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Which theory did Donald super apply to career development?
1. Self esteem theory
2. Self concept theory
3. Social learning theory
4. Two factor theory


Two factor theory is a theory of job motivation


What are the differences between centralized and decentralized decision making?

Centralized is associated with autocratic and bureaucratic leadership styles. More formal.
All communication goes through one person.
More efficient when tasks are simple and mundane.
Ie. wheel, chain of command

Decentralized associated with democratic style and improved job morale, employee participation, and organizational innovation.
Info flows more freely between individuals.
Best when tasks are complex and cooperation is needed to complete the task.
Ie. circle
More individual satisfaction.


Describe herzberg's two factor theory or motivation hygiene theory.

There are different sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Upper and lower level needs.
Lower are hygiene factors or dissatisfiers...relate to job context, like pay, working conditions, supervision. Dissatisfied when not present. Don't produces satisfaction.

Upper level needs..motivators or satisfiers..relate to job content and include...need for achievement, responsibility and opportunity. They increase satisfaction and motivation. Failing to meet does not produce dissatisfaction.


You provide quarterly performance appraisals and promote employees. A potential problem is:
1. Halo effect
2. Recency effect
3. Criterion contamination
4. Central tendency bias

3. Criterion is subjectively scored and rater had knowledge if predictor scores. Scores can be influenced. Results in spuriously high criterion related validity coefficient.

Halo..generalize from one characteristic of a person to other aspects.
Central tendency...rate all about average.


Selection test results in 40
Percent black and 45 white hired. Conclude:
1. Adverse impact occurred
2. Adverse impact and test has differential validity
3. Unfair test
4. Test may or may not have differential validity


Adverse impact when percent of minorities is less than 4/5 ths of non minorities hired.
Nonminority x .8 equals 36 percent
45 percent x .8 exceeds 36 percent

Pg 26 test a academic review


Comparing satisfaction w performance and satisfaction w length of employment:

Both weak and positive
Both moderate and positive
First weak and positive, second moderate and positive
First weak and positive, second moderate and positive

4. .15 w performance
Moderate negative correlation w satisfaction and turnover


Relationship between morality and criminal behavior is measured based on the rate of church attendance. Many non goers have no criminal record. Due to:
A. Criterion contamination
B. criterion deficiency
C. Criterion relevance
D. Criterion related validity

2. Criterion is deficient. Concept criterion is the theoretical construct.

Relevance is extent criterion measures the concept
Contamination...known predictor score affects criterion scores
Criterion related validity is degree correlation between predictor and criterion.


Using n theory y:
Allow employees take part in decisions
Set firm rules about tardiness, absenteeism, loafing
Believe workers are motivated by pay
Follow premise of scientific mgmt

Theory x..workers are lazy and must be coerced

Theory y..people are industrious, creative and seek responsibility


Comparing job enrichment to job enlargement:
A. Both saitisfy motivator needs
B. enrichment involves more responsibility; enlargement increases variety
C. Enrichment increases variety; enlargement increases decision making
D. Both impact satisfaction and performance.

B. enlarge means to increase variety but not responsibility or degree of challenge. Increases satisfaction but not improve performance.

Enrichment increases responsibility and involvement. Increases satisfaction and performance.


According to fielders LpC theory:
1. Hi LpC do best in moderately favorable sit; low LpC do best in either hi favorable or unfavorable situations
2. Low LpC best in mod fav sit; hi LpC best in either hi favorably or unfavorable sit
3. High LpC best in hi favorable sit; low LpC best unfavorable conditions.
4. Hi LpC better at increasing satisfaction, low better increase productivity.

1. Must know!
Curvilinear relationship
LpC is least preferred coworker

If leader never the less rates coworkers highly, leader is considered a hi LpC leader and to be relationship oriented.


Job analysis is:
A. Procedure in which information about a jobs tasks , skills, and requirements is gathered thru formal methods of data collection and analysis.
B. develop a job description
C. Identify training needs
D. Identify causes of accidents
E. first step in developing a predictor or criterion.



Job analysis techniques provide what 3 kinds of information?

What are the methods of job analysis? 4

Job oriented..task requirements
Lifting, installing,...

Worker oriented..identify knowledge and skills , ability needed for success
Diploma, 20/20 vision,...


Methods of job analysis

Interview....current workers, supervisors, ppl who know

PAQ..positions analysis questionnaire (job rated on importance of 6 elements)

Direct observation..may include video

Work diary or log


What is the purpose if performance evaluations?

What are the types if appraisal and their strengths and weaknesses.

Make decisions about
Performance feedback

Measures can be objective (quantified) or subjective (ratings)

Measures often called criterion
measures, quantitative
# sold, #won, salary, days missed
Limit..doesn't measure important stuff..motivation, ...; limit by situational factors (equip prob, economy..); may not be good for compelx jobs

Subjective...rater judgement
Good for complex, less concrete aspects of job
Limits..rater bias, rater doesn't know scale well


What is 360 degree performance measures?

Subjective performance evaluation that incorporates ratings from multiple raters. Useful for management development

Also note that peer appraisals have been valid at predicting job performance.


