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Which theory did Donald super apply to career development?
1. Self esteem theory
2. Self concept theory
3. Social learning theory
4. Two factor theory


Two factor theory is a theory of job motivation


What are the differences between centralized and decentralized decision making?

Centralized is associated with autocratic and bureaucratic leadership styles. More formal.
All communication goes through one person.
More efficient when tasks are simple and mundane.
Ie. wheel, chain of command

Decentralized associated with democratic style and improved job morale, employee participation, and organizational innovation.
Info flows more freely between individuals.
Best when tasks are complex and cooperation is needed to complete the task.
Ie. circle
More individual satisfaction.


Describe herzberg's two factor theory or motivation hygiene theory.

There are different sources of satisfaction and dissatisfaction. Upper and lower level needs.
Lower are hygiene factors or dissatisfiers...relate to job context, like pay, working conditions, supervision. Dissatisfied when not present. Don't produces satisfaction.

Upper level needs..motivators or satisfiers..relate to job content and include...need for achievement, responsibility and opportunity. They increase satisfaction and motivation. Failing to meet does not produce dissatisfaction.


You provide quarterly performance appraisals and promote employees. A potential problem is:
1. Halo effect
2. Recency effect
3. Criterion contamination
4. Central tendency bias

3. Criterion is subjectively scored and rater had knowledge if predictor scores. Scores can be influenced. Results in spuriously high criterion related validity coefficient.

Halo..generalize from one characteristic of a person to other aspects.
Central tendency...rate all about average.


Selection test results in 40
Percent black and 45 white hired. Conclude:
1. Adverse impact occurred
2. Adverse impact and test has differential validity
3. Unfair test
4. Test may or may not have differential validity


Adverse impact when percent of minorities is less than 4/5 ths of non minorities hired.
Nonminority x .8 equals 36 percent
45 percent x .8 exceeds 36 percent

Pg 26 test a academic review


Comparing satisfaction w performance and satisfaction w length of employment:

Both weak and positive
Both moderate and positive
First weak and positive, second moderate and positive
First weak and positive, second moderate and positive

4. .15 w performance
Moderate negative correlation w satisfaction and turnover


Relationship between morality and criminal behavior is measured based on the rate of church attendance. Many non goers have no criminal record. Due to:
A. Criterion contamination
B. criterion deficiency
C. Criterion relevance
D. Criterion related validity

2. Criterion is deficient. Concept criterion is the theoretical construct.

Relevance is extent criterion measures the concept
Contamination...known predictor score affects criterion scores
Criterion related validity is degree correlation between predictor and criterion.


Using n theory y:
Allow employees take part in decisions
Set firm rules about tardiness, absenteeism, loafing
Believe workers are motivated by pay
Follow premise of scientific mgmt

Theory x..workers are lazy and must be coerced

Theory y..people are industrious, creative and seek responsibility


Comparing job enrichment to job enlargement:
A. Both saitisfy motivator needs
B. enrichment involves more responsibility; enlargement increases variety
C. Enrichment increases variety; enlargement increases decision making
D. Both impact satisfaction and performance.

B. enlarge means to increase variety but not responsibility or degree of challenge. Increases satisfaction but not improve performance.

Enrichment increases responsibility and involvement. Increases satisfaction and performance.


According to fielders LpC theory:
1. Hi LpC do best in moderately favorable sit; low LpC do best in either hi favorable or unfavorable situations
2. Low LpC best in mod fav sit; hi LpC best in either hi favorably or unfavorable sit
3. High LpC best in hi favorable sit; low LpC best unfavorable conditions.
4. Hi LpC better at increasing satisfaction, low better increase productivity.

1. Must know!
Curvilinear relationship
LpC is least preferred coworker

If leader never the less rates coworkers highly, leader is considered a hi LpC leader and to be relationship oriented.


Job analysis is:
A. Procedure in which information about a jobs tasks , skills, and requirements is gathered thru formal methods of data collection and analysis.
B. develop a job description
C. Identify training needs
D. Identify causes of accidents
E. first step in developing a predictor or criterion.



Job analysis techniques provide what 3 kinds of information?

What are the methods of job analysis? 4

Job oriented..task requirements
Lifting, installing,...

Worker oriented..identify knowledge and skills , ability needed for success
Diploma, 20/20 vision,...


