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Scores from non parallel measures can be equated through the use of:
1. Classical test theory
2. Empirical criterion keying
3. Item response theory
4. Ipsative measures

Item response theory or latent trait theory...calculates to what extent a specific item on a test correlates with an underlying construct. Looks at performance on a test item as rep degree to which have latent trait. Get hard stat ?, have hi stat ability. So can use it to compare performances in 2 measures that have different types or number of items or are scored differently. Use item response theory to develop individually tailored adaptive tests in which to answer one ? In a domain which determines if another ? Will be asked. Such tests have least number of items needed to assess performance.


What is classic test theory?

Views an individuals test score as being the sum of true score variability and error score variability.

X equals T plus E


What is an ipsitive measure?

Only gives info on individual. No info on how they compare.


Performance on vocabulary subtest depends on:
1. Episodic memory
2. Procedural memory
3. Meta memory
4. Semantic memory

4. Memory for facts and concepts.

Procedural...automatic for skills, physical operations...
Meta...persons knowledge or awareness of memory or anything related to storage and retrieval. Ie. knowledge some things easier to remember, or aware on verge of recall...


The Primary mental abilities test:
A. Is a multifaceted test of intelligence
B. test that predicts vocational success
C. Broad based aptitude test
D. Test of both short and long term memory

A. Thirst one developed . Based in premise that intelligence has many facets...verbal comprehension, reasoning, perceptual speed.


What is the projective hypothesis I?

Describe Rorschach.

Response to ambiguous stimuli tell u something about personality.

Rorschach is most given test.
Location ...area used for response. Based on how integrated response is vs disorganized
Determinants...aspect of blot..texture, color..
Content animal, human
Popularity...frequently given by non psychiatric population

Confabulation...illogical or inappropriate generalization of one detail. Organic or psychotic. Indicator.

Validity and reliabllity questioned.


MMPI 2. Self report personality test
Structured. Unambiguous stimuli

Now 15 new content scales
T score now 65

567multiple choice items
370 clinical scales
Rest supplementary skills
7 validity scales

Criterion keying ..given general pop and psychiatric pop. Differentiated kept in test. Then used to develop scales.

Clinical scales 10
1..Hypochondriacal. Hs
2..depression D
3..hysteria. Hy
4..Psychopathic deviate. Pd
5 masculinity- femininity Mf
6. Paranoia. Pa
7. Psychothenia. Pt..neurotic, phobias, obsessions
8. Schizophrenia. Sc
9 hypo mania Ma
10 Social introversion Si

T scores. Mean 50 sd of 10
At or above 65 is abnormal or significant
Many scales overlap . List descending order. Code with first two codes w 2 highest
Don't examine in isolation

Validity scales...careless, response sets, malingering, ...
Lie score ...hi..favorable impression, fake good, lack insight.

F scale..rarely endorsed. Infrequency scale. Lo score...Probably not ill.
Hi score...Gross eccentricity, carelessness, deviant, malingering

K scale..test attitude. Correction scale.
Hi..defensive, fake good, poor prognosis, deny problems
Lo..overly frank and critical. Fake bad.
Well educated score higher on this.

? Scale...items not answered, 2 answers; 30 plus invalid

TrIn, vrin, FB assess tendency to endorse all true, false, or contradictory way.

Never rely alone for differential dx.

Content scales are from content analysis.


What is the most widely used interest inventory?

What is a good test for someone without a college education.

Strong. Predicts job choice or satisfaction (vs success). Developed using criterion keying. Made occupational scales.
Professional and business jobs. Over reps higher/ college occupation and under reps lower occupations
Revised one replaced the sample with a general representative sample.

Kuder vocational preference record...good for ppl not in college
Second most popular
10 broad voc area
Mechanical, outdoor, scientific...
Based on content validity
Forced choice; ipsitive scores
Kuder occup interest survey..empiracal keying for hs up


What is the conversion V score on the MMPI 2?

Scale 2 depression is lower than scale 1, hypochondriasis and scale 3, hysteria.

Ppl who somaticize , chronic pain w organic origin, conversion do


What is the psychotic V on the MMPI 2?

Paranoid valley.
Scale 7 is significantly lower than scale 6 and 8.


What is the passive aggressive V on the MMPI 2?

Scale 5 is significantly lower than scales 4 and 6.


What is the bender visual motor gestalt test used for?