Describe the following subjective rating techniques:
Personnel comparison systems
Critical incidents
Behaviorally anchored rating scales
Behavioral observation scales
Forced choice checklists

PCS. Compare to other employees
Rank order best to worst
Paired comparison on ea job behavior
Forced distribution (predetermined like place in top 10, ...)
Adv...reduce rater bias

Critical incidents
Description of job behaviors associated w good and bad performance
Origins..supervisor observed and tallied each; later likert scale w anchor of specific description

Several dimensions rated
For ea dimension a set of anchors or descriptors/incidents are used and tied to a number point.
Different grps contribute to identifying dimensions and critical incidents and where they rank
Adv..good for employee feedback, may improve ratings
Disadv..time consuming, very specific

BoS..similar above incl adv and dis
Indicate how often perform incident (vs pick incident)

Forced choice check list
Statements grouped
Reduce bias and social desirability


Describe the types of rater bias
Halo effect
Recently effect
Leniency bias
Central tendency bias
Contrast effect

Halo effect...judge all on single thing
Positive or negative

Recency effects
Leniency bias...give all ratees +
Strictness bias..give all negative
Central tendency..give ave to all
Contrast to other ratees.

Reduce bias
Format of rating scale
Adequately train raters..focus on accuracy (not errors)
Free of reference training used to help recognize multidimensional nature of job and same conceptualization.


Personnel selection is to make sure the person has what?

What are selection techniques and what are they called?

Personnel characteristics


Used to predict job performance and facilitate hiring decisions. Predictors


Define the selection procedures.
What ones have the best validity for job selection purposes across different jobs?
Lowest validity?
Work samples
Biographical inventories
Assessment centers
Standardized tests

Cognitive ability tests and job knowledge tests highest validity

Interest tests have lowest validity

General (or cognitive) mental ability tests. More valid as the complexity of job increases

Job knowledge tests...job specific
Often experience, training.
More valid as complexity of job increases and job test similarity increases.

Work samples...measured in standardized job like condition. More validity for motor skills than verbal.
Eg. Short hand, in basket
Adv..acceptable to applicants
..less likely to discriminate
Other uses..train ability...who may benefit so period of learning and evaluation
..part of realistic job prevent unrealistic expectations and decrease turn over.

Interviews...most common but only moderately accurate
Situational interviews higher validity than job related validity which have higher than psychological interviews
Structured higher validity than unstructured
Structured board interviews using consensus highest corrected validity.

Biodata (see other ?)
Assessment centers..administration and managers
Done in grps w multiple assessments like tests, work samples, interviews .
Eval by team...rate in many dimensions
Hi validity ESP when correlated w future promotions (threat criterion contamination)

Personality tests

Interest tests. Low validity for performance but useful for satisfaction, persistence and job choice.
Integrity tests..low validity
Good id counterproductive


What are critical incidents?

Supervisors identify employee behaviors that show excellent or inferior performance
Supervisor ident typical behavior employee performs
Employee ident behaviors demo excellent and inferior
Employee id typical behavior perform

A. Originally identified by observations from supervisors.


Describe bio data
Give two

Job selection procedure
Bio inventories ask for info about work hx, education, interests, skills.

When empirically validated highly predictable of job success. That is when items R included bc correlate highly w performance. Many believe only slightly less valid than cognitive tests.

Predicts turnover
Equally predicts turnover for black and whites.
Disadv..specific to job
Specific to org made for
Lack face validity

Empiracal forms
Weighted app blank. Items diff wts based on correlation w job. Sum. Total
Biographical info blank. Bib
Wider range attitude and behaviors
Multiple choice


Criterion contamination
Associated w adverse impact
Is a problem w personality tests
Produces artificially hi validity coefficient
Reduces a predictors incremental validity

C. Rater knows performance on a predictor influences how rate on criterion

Artificially increases the correlation between predictor and criterion


Discuss personality tests in regard to job selection.

Challenging the earlier conclusion that personality tests are not good predictors of job performance.

Big 5. Conscientiousness is accurate predictor of job performance and training success across a wide range of settings.

Measure specific characteristics more accurate than those measuring global traits.

Better predictors of contextual performance, such as effort And other behaviors that contribute to social and psych environ while the cognitive ability tests predict task performance.


What is adverse impact?

Is adverse impact ever permitted?

Standard defined by eeocs uniform guidelines on employee selection procedures to determine when a selection process might be discriminatory.

Occurs when hiring rate for that group is less than 80% of the hiring rate for the majority group.

Ie. if 60 % of male applicants are hired , 48% females must be hired.
.8 x .6 = .48

Allowed when the selection criteria is a bona fide occupational qualification BFOQ. In other words, if there is a valid reason for hiring a substantially larger proportion of a subgroup. So if job related and business necessity, despite adverse impact, may be ok. Ie heavy lifting


What are the causes of adverse impact? Differential validity and unfairness

Are there ways to compensate for that?

Differential validity..selection procedure is valid predictor of one grp and less valid or not valid for another grp. Rare and affects majority as much as minority. grp consistently scores lower but both perform equally well at job. Those score lower may not be hired as much.

May compensate with score adjustments .
Separate cut offs
Within group norming (diff raw scores but converted to norm ref scores so ok)
Banding..those in a range considered equivalent


What is the foundation of the Americans with disabilities act?

Prohibits discrimination due to disability in regard to job app, hiring, advancement, or discharge, compensation, training ...

Person can perform essential fx if job w or wo reasonable accommodation.

Protects past substance abusers but not current.


What is incremental validity?

Usefulness of a selection test in terms of decision making accuracy

Resulting from the use if a particular predictor.

Determine by:
Subtract + hit rate by base rate
Ie. 50% good workers aka base rate
Study shows hit rate 70%
70% - 50% = 20%
Pos hit rate - base rate = incremental validity. Here it means new selection test will increase decision accuracy by 20%

2. Taylor Russell tables
Incremental validity is maximized when validity coefficient is large
Base rate is moderate
Selection ratio is low.

High validity coefficient is preferred because it means test scores are accurate predictors of job performance.
Mod base rate (50%) suggests new predictor may be helpful
Low selection ratio..many applicants which helps ensure many qualified apps to chose from.


What is a base rate?

Selection ratio?

