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Describe the different aphasias, wernicke's, broca, and conduction. What do they have in common?

All have impaired repetition of verbal tasks.

Wernicke's--can't comprehend language. Do speak fluently but meaningless sentences.

Broca--problems with articulation, changes in prosody (rhythm and tone), and some comprehension problems.

Conduction..connection of these two areas damaged. Path betwn reception and articulation damaged.
They understand language, speak fluently but have anomia and difficulty repeating what they heard.

1

What is the difference between retroactive amnesia and anterograde amnesia?

Retrograde amnesia--amnesia of memories of events prior to trauma.

Anterograde amnesia--amnesia of memories after a trauma.

2

What is the difference between the recency effect, Barnum effect, and the auto kinetic effect?

Recency effect---improved memory for later items in a word series.

Barnum effect--ppl identify with vague descriptions of themselves, like a horoscope.

Auto kinetic effect-- illusion of movement that occurs when a stationary pinpoint of light is shined in a dark environment.

3

Pt with OCD and Tourette's presents. Where is the neurological problem?

1. Temporal lobe
2. Amygdala
3. Prefrontal cortex
4. Basal ganglia

Both linked to basal ganglia which has a group of nuclei deep in the brain involved in the initation of movement.

Tourette's--caudate nucleus smaller and is predictive of severity.
Substantial nigra, ventral striatum, globus pallidus also involved.
Basal ganglia get instructions from prefrontal cortex.

4

Where is the amygdala and what are its functions?

Amygdala is part of the limbus system.

Involved with emotion

Especially aggression.

5

Long term potentiation is a process that affects:
1. Homeostasis
2. Emotional development
3. Addiction
4. Memory

4. Process by which short term memories become long term is called long term potentiation. Repeated stimulation of a synapse through rehearsal leads to chemical and structural changes in dendrites receiving neuron. So neuron is more sensitive to stimulation.

6

Which neurotransmitter is implicated in the etiology of dementia of the Alzheimer's type?

1. Dopamine
2.norepinephrine
3. Serotonin
4. Acetylcholine

4. Lower levels of a phosphate that is a precursor to Ach.

7

72 yr old with hypertension has a stroke, resulting weakness of left hand and arm. Ct would also show:
1. Left visual field damage and visualspatial deficits.
2. Rt visual field and visualspatial
3. Left visual field and language deficits.
4. Rt visual field and language deficits.

Weakness in left side indicates right hemisphere damage. Ea side of the body is controlled by opposite hemisphere. Visual spatial is a right hemisphere fx.

Language deficits expected with damage to left hemisphere.

11

What does acetylcholine do?

Excitatory or inhibitory nt depending on location.

Control voluntary movement
Learning
Memory
Sexual behavior
Sleep

Depletion leads to memory loss associated with Alzheimer's dementia and normal aging.

12

What disorders have abnormal levels of dopamine?

Dopamine plays a role in movement, learning, mood and reinforcing effects of stimulants, nicotine, opiates and nicotine.

Abnormal levels linked to
Depression
Schizophrenia
Tourette's
ADHD
Huntington's disease
Parkinson's

13

What 2 things impact the speed of conduction?

Conduction is electrochemical process by which info is received and processed in a nerve cell. Inside cell negatively charged. When get stimulation from other cells the balance changes and the interior is less negative. It becomes depolarized and triggers am action potential.

Speed impacted by
Diameter of the axon..larger is faster
Axon covered by myelin. Thicker increases speed.

14

Which neurotransmitter plays a role in long term potentiation, which is involved in the formation of memories?
A. GABA
B. acetylcholine
C. Norepinephrine
D. Glutamate

D.

15

Two disorders associated with the malfx of pancreas are:
A. Addison and Cushing disease
B. diabetes mellitus and insipid is
C. Diabetes mellitus and hypoglycemia
D. Addison's and hypoglycemia

C

16

What is GABA?

Main inhibitory neurotransmitter that contributes to motor control and regulates anxiety.

Abnormalities linked to
Insomnia
Anxiety disorders
Huntington's disease
Parkinson's

17

What is glutamate?

The main excitatory neurotransmitter. Role in memory and learning. Long term potentiation.

Implicated in
Alzheimer's
Huntington's
Parkinson's
Seizure
Stroke

18

What does serotonin play a role in?