Visual motor memory. 3 yrs plus

Affected by education and intelligence up to 10 yrs old.

Valid to assess school readiness, identifying learning disabilities , predict school performance, distinguishing brain damaged ppl, indicate emotional problems.


The Wisconsin card sorting test is associated with what disorders?

Created to measure ability to shift cognitive strategies.

Autism, malingering, schizophrenia, depression, alcoholism. Sensitive to frontal lobe damage.

4 cards w shapes in 4 colors. Change sorting strategy after 10.


What is the strop color word test and what is it used for?

Measures cognitive flexibility,'selective attention, screens for neurological damage (frontal lobes).

Name color of ink of color word printed.

Depression, ADHD, mania and schizophrenia have problems. Left frontal lobe lesions.


On MMPI 2 which validity scale serves as a moderator variable?
1. L
2. F
3. K
4. Vrin and trin

3. Adjusts for defensiveness by adding points to a number of clinical scales based on k scale scores.

L naive attempt to present favorably
F overall distress and pathology, fake bad, random responding. Infrequently endorsed items
Vrin, grin measure response inconsistency and random responding.


Ravens progressive matrices is one of the best tests of:
A. Spearman g
B. crystallized intelligence
C. Visio spatial
D. Nonverbal memory

A. Abstract patterns w one piece missing. Pick missing piece by multiple choice. One of best non verbal tests of intelligence.

Spearman determined g and said should determine general intelligence wout becoming clouded by specific abilities. Ravens does it. Novel task. Crystallized is knowledge thru experience.


What are the criteria for mental retardation?

Subaverage IQ. 70 or below
Concurrent impairments in at least 2 areas of adaptive fx
Onset before 18

May or may not be recognize able from birth. Early signs
Less responsive to parents/stimuli
Less physically active
Less vocally interactive
More compliant


Alcoholism affects what scores on the WAIS?

Performance subtest scores.

Especially block design, object assembly, picture arrangement

May return to some degree when drinking has stopped

Verbal subtest scores unaffected.


What are sx of alcohol withdrawal?

Stop or cut back on heavy use the within several hours to a few days..
Automatic hyperactivity
Psychomotor agitation
Hand tremor
Depression, anxiety
Grand mal seizures
Nausea, vomiting
Transient hallucinations or illusions
Risk convulsive seizures
Less 5 percent have dts...delirium as well as hallucinations, delusions, hyperactivity, agitation. Often co occuring medical problem like liver failure, pneumonia, head trauma.


Describe Korsakoff's syndrome.

Alcohol induced persisting syndrome is for to thiamine deficiency that causes damage to the thalamus.

Main sx...problems w recent memory (transfer info from st to lt memory)
Other sx...disorientation
Lack insight
Retrograde amnesia


What is the etiology of alcoholism?

Genetic...4 to 7x w first degree relatives.

Interplay w social environment

More common in men across all cultures
Other risk factors:
Mental do
Before 30
Multi problem families
Childhood emotional problems
School behavior problems
Poor health


Sx of cocaine intoxication.

Sx of withdrawal

Sx same for amphetamine as well as cocaine

Behavioral...tachycardia, pupil dilation, elevated or lower blood pressure, psychomotor agitation/ retardation, nausea or vomiting

Psych...euphoria, interpersonal sensitivity, talkativeness, hypervigilence, impaired judgement

Chronic intox...affective blunting with fatigue, social withdrawal, sad mood.

Dysphoric mood
Insomnia or hypersomnia
Increased appetite
Vivid dreams
Psychomotor retardation/agitation



Sedation, mild euphoria, altered perceptions

Intoxication..euphoria, grandiosity, inappropriate laughter. Later sedation, lethargy, disturbed sensory perceptions, impaired motor performance, st memory, judgement, and sense time is passing slowly

No long term toxic effects
Complex visual/motor tasks impaired short term and unaware of
If prior hx of aggression...may inhibit control and allow impulsive aggression (not so of others)

Withdrawal. Not in dsm.
Irritable, anger, depressed, Headache, restless, anorexia, insomnia, pot cravings less than 25 hrs after stop
Peak on days two to four. Lasts 7 to 10 days.


According to martlett, addiction:
A. Is a disease
B. is societal mislabeling
C. Due to bad luck
D. Over learned habit

B. szaz. Wrote myth of mental illness. Labels have no significance
D. Correct use cognitive behavioral approach and teaches skills of relapse prevention.