Proportion of employees hired using current techniques who Are successful.
Moderate base rate suggests new predictor will be helpful
Hi base rate the current procedure is doing its job.
Low base rate then something other than the selection is the problem (standard too hi..)

Selection ratio..ratio of number of job openings to total number of applicants or percent to be hired.
If 100 apps...selection ratio is low
If 3 ppl applying, selection ratio hi


What is utility analysis?

What are the methods?

Cost effectiveness of a selection procedure.

Utility is dollar gain in job performance when using the selection procedure (vs alternative)

Mathematical formulas


When selecting personnel multiple predictors are preferred. Why?

What is multicollinearity?

Multiple give more info about applicant than just one predictor.

To be useful, ea predictor should have hi correlation w criterion and low correlations with each other (so don't overlap)

Multicollinearity is when predictors are highly correlated. Do not want.


Describe the methods for combing predictors for selection tests.
Multiple regression
Multiple cutoff
Multiple hurdle

Multiple regression. Estimate applicants score on a criterion on the basis of 2 or more predictors.
Put in equation
Compensatory..if lo on one can make up for it on another predictor.

Multiple cutoff.
Must score above minimum cutoff on ea predictor
Not compensatory
Good when minimum level of competence is needed in diff domains

Multiple hurdle
Meet minimum stds on multiple predictors. Administered one at a time, predetermined order, ea only given if passed previous one
Not compensatory
Saves time and $$


What are the reasons for training in organizations?

What are the three steps in training program development?

Occupational specific training
Computer related training
Managerial-supervisor training

3 steps
Needs analysis
Program design
Program evaluation


What is a needs analysis?

Determine if and what kind of training is needed.

Organizational analysis
Is training what need to solve the problems?
Task analysis
Determine what knowledge, skills, abilities needed to perform satisfactorily. Yields objectives that form goals.
Person analysis.
Determine if person had deficits in areas identified by task analysis
Demographic analysis
Id training needs of employees from diff grps


When training employees what is entailed in program design?

What types are there?

This is choosing the right training program. In general, one that most closely approximates the actual job has the most transfer of training.

On the job training...under someone experienced....Job rotation to increase range of skills.
Disadv..carelessly planned and executed, slow production rates, accident rates may increase. Current workers may not make best trainers

Vestibule training...combo on and off job training. Train in physical replication or simulation.
Adv..when need repeated practice, special coaching..

Classroom training
Simulated work environment in separate place. Only train so no worry about production. No worries about mistakes, damage, errors. More personalized attention.

Programmed instruction
Info in broken down logical sequences. Paper and pencil to computer instruction.
Adv..content knowledge ESP rote, own pace
Disadv..not good complex skills


What are the 3 dimensions of program evaluation?

1. Formative evaluations
Internal program evals (trainee assessment, satisfaction, degree of learning). Purpose to identify necessary changes so can make changes while in progress.
2. Summative evals.
Assess effectiveness after program done.
3. Cost effectiveness


What are kirpatricks framework of four levels for program evaluation?

What did Philips add to it?

Four training outcomes
Level 1. Reaction
Participants response to training. Assess affective responses to quality or relevance of training

Level 2: learning criteria.
Quantifiable measure what learned
Often pre/post tests and end tests

Level 3: behavior criteria. Impact of training on performance at work

Level 4: results criteria
Impact of training on broader organizational goals/objectives.
Often on finances

Philips made
Level 5: return on investment
Done for each of above levels


Career counseling includes achievement tests, aptitude tests, and interest inventories.

Aptitude measures potential. Special aptitude tests have a hi degree of specificity. Ie psychomotor abilities. Also multiple aptitude batteries. Measures multiple aptitudes.

Achievement measures how much content mastered in a domain. May use to see if have general reading ability for a job.

Some say use ability test to refer to both.


Theories of career choice focus on personality variables , Hollands personality and environmental typology, or stages of career development, Supers career and life development theory.

Describe Hollands theory. Riasec

All behaviors including career are a fx of personality and social environment. 6 personality types

Realistic...machines and tools
Investigative..analytical, precise
Artistic...expressive, nonconformist others. Avoid systematic
Enterprising. Manipulate others
Conventional..systematic manipulation of data, filing, reproducing

These in hexagon. Adjacent most similar. Opposite most dissimilar.

Fit w occupational environment is congruent
Score hi on one and low on all others..hi level of differentiation. Most accurate then.

Measure w inventories gives profile


High points of some of the career choice models:

Roes fields and levels theory

Roes..links children's experiences with their parents to later job choice and level they achieve

Tied man and ohare.
Making of a life in addition to making a living. Based on Ericksons ego identity stages.

Miller tied man and tiedmans decision making model...expanded
Personality reality and common realty. Aware of both for career

Gottfredsons theory of circumscriotion and compromise
Gender and prestige influence and limit career. 4 stages of cognitive development. Job process of elimination.

Krumboltz social learning theory of career decision making
Learn from planned and unplanned encounters in enviornment. Develop works view and beliefs about self and aspirations.


Discuss supers career and life development theory

Predictable stages
Task at ea must be mastered to go
Life span life space theory
Job satisfaction when express self and develop self concept thru work

5 stages:
Growth birth to 15
Exploration 15 to 24. Narrow
Establishment 25 to 44
Maintenance 45 to 64
Decline 65 plus. Modify self concept

Career maturity
Extent mAster tasks related to developmental stage
Measure w inventory

Life space..varied social roles adopted at diff pts

Life career rainbow...9 major roles adopt during the 5 life stages

Archway. Personal and environmental factors that combo to determine career path


Scientific management and human relations approach have influence on Organizational psychology. Define them.

