Flashcards in Learning Theory Deck (82):
A dad nods when his kid is learning to tie shoes. Example of:
1. Discriminative stimulus
2. Primary reinforcer
3. Secondary reinforcer
4. Generalized conditioned reinforcer
3. Secondary reinforcers aquire reinforcing value only thru experience.
Primary...reinforcers everyone of all ages and cultures experience, like food.
Generalized conditioned reinforcers like $$ or tokens take on reinforcing value bc give access to other reinforcers.
Discriminative stimulus..signals if reinforcement or punishment will be given.
Teacher reward students for reading certain number of books with time frame. They read but no more and say enjoyment diminished. This explained by:
1. Behavioral contrast
2. Over justification
4. Premack principle
2. Over justification....ppl reinforced for behaviors would do wo reinforcement. Reinforcement taken away, often decrease in behavior. Ppl look to environment to explain their behavior. When reinforced attribute behavior to that vs intrinsic motivation.
Behavioral contrast..2 behaviors reinforced and reinforcement for one discontinues. unreinforced diminishes and reinforced increases.
All operant concepts
Who introduced the concept of instrumental learning?
1. Term for operant conditioning associated with thorns ole and skinner. Law of effect..repeat behaviors that have positive consequences. Later revised re: negative consequences saying they may or may not decrease behavior.
Gradual decrease in ur due to repeated presentation with us is:
1. Classical extinction
4. Operant extinction
3. Habituation is cc concept. Repeatedly exposed to ucs and then ur eventually decreases.
Cc Extinction cs wo ucs
Satiation is operant term...reinforcer loses value over time.
Operant extinction ..with hold reinforcement for previously reinforced behavior. Ie stop pay attention to bad behavior, it will decrease.
As compared to a person on a variable interval schedule, a person on a variable ratio schedule:
A. Will respond at a fairly low rate.
B. will show brief post reinforcement pauses
C. Can better predict when reinforcement will take place
D.will have his or her behavior show greater resistance to extinction
D. VR. Most resistant to extinction
From operant learning perspective, it is best to manage a kids tantrums by:
1. Positive punishment
2. Negative reinforcement
3. Withhold attention or other reinforcement.
1. Entails pain or aversive stimulus
Response cost is an example of:
A. Negative reinforcement
B. negative punishment
C. Positive punishment
D. Operant extinction
Lose something for misbehavior. Take away is negative to decrease behavior is punishment
Neg reinforcement...remove aversive to increase behavior
Pos punishment..apply aversive to decrease behavior
Operant extinction...with hold reinforcement for previously reinforced behavior
Student is disruptive. Teacher a. Teachers yelling is under the control of:
Teachers yelling. Is something added or removed after yelling? Removed. So does the yelling continue or stop? Likely increase.
Hold classically conditioned to be afraid of white rat. Now afraid of white rabbits. This is:
Mediated is stimulus generalization
Rat is cs
Fear response stayed same
Phobias involve stimulus generalization
What is the difference between higher order conditioning, stimulus generalization, pseudo conditioning?
Higher order..pair cs w another neutral stimulus that is typically unrelated. Deliberate pairing. New stimulus usually different from previous stimuli.
Stimulus generalization...generalizing from the cs to other neutral stimuli. Response to similar stimulus is not intentionally trained. No pairing! The response just happened. Stimuli is similar.
Pseudo conditioning ...response is elicited to a neutral stimulus that had not been paired w an ucs. May be due to inadvertent pairings
Mom nags kid take out trash.
3. Once take out mom stops nagging. This is the removal of an aversive stimulus in an attempt to increase behavior. Negative reinforcement is a form of relief...
What schedule of reinforcement is hardest to extinguish?
Definition of learning:
Result of maturation, disease
Permanent change in potential performance or behavior due to experience
Change due to adaptation
Result of active participation, not necessarily cs
Identify thorndikes laws:
1. Response occurs often enough in presence of a particular stimuli will become more likely to be repeated in presence of that stimulus.
2. Act has satisfying consequences. This pleasure becomes associated w other acts that occur approximately at the same time.
3. Organism must be ready to perform an act before performing it can be satisfying.
4. Responses accompanied by satisfaction will be repeated. Those accompanied by discomfort will not be repeated.
1. Law of exercise . Exercise strengthens the effect of satisfiers but not sufficient enough to produce learning.
2. Law of spread of effect. Minor law.
3. Law of readiness. Allowed not to do it when not ready is also satisfying. Forced when not ready is annoying or not allowed to do act when ready was seen as annoying.
4. Law of effect...greater the satisfaction or discomfort, the greater strengthening or weakening of bond. Precursor to skinners reinforcement.
What is the concept of identical elements that thorndike proposed?
Transfer of training is general
Transfer of training increases as the similarity of the stimulus/constructs and response elements/techniques in the training and performance environments increase.
Transfer of training is specific
Transfer of training is based on similarity of concepts.
B. contrary to formal discipline which was a popular construct saying practice or formal studying strengthens intellectual fx such as reasoning and judgement. They thought this training could be transferred.
In other words...new learning is facilitated by previous learning only to the extent that new learning contains elements identical to those in previous or the amt of transfer is determined by the number of elements the two situations have in common.
