples of growth needs are...

Self-actualization, defined as developing to one's full potential. Feeling an appreciation of life and demonstrating the ability to have real experiences.

30

When the brain groups objects together by shape, size, or color we are grouping by...

Similarity

31

Dieficiency needs are the most basic needs. These include...

Basic level: food, water, minimal body comforts, Group 2: safety, avoid violence Group 3: belonging and love. Top Level: self-esteem, need to achieve, be competent, gain approval

32

Which depth perception element is created when parallel lines appear to recede toward a single point in the distance?

Linear perspective

33

The way a person distinguishes a form from its surroundings whether two or three dimensional elements is...

Figure-ground

34

What are some principles of Gestalt's psychology?

Grouping, Closure, Continuity, Simplicity, and Figure-ground

35

Though environmental design research has its problems with accurately adopting to a theory of design, what 2 concepts are useful in most situations?

Territorality and Personal Space

36

Who founded Gestalt Psychology?

Max Wertheimer

37

Objects beig grouped based on _______ or past experience is one of the main tenets of Gestalt Pshchology.

content

38

Maslow later added 3 more needs to the growth group. What were they?

The cognative need to know and understand The aesthetic need for order and beauty. The need of self-transcendence (help others & find self-fulfillment)

39

What theory focuses on the interaction between humans and their environments?

Environmental Design Research

40

A way territorality manifests is in..

Personalization (arranging an environment to reflect ones presence and uniqueness)

41

When a distant object may appear to be overlapped and partly hidden by a closer object it is known as....

Interposition

42

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs states humans have a variety of needs. They are divided into 2 groups, what are the 2 groups...

1. Deficiency Needs 2. Growth Needs

43

What are the main social and cultural beliefs that influence interior design?

1. Political conditions 2. Economic conditions 3. Cultural attitudes 4. Symbolism 5. Regionalism

44

The tendency to see a line or shape as continuing in a particular direction rather that making a sharp turn is...

Continuity

45

Objects percieved to be moving simultaneously in the same __________ are seen as a group.

direction

46

The way people position themselves in a space depends on their...

Culture

47

The ability to observe an object regardless of changes in lighting, angle of view or depth is called...

Perceptual constancy

48

What are the 3 table seating groups?

Intimate position Competition position Avoidance position

49

The theory of human motivations based on a hierarchy of needs was proposed by?

Abraham Maslow (Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs)

50

What is it called when an objects color changes depending on the background color?

Simultaneous Contrast