Scientific management.
Scientific principles applied to design of jobs to improve performance. Improve productivity by: sx method det best way to do job, divide jobs into elementary parts, use piece rate incentives to motivate.
Assumptions.. motivation of workers affects their performance.
Workers motivated primarily by economic incentives.
Ave worker needs supervision.

Human relations approach
Workers motivated by social factors
Including attitudes toward supervision and co workers and informal work grp norms.
Hawthorn investigators found special attention and tx of workers not exptal variables caused productivity improvement.
Hawthorn effect.


Define webers bureaucracy and the systems approach to organizations.

Organizational effectiveness is maximized when adopt a bureaucratic structure w formal rules, division of labor, impersonal, rational, efficient approach.

Org is an open system gets info from w in and out
Change one part effects others
Whole greater than sum
Influence situational or contingency approach which sees workers w diverse needs, variable organizations, and no one strategy will work for all at all times.


What are the differences between the Japanese and American management philosophies?

A or American philosophy
Short term duration
Individual decisions
Individual responsibility
Rapid promo
Specialized career path
Segmented knowledge

J Japanese theory
Long term duration.
Consensual decisions
Collective responsibility
Slow promo
Holistic organizational knowledge

Theory Z. Combo A and J
Slow promo
Holistic knowledge
Long term job
Individual responsibility
Moderately specialized


What is the influence of total quality management, a Japanese influence?

Emphasis on product quality

Usually involves change in organizational structure and culture and in job characteristics.

Flattening of traditional managerial hierarchy
Increase teamwork
Reduced rate or mgr to nonmgr
Increase cooperation and fairness to employees.

Jobs have:
Skill variety. Constant develop. Cross train to increase range of skill
Task variety. Fit big pic. Work on whole product.
Autonomy, participation, and empowerment. Make decisions
Task significance. Customers
Feedback. From work process


What are the 3 leadership styles?a

Make decisions in own; tell do
Greater productivity ESP work is routine
Involve ppl in decision making
Greater satisfaction, creativity, better relat w leader, work when leader gone

Laissez faire
Ppl decisions on own w little help


Describe the consideration vs orientation structure of leadership.

Independent dimensions. Can be high or low on both or one or the other.

High consideration leaders
Person oriented
Focus human relations aspect of supervision

Hi initiating structure
More task oriented
Focus on setting goals
Ensure subordinates follow
Clarifies roles


What personify traits make he best leaders?

No single trait or set of traits has been found to distinguish good from poor leaders. Traits and effectiveness is moderated by several factors like supervises characteristics, type of task, nature of work environment.


Mcgregor categorizes leaders by their assumptions about employees. Describe theory x and t.

Theory x leaders
Work inherently distasteful
Workers lack direction
Must control workers
Coerce them to work
Consistent w scientific management
Work dominated by lower level needs

Theory y leaders
Work comes naturally
Workers self directed, responsible
And autonomous
Closer to human relations theory
Concluded leads to better organization


Describe fielders contingency theory regarding leadership.

No specific leader style is most effective in all situations.

Leaders who describe their least preferred coworker in negative terms are most effective in situations that permit the leader either very much or very little influence. Low LpC leaders describe their least preferred coworker negatively and are task and achievement oriented.

Leaders who describe their least preferred coworker in positive terms are more effective where they can exert moderate control. High LpC describe their least preferred coworker in positive terms and are relationship oriented.

Favorableness depends on leaders ability to control and influence. Affected by relationship of leader and subordinates, structure of the task; leaders ability to enforce compliance.


What is the house's path goal theory of leadership?

Similar to Fiedlers theory.

Job performance and satisfaction of subordinates is based on the interaction of subordinate and situational characteristics and supervisor style.

Sub satisfaction and motivation maximized when perceived leader helping them to get goals. Can do by help sub in specific ways, remove obstacles, reward when accomplish goals.

4 leader styles
Instrumental/directive. Give guidelines, set rules and procedures
Participative. Incl in decisions
Achievement oriented..set goals

Best style depends on attributes of situation


What is Hersey and Blanchards situational leadership model?

4 styles based on different combos of hi and lo task and relationship orientation. Style most effective depends on job maturity of subordinates. This is their ability and willingness to accept responsibility.

If both low, adopt telling style
Or hi task, low relationship

If low ability, hi willingness; adopt selling style or
Hi task, hi relationship

If hi ability, low willingness; adopt participating style or
Low task orientation, hi relationship orientation

Both hi; delegating style
Lo task and lo relationship


Discuss transformational leadership

Change focused

Create a vision and motivate followers by appealing to their higher ideals and values and encouraging them to sacrifice self-interest for organization. Use charisma

Transactional leaders focus more on stability than change
Leadership on contingent reinforcement. Motivated by leaders rewards , promises, threats


Describe vroom and yet tons leadership model.

Extent leader includes grp members in decision making process

5 supervisor styles
Applied based on the outcome of a decision tree of 7 problem attributes.

AI autocratic leaders. Own dec
AII autocratic. Get info. Final de
CI consultive. Dc w ea make final
CII consultive. Dc as grp. Final
GII grp decision. Dc grp. Grp dec

Ea style had + and - and depends on attributes of situation. Such as quality of decision
Importance of sub accepting dec
Time to make dec


Describe leader-member exchange theory

Leadership is a process centered on the interactions between leaders and members,
Proposing how relationships w various members can develop and not all relationships are equal.

In group or out group...relationship w leader det factor which grp
Out grp...lower quality relationship
....both only doing formal roles
In grp..more decision making, access to resources and responsibility. Receive more leader support..

Encourages leaders aware if attitudes to members and create opportunities for all be in grp

Proposes increasing equity moves through phases..stranger, acquaintance, and partner

Research shows related to higher job satisfaction, stronger organizational commitment and better subordinate performance.