Regulation of anxiety, mood, memory, aggression, pain, sleep, appetite, sexuality. (M2aps2)

Many meds that regulate anxiety or depression affect serotonin.

19

In most ppl the right hemisphere is dominant for:
A. Spoken language
B. positive emotions
C. Visual spatial skills
D. All the above

Right hemisphere
Visual spatial relations
Creativity
Holistic thinking
Negative emotions

Left hemisphere..usually dominant
Language
Logic
Analytic thinking
Positive emotions

20

When split brain patients were shown a pic to the left visual field only. What happened?

Pt could not verbally id object or pick or out from many objects w rt hand. Could pick w left hand.

Show pic to right visual field only. Could verbally identify and pick out object w rt hand. Not able to w left.

21

What is getstmanns syndrome?

Caused by lesions in the left parietal lobe.

Agraphia
Acalculia
Finger agnosia
Left rt disorientation

22

What makes up the hind brain? What are their functions and disorders?

Medulla...regulates vital fx....death
Reflexes

Pons..connects 2 parts cerebellum
Relays sensory and motor info
Regulates arousal

Cerebellum..balance, coordination, posture...ataxia, tremors, loss of balance

23

What makes up the midbrain? What are their functions and related disorders?

Reticular activating system...sleep wake cycle, screens incoming sensory info...coma

Substantial niagra..voluntary movement and reward seeking...
Parkinson's

24

What makes up the forebrain? What are their functions and related disorders?

Hypothalamus..homeostasis, motivated behaviors, strong feelings into physical responses....
Hormonal/emotional disturbances
Inability regulate eating, drinking, temp

Thalamus..relays sensory info to cortex (not olfaction)...
Language, memory, motor

Hypothalamus
Mammillary bodies damaged (thiamine due drinking) korsakoffs
Suprachasmic nucleus regulates circadian

Basal ganglia..(caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putmen)...voluntary movement, outward emotional expression, sensory movement ...
Tourette's, OCD, ADHD, Parkinson's, schiophrenia, Huntington's.

Limbic system..
Amygdala..integrate emotional rx, emotions attached to sensory, mediated defensive/aggressive behavior...lack emotional response, kluver-bucy
Hippocampus...memory consolidation...Alzheimer's, dementia
Septum..inhibits emotions
cingulate cortex..pain perception and regulates emotions

25

What areas make up the frontal lobes? What are the functions and related disorders?

Primary cortex
Premotor cortex
Broca's area aphasia
Prefrontal cortex (damage causes dysexecutive syndrome, pseudo depression, pseudopathology, ADHD, bipolar, schizophrenia)

26

What makes up the temporal lobe?
What is the function and related disorders?

Auditory processing (receptive), long term memory, and emotion.

Auditory cortex...auditory agnosia, auditory hallucinations,
Wernicke's area aphasia

27

What does the parietal lobe contain and what are the disorders in this area?

Somatosensory cortex..touch, kinesthesia, pressure, pain, temperature, integrates

Somatosensory agnosia
Apraxia (purposeful movement even with normal fx)
Contra lateral neglect..lack interest one side body
Getstmanns syndrome (ageaphia, acalculia, finger agnosia, left rt disorientation)

28

What does the occipital lobe do and what are common disorders?

Visual processing

Cortical blindness
Blind spots
Loss of depth perception

Jx occipital, temporal, parietal causes prosopagnosia

29

What do the different hemispheres of the cerebral cortex do in regard to emotions?

The left or dominant side is associated with positive emotions. Lesions produce depression, anxiety, fearfulness.

The right or nondominant side is associated with negative emotions, such as apathy, indifference, inappropriate euphoria

30

Describe the James Lang theory of emotion.

Arousal is interpreted as emotion.

Afraid because we tremble.
Sad because we cry

31

Describe the cannon bard theory of arousal.

Simultaneous activity (sympathetic nervous system and cortex)

Arousal and emotion same time.

Sympathetic nervous system produces physical arousal (same for all emotions) while cortex produces emotional feelings.
When event is perceived (take test) messages are sent at the same time to hypothalamus which arouses body and the limbic system which causes the subjective feelings.

32

Describe schachter and singers theory of emotion.

Cognitive arousal theory

Combo physical arousal and cognitive attributions for that arousal.

Physical sensations similar for most emotional states.
Specific emotion depends on attribution.

Epinephrine study...environmental cues determine attributions for arousal.