Methods of job analysis

Interview....current workers, supervisors, ppl who know

PAQ..positions analysis questionnaire (job rated on importance of 6 elements)

Direct observation..may include video

Work diary or log


What is the purpose if performance evaluations?

What are the types if appraisal and their strengths and weaknesses.

Make decisions about
Performance feedback

Measures can be objective (quantified) or subjective (ratings)

Measures often called criterion
measures, quantitative
# sold, #won, salary, days missed
Limit..doesn't measure important stuff..motivation, ...; limit by situational factors (equip prob, economy..); may not be good for compelx jobs

Subjective...rater judgement
Good for complex, less concrete aspects of job
Limits..rater bias, rater doesn't know scale well


What is 360 degree performance measures?

Subjective performance evaluation that incorporates ratings from multiple raters. Useful for management development

Also note that peer appraisals have been valid at predicting job performance.


Describe the following subjective rating techniques:
Personnel comparison systems
Critical incidents
Behaviorally anchored rating scales
Behavioral observation scales
Forced choice checklists

PCS. Compare to other employees
Rank order best to worst
Paired comparison on ea job behavior
Forced distribution (predetermined like place in top 10, ...)
Adv...reduce rater bias

Critical incidents
Description of job behaviors associated w good and bad performance
Origins..supervisor observed and tallied each; later likert scale w anchor of specific description

Several dimensions rated
For ea dimension a set of anchors or descriptors/incidents are used and tied to a number point.
Different grps contribute to identifying dimensions and critical incidents and where they rank
Adv..good for employee feedback, may improve ratings
Disadv..time consuming, very specific

BoS..similar above incl adv and dis
Indicate how often perform incident (vs pick incident)

Forced choice check list
Statements grouped
Reduce bias and social desirability


Describe the types of rater bias
Halo effect
Recently effect
Leniency bias
Central tendency bias
Contrast effect

Halo effect...judge all on single thing
Positive or negative

Recency effects
Leniency bias...give all ratees +
Strictness bias..give all negative
Central tendency..give ave to all
Contrast to other ratees.

Reduce bias
Format of rating scale
Adequately train raters..focus on accuracy (not errors)
Free of reference training used to help recognize multidimensional nature of job and same conceptualization.


Personnel selection is to make sure the person has what?

What are selection techniques and what are they called?

Personnel characteristics


Used to predict job performance and facilitate hiring decisions. Predictors


Define the selection procedures.
What ones have the best validity for job selection purposes across different jobs?
Lowest validity?
Work samples
Biographical inventories
Assessment centers
Standardized tests

Cognitive ability tests and job knowledge tests highest validity

Interest tests have lowest validity

General (or cognitive) mental ability tests. More valid as the complexity of job increases

Job knowledge tests...job specific
Often experience, training.
More valid as complexity of job increases and job test similarity increases.

Work samples...measured in standardized job like condition. More validity for motor skills than verbal.
Eg. Short hand, in basket
Adv..acceptable to applicants
..less likely to discriminate
Other uses..train ability...who may benefit so period of learning and evaluation
..part of realistic job prevent unrealistic expectations and decrease turn over.

Interviews...most common but only moderately accurate
Situational interviews higher validity than job related validity which have higher than psychological interviews
Structured higher validity than unstructured
Structured board interviews using consensus highest corrected validity.

Biodata (see other ?)
Assessment centers..administration and managers
Done in grps w multiple assessments like tests, work samples, interviews .
Eval by team...rate in many dimensions
Hi validity ESP when correlated w future promotions (threat criterion contamination)

Personality tests

Interest tests. Low validity for performance but useful for satisfaction, persistence and job choice.
Integrity tests..low validity
Good id counterproductive


What are critical incidents?

Supervisors identify employee behaviors that show excellent or inferior performance
Supervisor ident typical behavior employee performs
Employee ident behaviors demo excellent and inferior
Employee id typical behavior perform

A. Originally identified by observations from supervisors.


Describe bio data
Give two

Job selection procedure
Bio inventories ask for info about work hx, education, interests, skills.

When empirically validated highly predictable of job success. That is when items R included bc correlate highly w performance. Many believe only slightly less valid than cognitive tests.