What are the phases or organizational development?

7 phases

Entry. Need for change. Determine problem
Contracting. Determine terms. Agree contract.
Diagnosis. Assess problems, collect data. Often stdized
Feedback. Help understand
Planning. Corrective plan
Intervention. Implement plan
Evaluation. Progress assessed.

Encompasses many interventions to help individual and improve organizations effectiveness. Techniques share: systems approach, involve all in company, commitment of top mgmt, change as long term planned activity,and use of internal and external change agents


What are specific organizational development interventions?

Quality of work life interventions
Improves impact of work situation on workers motivation, satisfaction, and commitment.
Premise effectiveness increases as satisfaction, motivation, and commitment increase. Often involve restructuring job to make more interesting or challenging. Example is quality circles (may only have temporary effects increase satisfaction and effectiveness). These small grps from same dept meet and dc how improve work. Not binding and need reassure not penalized for suggestions. Need support from mgmt and broader organization.

Organizational surveys..positive results. Increase satisfaction and employee reports of job conditions after surveys. Anonymous and provided to employees or mgmt teams. Can solve probs and give influence.

Process consultation
Help employees understand and alter maladaptive intx.
Observe workers and give observations and suggestions
Ie. communication, decision making, conflict resolution, individual roles in grps


Discuss resistance to change in organizations and strategies to overcome it.

If participate in decisions, they will support it.

3 types
Empirical rational..ppl rational and if have info they will act w self interest

Normative norms underly patterns of behavior
Focus on changing attitudes, values, and relationships to bring change.

Power coercive...use rewards, punishment, or legit authority to coerce to comply.


What are the models of individual decision making?
Rational economical
Administrative model

Rational economical...find optimal solution. Search all possibilities and weigh alternatives
Maximizing...must have ll relevant info to make decision, enough time to make it, ability to process accurately wo bias. Often not practical.

Administrative model
Look at solutions as they are available and accept the first that is minimally acceptable...satisficing


Drivers decision making styles (5)

2 styles that determine decision making style:
Amount of info considered
Focus or number of alternative decisions identified.

These factors correspond to the two main stages of decision making.
Analysis of the situation
Formulation of a solution

Satisficers. Fast acting and rely on minimal amount of info to choose a good enough solution

Maximizer..slow to act and use all the time and resources to consider relevant info.

Ppl vary in re to the number of alternative solutions sought
Unifocus info to get 1 course of ax
Multi focus ..many solutions.

5 basic styles
Decisive style
Satisficing and unifocus. Speed and efficiency. Done now.
Disadv..inflexible and short sited
Business and political ppl

Flexible style
Satisficing, multifocus
Prefer loose organizations w loose structure. Best w quick changes

Maximizing, unifocus
Lots info id best solution. Detailed plan. Thorough, rigid

Maximizing, multifocus
Use lots of info, lots of solutions
Often many courses of ax at same
Creative, best w groups

Combo hierarhic and integrative
Maximizing style

Style works best depends
Decisive and need to do quickly and it is simple
Hierarhic, integrative, systemic w complex problems and consequences are long term and costly

To be successful must know own style, work w other styles, match style to types of jobs


Describe kahbeman and tverskys decision making style.

Called prospect theory.

Emphasizes the importance of loss aversion.

Influenced more by potential losses than potential gains when making decisions.

Use to think ppl averse to risk. This shows averse to loss.


Discuss organizational justice and the 3 dimensions.

Degree employees believe they are being treated fairly.

Distributive justice...perceived fairness of outcomes of hiring, appraisals, raises...

Procedural justice. Perceived fairness of process by which outcomes are allocated.
Best predictor of work performance and counter productive work behavior

Intersectional justice
Perceptions of the interpersonal exchange between an individual and supervisor or third party. Two dimensions...informational justice..amt of info or appropriateness of explanations abt why procedures used or outcomes distributed.
Interpersonal tx by sup or third party

Organizational justice associated w outcomes like satisfaction, commitment, retention


Define organizational culture.

Shared assumptions, values, norms, and tangible signs if organization members taught to new members thru formal statements and informal behaviors.

3 levels:
Behavior and observable artifacts
Visible...layout, dress, space, reports. Tells what a grp is doing.

Values...preferences for certain beh or outcomes. Goals, norms...

Underlying assumptions Ucs and probably grow out of values.


Discuss gender in organizations.

Physically attractive women tend to be considered less qualified for promotion than equally qualified less attractive women. Physically attractive men judged more suitable.

Males and females don't differ consistently on leadership styles, female leaders more likely use participatory decision making style. Males more autocratic or directive.
Women may be more concerned w relationships and task completion then men.

Women who adopt a stereotypically male managerial style are likely to be judged less favorably then men w same style (slightly). Men who adopt a typical female style not evaluated less favorably.

Women earn 60 cents for every buck a man makes. Some say due to diff kind of work. Others say it is just valued less.
Comparable and women who perform jobs that have equal worth should get equal pay. Use job eval techniques to determine value to set wages.


Employee surveys are used for all but:
Assess effects of organizational intervention
Evaluate employee opinions abt intervention
Assist mgmt in developing solution a to org problems
Increase employee job satisfaction

A. Used to gather info, assess attitudes, opinions and get solutions. Not to assess effects of intervention.


According to Hersey and Blanchard situational leaderships model, a leaders style should be guided by:
Favorable ness of situation
Leaders experience
Job maturity of subordinates
Nature of the task

C. Maturity being determined by a combo of ability and willingness to accept responsibility.

Favorableness belongs to fielders theory.


