Flashcards in Developmental Psych Deck (147)
Best predictor of adolescent alcohol use is:
1. Peer and parent attitude toward it.
2. Parent and peer alcohol use
3. Parent attitude and peer use
4. Parent use and peer attitude
Best predictor is use.
What is the difference between retroactive and proactive interference? Which one is reduced if u study for a rest and go to sleep to keep the info fresh in her mind.
Retroactive inhibition or interference is the one she is trying to reduce. It occurs when newly learned info interferes with recall of previously learned info. If ya sleep then u minimize the exposure to new info.
Proactive--previously learned info interferes with recall of newly learned material.
Difference between a sensitive and critical period.
The period of attachment during the first year of life most resembles which?
Sensitive period...optimal times for capacities to develop, yet if they dont future events may be able to compensate at en earlier or later time.
Emotional and social development have sensitive pds, but not critical.
Critical pd--certain things must occur for development to proceed normally and they won't be able to compensate. Limited time biologically prepared to acquire certain behaviors but needs certain environmental stimuli to occur. Ie. imprinting.
9 year old asked why should not steal. Kohl berg would say:
1. Stealing is against the law
2. One can be punished for stealing
3. Stealing is wrong
4. Thieves are bad
2. Preconventional morality
Punishment/obedience orientation with a focus on avoiding punishment.
1. Conventional. Law and order.
3. Post conventional - universal principles of justice, equality, respect for life
4. Conventional...Good boy/girl..gain approval through obedience.
What is Sexual dimorphism? Do humans exhibit it to a greater degree, lesser degree than other species?
Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference between individuals of different sex of same species. Humans it is intx of environment and bio factors. Debate how much. The organizational/activational hypothesis proposes hormones guide behavioral sex differences in early life exposed to hormones and at puberty. Humans exhibit less than other species in general.
What are the three steps of pattersons coercion model of aggression that lead to delinquency?
1. Learn to be aggressive by observation of coercive and antisocial parent behavior. Poor parenting unwittingly reinforces coercive child behavior. Cycle. Leads to conduct problems.
2. Kid has academic failure and peer rejection.
3. Depressed and more likely to join deviant peer grp.
Intelligence Cross the lifespan supports as we age:
1. Both crystallized and fluid IQ increase
2. Both decrease
3. Crystallized decreases and fluid increase
4. Crystallize increases and fluid decreases.
4. Crystallized increases. That is, knowledge gained through experience
Fluid decreases with age...organization of info and novel problem solving peaks on teens/ early adult and declines thereafter.
What is the difference between accommodation and assimilation?
Assimilation is the process of taking in a new experience adding it to and already established mental structure.
Accommodation is adjusting the reality demands by recognizing or adjusting the existing scheme or structure.
Equilibration is the movement betwn equilibrium (use of existing schemes to interpret/assimilation) and disequilibrium (notice info doesn't fit) which causes us to accommodate to get new info. Result...back to equilibrium.
Takes places continually even at hi levels of maturity.
What is the difference between object constancy and object permanence?
Object constancy is Mahler's term refers to ability to maintain image of mom when gone (permanence) but also ability to unify good and bad aspects of mom into whole rep.
Object permanence is when the child understands ppl exist even if ya can't see them. Play hide and seek or look for someone not seen. Happens in some as young as 6 mo.
What are Piaget's stages
Sensorimotor...learn ant objects thru sensory info and motor behavior. Birth to 2
Inability to mentally undo something. So if pour water from container of one shape into another shape.
Centration is part of this phase and is the tendency to focus on only one aspect when looking at a stimulus.
Phenomenatlistic causality is part of this phase and involved magical thinking where events co occur in time are thought to be causally connected.
2 to 7
Conservation is from the concrete operational phase and it is ability to recognize objects keep characteristics regardless of shape or form.
7 to 12
Formal operations. 12 on
Hypothetical deductive reasoning
Imaginary audience/personal fable
What is the difference between genotype and phenotype?
Genotype are characteristics determined by info coded on genes.
Genetics set boundaries for possible phenotype a that can occur. However environment determines which outcome is mAterialized. Believed that reaction range is bigger for those with high genetically endowed (ie smarter).
No one to one correspondence between gene and personality trait. It sets a range/limits and environment determines the extent of the outcome.
Phenotype are a persons observable and measurable characteristics, physical and psychological (intelligence, personality). Develop from intx of genetics and environment.
Tend to evoke responses consistent w genotypes. Active, social child elicit positive social stimulation from
Others which reinforces sociability. Hard to determine what is genetic and what is environmental.
Describe the impact of the environment on maturation and canalization.☺
Maturation refers to genetically determined patterns of development. Environment has little or no impact. Ie learn to walk..environment may impact when but not order (no matter the environment).
Canalization...resistant to environmental forces. Ie sensorimotor development
Hi canalized..predetermined growth path followed....only very early or very strong environmental forces can impact it. What matters is behavior itself and amount of time since birth.
Personality and intelligence are less canalized and more open to environmental forces. However, farther from birth less subject to canalization or modification.