Predicts turnover
Equally predicts turnover for black and whites.
Disadv..specific to job
Specific to org made for
Lack face validity

Empiracal forms
Weighted app blank. Items diff wts based on correlation w job. Sum. Total
Biographical info blank. Bib
Wider range attitude and behaviors
Multiple choice


Criterion contamination
Associated w adverse impact
Is a problem w personality tests
Produces artificially hi validity coefficient
Reduces a predictors incremental validity

C. Rater knows performance on a predictor influences how rate on criterion

Artificially increases the correlation between predictor and criterion


Discuss personality tests in regard to job selection.

Challenging the earlier conclusion that personality tests are not good predictors of job performance.

Big 5. Conscientiousness is accurate predictor of job performance and training success across a wide range of settings.

Measure specific characteristics more accurate than those measuring global traits.

Better predictors of contextual performance, such as effort And other behaviors that contribute to social and psych environ while the cognitive ability tests predict task performance.


What is adverse impact?

Is adverse impact ever permitted?

Standard defined by eeocs uniform guidelines on employee selection procedures to determine when a selection process might be discriminatory.

Occurs when hiring rate for that group is less than 80% of the hiring rate for the majority group.

Ie. if 60 % of male applicants are hired , 48% females must be hired.
.8 x .6 = .48

Allowed when the selection criteria is a bona fide occupational qualification BFOQ. In other words, if there is a valid reason for hiring a substantially larger proportion of a subgroup. So if job related and business necessity, despite adverse impact, may be ok. Ie heavy lifting


What are the causes of adverse impact? Differential validity and unfairness

Are there ways to compensate for that?

Differential validity..selection procedure is valid predictor of one grp and less valid or not valid for another grp. Rare and affects majority as much as minority. grp consistently scores lower but both perform equally well at job. Those score lower may not be hired as much.

May compensate with score adjustments .
Separate cut offs
Within group norming (diff raw scores but converted to norm ref scores so ok)
Banding..those in a range considered equivalent


What is the foundation of the Americans with disabilities act?

Prohibits discrimination due to disability in regard to job app, hiring, advancement, or discharge, compensation, training ...

Person can perform essential fx if job w or wo reasonable accommodation.

Protects past substance abusers but not current.


What is incremental validity?

Usefulness of a selection test in terms of decision making accuracy

Resulting from the use if a particular predictor.

Determine by:
Subtract + hit rate by base rate
Ie. 50% good workers aka base rate
Study shows hit rate 70%
70% - 50% = 20%
Pos hit rate - base rate = incremental validity. Here it means new selection test will increase decision accuracy by 20%

2. Taylor Russell tables
Incremental validity is maximized when validity coefficient is large
Base rate is moderate
Selection ratio is low.

High validity coefficient is preferred because it means test scores are accurate predictors of job performance.
Mod base rate (50%) suggests new predictor may be helpful
Low selection ratio..many applicants which helps ensure many qualified apps to chose from.


What is a base rate?

Selection ratio?

Proportion of employees hired using current techniques who Are successful.
Moderate base rate suggests new predictor will be helpful
Hi base rate the current procedure is doing its job.
Low base rate then something other than the selection is the problem (standard too hi..)

Selection ratio..ratio of number of job openings to total number of applicants or percent to be hired.
If 100 apps...selection ratio is low
If 3 ppl applying, selection ratio hi


What is utility analysis?

What are the methods?

Cost effectiveness of a selection procedure.

Utility is dollar gain in job performance when using the selection procedure (vs alternative)

Mathematical formulas


When selecting personnel multiple predictors are preferred. Why?

What is multicollinearity?

Multiple give more info about applicant than just one predictor.

To be useful, ea predictor should have hi correlation w criterion and low correlations with each other (so don't overlap)

Multicollinearity is when predictors are highly correlated. Do not want.


Describe the methods for combing predictors for selection tests.
Multiple regression
Multiple cutoff
Multiple hurdle

Multiple regression. Estimate applicants score on a criterion on the basis of 2 or more predictors.
Put in equation
Compensatory..if lo on one can make up for it on another predictor.

Multiple cutoff.
Must score above minimum cutoff on ea predictor
Not compensatory
Good when minimum level of competence is needed in diff domains

Multiple hurdle
Meet minimum stds on multiple predictors. Administered one at a time, predetermined order, ea only given if passed previous one
Not compensatory
Saves time and $$