Job evaluation is used:
Identify characteristics of a job
Provide feedback to employees
Identify training needs
Set wages and salary



Transactional leader
Uses democratize decision making
Most effective when task requires creativity and flexibility
Motivated employees thru contingent rewards
Has charismatic personality

C. More traditional leaders who influence thru daily exchanges and are fairly emotionless.

Transformational leaders:
Consider individual needs, capabilities to enhance goals. Use intellectual stimulation, charisma, and inspiration.


Loss aversion predicts
Risky decisions
Safe decisions
Risky decisions in order to avoid loss
Safe decisions in order to avoid loss



How is work performance defined?


Performance = A x M

Ability x motivation

Empirically ability is more important than motivation in explaining differences in job performance.


What are need theories of motivation based on?

Dc maslows and alderfers theories.

Ppl willing to exert effort when it will lead to fulfillment of certain deficiencies or needs.

Ppl have 5 basic needs (physiological, safety, social, esteem, actualization) arranged in a hierarchy. Lowest is strongest motivator. Once satisfied, move up.
Not applicable theory to motivation in workplace. Some support that need importance is related to job level. Higher level employees rate esteem and actualization higher.

Alderfers ERG theory is a reformulation of maslows that distinguishes 3 needs (existence, relatedness and growth). No hierarchy.


Dc mcclellands need for achievement.

Used TAT cards.

Primary motivator is need for achievement. These ppl desire autonomy and personal responsibility, prefer moderately difficult goals, seek recognition for their work. Hi motivated to put effort into work and stay in job longer and perform better.
Training can improve this need. Achievement need strongly related to entrepreneur success.

Identified 2 other needs.
High need for power...motivated by control over others, visibility, prestige, status, recognition. More effective mgrs
High need for affiliation...good interpersonal relationships, sensitive to criticism, prefer to avoid conflict


D herzberg's two factor theory of motivation and satisfaction.

Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are two separate states and ea effected by diff factors.

Lower, benefits, relationships
If absent then dissatisfied.
If effect on satisfaction

Hi factors. Motivation..responsibility opportunities, decision making, growth.
Adequate then motivated and satisfied.
Absence doesn't = dissatisfaction

Job enrichment is best application of it. Redesign jobs for more challenge,...fulfills motivator needs

(Job enhancement is increase variety of work. Not motivator).

Not entirely supported..both hygiene and motivations contribute to satisfaction and dis
Also job enrichment..increase satisfaction and decrease absenteeism usually result. Performance improvement usually w quality of work (vs quantity). Effects vary by worker, culture, context..
Ie. enrichment usually better effect on younger, hi educated and hi need for achievement


Discuss the job characteristics model. 5 characteristics

5 characteristics that influence internal work motivation and job satisfaction , work quality, absenteeism, and turnover.

Skill variety more needed for job more meaningful

Task identity. Whole piece of work (vs part) more meaningful.

Task significance jobs have importance to others more meaningful than those that don't

Autonomy jobs more meaningful to degree allow independence, freedom, decision authority

Feedback. Built in more meaningful

Use job diagnostic survey and job characteristics inventory to assess a job w characteristics and get info to redesign. When redesigned accordingly motivation, satisfaction, absenteeism, and turnover improve.
Work quality less effected.
Applies ESP well to workers in high in growth need strength


Cognitive theories of motivation.

Goal setting theory ...Locke

Motivation related to a complex decision making process that involves weighing alternatives, costs and benefits, and likelihood of achieving desired outcome.

Goal setting
Goals 2 purposes
Motivation and direct behavior
Motivated to work toward goals when consciously accepted and committed to them.
Goal specificity and performance feedback help affect willingness to work toward goals.
Moderately difficult maximizes goal attainment (diff but attainable).
Worker participation not crucial but increases the chances adopt goal.

Management by objective MBO.
Employee and super agree to specific, measurable goals that will do on a specific pd of time.
Eval progress and changes made

Combo goal setting w feedback significant positive effect on performance. Adding incentives little additional effect.

Some individual diff in effects of goal setting. Ie. hi self esteem accept difficult goals

Some evidence worker harder if participate in goal setting (vs assigned)

Teams working on interdependent tasks, diff Individual goals gets poorer performance than group goals or no goals. Combo of grp and indiv goals may be no more effective than grp goals alone.

Goal setting similar benefits for males and females if goals assigned or participatory set.


Define equity theory of motivation compared to expectancy theory.

Equity theory
Workers compare their input/outcome ratio to those of other workers. Equity when perceived equal. If perceived inequitable, restore equity by adjusting input , attempting to change outcome, or altering his eval of input/outcome ratios.

Ie. underpayment...feel putting in more and getting less back so will decrease work quality, quantity or obtain better outcomes.
Overpayment..think ratio lower than others. Motivated to increase quality, quantity or eval of balance of input/output.
Underpayment usually has greater impact on work performance than overpayment.
Distinction between outcome justice (fairness of outcomes like raises and promo) and procedural justice (fairness of procedures to determine outcome). Procedural is affected by consistently of tx across ppl and time, suppression of bias, and accuracy of info used to make decisions.

Expectancy theory
Motivation is fx of 3:
Belief effort will result in successful performances (expectancy)
Belief that successful performance will lead to certain outcomes (instrumentality)
Desirably of those outcomes (valence)


What 3 things does the reinforcement theories of motivation propose?

How is this similar to incentive theory?

Compare to Decis theory of intrinsic motivation.

Uses operant conditioning principles. Motivation is a function of the degree to which effort is externally reinforced.
1. Ppl do things w rewarding outcomes
2. Ppl avoid doing things that have negative outcomes
3. Ppl eventually stop doing things that don't have rewarding outcomes(wout reinf beh extinguishes).