These are different then secular trends which demonstrate the impact of environment on development. Ie onset of period due to better nutrition etc..
What is the heritability index?
Stat used to estimate the degree a characteristic can be attributed to genetic factors. Estimates from kinship studies. Intelligence heritability ranges from .3 to .7 with average around .5. So 50 percent of individual differences in iq scores explained by genetics.
Sociability, emotionality and activity level or personality is also 50 percent.
How many chromosomes do we have?
23 chromosomes. All have 22 (autosomes) One member of each pair from dad and one from mom. Ea has 1000 of genes. Multiple genes usually determine a characteristic, polygenic. 23rd pair is sex chromosomes. Females they are homologous xx. Males not xy. Males greater chance of inheriting sec linked characteristics because not homologous. Can't cancel out.
What disorders are due to dominant and recessive genes?
Color blindness is a sex linked recessive characteristic
Recessive. PKU, cystic fibrosis, tay Sachs
What are the chromosome disorders?
Down's syndrome..extra 21 chromosome.
1/800 births rises w maternal age (1/30 when over 40 vs 1/1900 when in 20s). Often congenital problems.
Klienfelters syndrome..males, incomplete sex characteristics, sterile
Turners syndrome..females..no secondary sex characteristics, sterile, short, stubby fingers webbed neck
Fragile x..male and female...mod to mild mr, facial deformities, fast/stucco speech
What is the leading cause of mental retardation in the us?
Fetal alcohol syndrome. Most with it have iq between 65 and 7o. Mr
Growth retardation, hyperactivity microenchrphaly , variety physical illnesses? Wide space eyes, short eyelid openings, irritability.
1/100 live births have fetal alcohol syndrome or effects
What does heroine or methadone use during pregnancy do to the baby?
What effects do prescription drugs have on babies?
Benzodiazepine...prenatal syndrome (feeding problem, hypothermia, muscle tone problems).
Mood stabilizers (lithium, valproic acid).
Li in first tri...Ebstein anomaly..heart defect; valproic ...fetal malformation
Li around birth...perinatal syndrome (blue color and poor muscle tone)
What effect does smoking have on babies?
Virus can cause defects in babies. What are some of the viruses and what can be done about HiV?
Rubella (heart, eye, deaf, gi, mr). 20 percent die after birth
Herpes..3x miscarriage. C section
Cytomegalovirus death if early. Give meds.
Syphilis..defects face, deaf,mr
Discuss problems with prematurity. Small gestational age, and fetal distress.
Premature infants born before week 37. Linked to prenatal care, malnutrition, maternal age, drugs, low ses, multiple gestations. No significant abnormalities catch up by 2 or 3.
Small for gestational age..below 10 th percentile in wt. Higher risk than premie for respiratory disease, hypoglycemia and asphyxia at birth
Fetal distress..at birth..may result in cognitive or motor delays, mr, or cerebral palsy.
What are the reflexes in a baby?
Most gone by first 6 months. Due to voluntary control
Palmer grasp..grasp finger
What are the early sensory skills at birth?
Limited vision at birth. Win a few days or mins prefer faces, discriminate mom from stranger by 1 mo, color by 2 or 3 mo, 6 mo depth like adult
Hearing..just little less sensitive than adult. Win days prefer human voice, know moms voice , tell a from I. Soon after birth...sound or auditory localization (turn to sound) which leaves 2 to 4 mo and returns by 12 mo
Taste.. 4 at birth. Prefer sweet
Smell..respond to bad odor first days. Discriminate odors 2 to 7 days
What are Rutterd six family risk factors?
Greater number of risk factors, the greater the negative outcome. 4 or more 21 percent risk; 1 or less had 2 percent chance.
Predict child pathology...
Low ses, overcrowding/lg family, severe marital discord, parent criminality, mom pathology, child placed outside the home.
Even hi risk can have positive outcome..if few stressors after birth, easy temperament, stable support.
Name and describe Bronfrenbrenner's ecological model or the four interacting environmental systems.
--family, daycare, schl
Mesosystem--interconnections between different components of Microsystems. Or crisis upsets kid and impacts daycare.
Exosystem--part if environment kid not in direct contact with but affected by. Ie parent job, community.
Macrosystem--cultural and us cultural context other systems are embedded. Includes aspects that affect kid...racism, socioeconomic conditions, cultural stds re child rearing.
What are the effects of malnutrition in the early stages?
Spontaneous abortion and congenital malformation
Effects in CNS...low brain wt, low branching of dendrites, low number if brain cells
Apathy, irritability, hi pithed cry, lag motor development, unresponsive to environmental stimulus action, intellectual deficits
Prevention or reversal only if resume feeding early in infancy.
The least developed part of the brain at birth is:
Extra pyramidal motor system
Cortex...continues to develop through early adolescence
Infants ability to acquire new skills and knowledge in the first yr of life's due to an increase in:
Number of neurons
Mylenization and dendrite growth
Mylenization and dendrite growth are very rapid the first year