Incentive theory basically the same as operant. Role of extrinsic rewards. Orgs rely on rewards (salary, benefits) viewed most flexible (use for diff activity or beh)
Ie. manufacturing firm used benefit defined plan had 6% more productivity.

Decis model focused in intrinsic motivation. Internal reinforcers (pride, satisfaction) are more important than external ones. Believes external can actually reduce motivation by reducing ones sense that behavior is intrinsically motivated. Used attribution theory to explain. When intro external reinforcement for doing puzzles, did less of them in free time. Believe behavior is then motivated by external factors. When rewards taken away, person is no longer motivated to do it.


What are the findings in regard to job satisfaction?

Pay is positively correlated w satisfaction. individuals satisfaction w pay is affected by if person perceives pay as fair. Fair depends on if it is related to level of performance and perceived equitable comparable to others. Some increase satisfaction may be due to other rewards hi paid workers get from job like challenge.

Found skill utilization the strongest factor in a wide variety of jobs.

Age positively correlated w satisfaction. Older, more satisfied.

Satisfaction has moderate negative correlation w absenteeism and turnover (ESP turn over). May be significant relationship w poor performers but not good ones.

Satisfaction and performance is weak positive correlation .14. When pay tied to performance then correlation. Not connected there is a negative correlation.

Level in org hierarchy correlated w satisfaction . Ie. mgr more than non; higher mgr level, greater sat

Non whites express more dissatisfaction

Satisfaction and dissatisfaction
Are stable over time and across diff jobs.

Satisfaction related to physical and mental health. Satisfaction better predictor of longevity than health or tobacco use.


When is organizational commitment greatest?

When job provides opportunities for personal growth and responsibility.

Moderate to strong correlation w absenteeism and turn over.

Downside to commitment is may increase resistance to change.


In a person machine system both work together. Contributions vary over jobs.

What are strengths of both?

Ppl better e flexibility
Better at recognizing patterns that vary from situation to situation. , detecting unusual or unexpected phenomenon, drawing from past experiences, generalizing from observations, setting priorities, new solutions.

Machines better at jobs w reliability and consistency.
Sense stimuli outside range of human perception, work w distractions, repetition, store info quickly and in large quantities, rapid and consistent responses, sustain performance, recognize stimuli belonging to general class (deductive reasoning).


What is a compressed work week and findings about it?

Increases # hrs worker per day and decreases # of days worked in work period.

Mixed results.
Positive effect on supervisor ratings of employee performance, employee overall satisfaction, employee satisfaction w work schedule.
Not strong impact on performance or absenteeism. (Change of findings)

Productivity unaffected.


What is flextime and impact?

Dc shift work.

Employees det daily schedule as long as they work total number of hours and present at core hours.

Increased satisfaction , satisfaction w schedule, productivity, decrease absenteeism.

Unclear re productivity. Some show increase and some no effect.

25% on shift work
Less productive on nite shift. More errors and more accidents. Disruption in sleep wake cycle produce physical and psychological effects that lower productivity.

Worse than nite is rotating shift. Younger adapt better and those who chose it indicate fewer problems than those assigned.

Most problems for ppl on rotating shifts e frequent schedule changes.


What is a major contribution to job stress?


Lack of control over work or work environment.

Burnout is result of chronic stress noted by exhaustion, lower feelings of accomplishment, think in impersonal terms.
Higher w women, single and divorced, ppl little opportunities for promo, professionals frequently deal w others
Often works holics who r compulsively driven out of insecurity and lack of fulfillment.


Define fatigue. What helps decrease fatigue at work?

Subjective feeling of tiredness affects physical and mental.

Associated w performance decrements, ESP on complex tasks that give little feedback

Rest breaks reduced and maintains hi productivity thru the day.
Can also reduce errors and accidents; reduce length and number of unofficial breaks if timed well. Also lead to higher worker satisfaction.
Best if scheduled before fatigue sets in and performance begins to lag and w frequent short breaks (vs infrequent longer ones).


How much is stress impacting t he work place?

64% say jobs involve stress
5 out of every 6 filing claims reported stress as main cause.

Quantitative workload..too much in time have
Qualitative...too difficult
Work underload..too little/too easy
No control ie over time pressures or
Violence. 1 out of 4 harrassed physically, threatened or attacked.
Downsizing..increases insecurity and job demands.

Personality and stress
Type A most vulnerable due to hostile and anger issues

Hi stress jobs...police, fire, computer programmer, dental assistant, electrician, plumber, social worker, telephone operator, hair dresser

Psychologist..lack of therapeutic success most stressful aspect.

Chronic stress leads to physical, mental, lower job performance and increased absenteeism


What reduces the effects of job related stress?

Hi job satisfaction
Hi autonomy and power
Social support
Good physical health
Sufficient ability to perform the job

Stress related interventions work best when they target the cause of stress.


What is work family conflict?

When role expectations and demands of work and at home are incompatible.

Associated w job and life dissatisfaction, lowered job productivity, marital problems, psychological distress.

Women more bc maintain primary responsibility for family even if career

Work interferes more w family then vice versa for both; work related expectations /conflicts better predictor of work family conflict for men; family expectations/conflicts more predictive for women.


Safety and accidents in the work place.

What factors contribute?

Human error 50 to 80% of accidents.

Factors...age. Younger have more, even when acct for experience
..noxious environmental variables
Like heat, noise
...alcohol use
..poor safety attitudes
...poor vision
...emotional instability


What personality traits correlate with accidents?

Low trust levels
Depressed temperament

Not clear if specific, stable set of traits associated w it.


How is safety improved in the work place?

Training most effective

Must focus on safe behaviors and
Attitudes toward safety.

Positive themed safety programs more effective then scare tactics

Posters alone not so effective. More impact when specific (tell how to reduce accidents)

Management has commitment to safety
Incentives for accident reduction is helpful ESP w specific info and mgmt commitment.


How does noise effect the work place?

How does music impact the work place?

Long term exposure to noise has adverse effects on productivity.
Most adverse effects on complex tasks or those that need close attention. Performance on monotonous tasks may improve.
Intermittent noise more distracting then continuous.
Irrelevant noise is more distracting than noise related to the task (equipment noise).
Meaningful sounds (conversation) more distracting then non (street noise)

Some ppl more noise sensitive and more adversely effected.
Giving control or perception of control over noise reduces adverse effects

Music positive effects in job satisfaction and performance of simple, repetitive tasks.


Human better than machine:
Recognizing patterns that vary situation to situation
Exerting controlled force
Recognizing stimuli as belonging to a general class
Responding on a consistent basis to input

A. Better if need more flexibility


Of these workers who would have the most stress?
Computer programmer
Technical staff member
Assembly line worker

D. Least amt of control over job


First step in developing a job selection test is to:
Review previous selection tests
Perform a job analysis
Classify job along stdized content dimension
Conduct job evaluation

B. involved id characteristics and requirements of the job.


Person who can say nice things about least preferred co worker is most effective
Moderately favorable conditions
Very unfavorable
Very favorable
Very favorable or unfavorable

High LpC leader describes least preferred coworker in positive terms


Most effective use of biographical data occurs when the questions
Ask about interests
Include an attitude scale
Empirically derived
Allow free response answers



Which most useful in determining an applicant for blue collar job is likely to benefit from training?
Work sample
Achievement test
Needs assessment
Assessment center

A. Can train ppl


Increase productivity, no change satisfaction

Increase satisfaction, effects productivity questionable

Neither increased
Both increased



Low job satisfaction is most strongly correlated w
Low productivity
Hi turnover
Hi degree of Sabatoge
Emotional instability

B. .40


Frame of reference training is used for
Teaching basic skills
Improve rater accuracy
Leadership development
Career counseling

B. best to improve rater training by focusing on accuracy


Process consultant hired to resolve conflict w nurses pay and hours. Not successful communicating concerns to administration. Consultant would:
Ask nurse give list and take it to them
Do survey and give results to admin
Recommend nurse pay raise
Ask nurses to demonstrate how communicated and suggest other methods

D. Process consultants focus on improving communication and intx of grp members


Research on quality circles:
Have lt effects on morale not productivity

Lt effects on productivity, not morale
May affect morale bd productivity but only temporary
Have neither st or lt effects



Assessment ctr used to hire
Technical ppl
Unskilled labor



Use of behaviorally anchored rating scales
Increases incremental validity
Reduced rater bias
Reduces adverse impact
Increase discriminate validity



Most likely use a job eval technique

Determine comparable worth of jobs

Develop and validate selection test
Determine training needs
Evaluate person job fit

A. Used to determine worth of job so a fair wage can be set. Stimes used to establish comparable worth.


According to holland, interests of a person fitting his conventional personality type are most similar to the interests of someone fitting his
Social type
Enterprising type
Artistic type

B. in hexagon this type is next to realistic and enterprising so these three most similar


When hired told hard work equals bonus. Not happening. According to expectancy theory, this will most effect:
Intrinsic motivation
Expectancy beliefs
Instrumentality beliefs

D. Beliefs about performance outcome link are instrumental


W regards to goal setting, research has found performance feedback
Unnecessary as long as have goals
Effective as is acceptance of goals
Optimally effective when combo w goal acceptance
More important than goal acceptance

C. Most important is goal acceptance


Organizational commitment is most strongly related to
Absenteeism and turnover
Job level
Personality characteristics



Re performance, when grps work on interdependent task

Difficult indiv goal are superior to difficult grp goals
Indiv goals plus grp goals are superior to grp goals
Indiv goals plus grp goals may be no better then grp goals
As long as goals set together, doesn't matter if indiv or grp



What are the three components of expectancy theory?

Motivational theory re ppls beliefs that their effort will lead to performance (expectancy)
Performance will result in specific outcome (instrumentality)
Outcome is desirable (positive valence)


What are the big 5 personality traits and how were they derived?



Underly all traits.


What are the coefficients of the personnel selection tests?

Cognitive ability
Job knowledge test
Bio data
Work samples
Assessment ctr
Interest tests

Cog. Varies .51 to .751
Job. .62
Bio data. .77 to .79 turnover
Work samp. .33??
Assess ctr.
Interviews .37


Supers theory of career development is based on the assumption that:
Career development in terms of predictable sequence of stages
Personality variables and occupational environments are of interest
Vocational choice linked to children's experience with their parents
Hierarchy of needs that impacts vocational choice

A. Correct
B. holland.
C. Roe. Links early childhood experiences w parents to later job choice
D. Maslow


Fiedlers contingency theory or LpC:
Leaders effectiveness is determined by combo of leaders style and characteristics of the situation
Subordinates motivation is maximized when perceive leader is helping them achieve their goals
Leaders described in terms of task and relationship orientation.
Distinction between transformational and transactional.

A. Correct!
B. house path goal theory
C. Hersey and Blanchard situational leadership model
D. Bass...makes distinction about change focused and stability focused leaders.


Chin and benne divide change in organizations into three types:
A. Autocratic, consultative, grp
B. instrumental, supportive, participative
C. Empirical-rational, normative- reeducative, power-coercive
D. Decision making, career path, responsibility

C. Ppl basically rational and will act on own self interest if have pertinent info
Normative/reed. Norms underly patterns of behavior in organizations
Power coercive..use rewards, punishment, and legit authority to coerce ppl to comply w change