Research shows identical elements improves transfer of training for verbal and motor tasks
Psychological similarity (perceived similar meanings in training and performance environments) has been shown to be more important than physical similarity.
C and d are subsumed in the answer.
Whose work marked the beginning of animal experimentation?
Who is known As the father of modern behaviorism?
D. Published Animal Intelligence
Studied learning behavior if cats using puzzle boxes. Simple act allowed them to escape. Trail and error learning. This was similar to Darwin's adaptive selection.
B. he introduced term behaviorism in 1912 in a lecture. Believed in observable, measurable behaviors. Born w reflexes and learning is result of cc. Little Albert study. Differences in experiences alone
Can account for behavior differences. Radical behaviorism.
Which illustrates thorndike a law of effect?
Child forced to take piano is not as good as child who wishes to learn.
Child gets money to play plays more often then the kid who gets no money.
Child who plays in his den prefers to play there compared to anywhere
Child gets money to play learns to enjoy tv since he usually has tv on at the same time he is playing the piano.
A. Law of readiness
B. law of effect
C. Law of exercise
D. Spread of effect
FYI law of effect eventually eliminated the negative...punishment does not necessarily decrease behavior.
Match a term w concept:
Respondent behavior that is learned and appears following a conditioned stimulus.
Process of pairing a neutral stimulus cs w a stimulus that naturally evokes a response us until the cs elicits same response as us.
Previously neutral stimulus that thru repeated pairings w ucs elicits the same respondent behavior (cr) when applied alone. Ie. bell
Conditioned to discriminate between different stimuli. If one reinforced and other is not, only reinforced stimulus will evoke cr
Create a sequence of desired behaviors by means of reinforcing nature of previous response. Response can be a reinforcer for behavior preceded it and a cue for next in chain. Skinner used this to learn complex behaviors.
Unusual behavior that occurs when an organism is forced to undergo a difficult discrimination task.
Cr is artifact of the conditioning situation. Response does not occur outside the learning situation, even if cs present. So respond to all the cues in the room instead of the cs us pairing. False conditioning. Accidental pairing.
2. Cc or respondent conditioning
4. Stimulus discrimination
6. Experimental neurosis
7. Pseudo conditioning
Define types of cs us sequences:
Which is most effective?
Temporal relationship in cc is important. .5 seconds is optimal time interval.
Simultaneous...cs and us presented at the same time.
Delayed..cs precedes and overlaps us. Strongest and most rapidly aquired..
Trace..cs presented and terminated prior to us.
Backward...us presented first.usually no conditioning.sensitization issue to all cues and may look like it worked (pseudo conditioning). Least effective.
Cr not identical no matter which one. Cr less intense than ur in quality and quantity.
Extinction in cc is:
Tone tone tone...no meat powder.
Flooding...exposé cs wout us. Eventually not afraid. No phobia.
Cs repeatedly presented wout ucs.
2. When no longer respond to cs. Response reappears, weaker, if cs readministered.
Two cs's presented together and followed by ucs. More salient cs is more strongly conditioned than a less salient cs.
4. Repeated exposure of us.
1. extinction...So bell wout ever putting w ucs will lose power. Some reinforcement is necessary to maintain conditioning.
2. Spontaneous recovery...suggests extinguished response is not forgotten but just inhibited or suppressed.
3. Overshadowing...the extinction of responding to the more salient (overshadowing) cs sometimes produces increased cr strength to less salient cs.
4. Habituation getting used to something. Repeated highway noise at night keeps ya awake. Eventually get used to it and sleep more.
What is cue deflation effect?
Extinction of a response to one cue leads to an increased reaction to the other conditioned stimulus.
Sometimes occurs in a situation where two simultaneous CSs of different saliences are paired w an ucs (overshadowing).
What is stimulus generalization?
Learning that generalizes to similar stimuli. Similar stimulus to cs elicits the cr. Little Albert.
Mediated generalization..stimulus serves as connecting link between 2 stimuli that are never paired.
Ie. lt flash paired cheek tap that evoked eye blink. Eventually lt flash got eye blink. Then paired cheek tap w shock evoking finger wdrawl from flat surface. Reintro lt which evoked finger wdrawl even tho never paired. So lt evoked eye blink and eye blink evoked finger wdrawl.
Stimulus discrimination...able to distinguish between similar stimuli. Stimulus very similar doesn't elicit the cr. one reinforced evokes cr.
Habituation ...always involves us
Bcome used to us after repeated exposure. No longer get ur. Not possible w all us (ie extreme shock)
Define higher order conditioning vs sensory preconditioning vs blocking and backward blocking.
Higher order is when cs is established. Then pair that cs w another neutral stimulus until the latter elicits cr. what was cs fx as us. Only got to second order conditioning. Second response to cs always weaker.
Sensory preconditioning...two CSs paired during preconditioning. One is paired w us. If other is presented, it may exhibit same response due to pairing w other cs during preconditioning.
Blocking...after cs paired w us.
Second cs introduced. Block when first cs inhibits or blocks the learning of the second cs. Both CSs are paired w us in second phase (in higher order it is second cs only paired w first cs and not paired w us).
Backward blocking..cr to second stimulus is reduced.
Two CSs simultaneously paired w ucs. Only one continues to be paired w ucs.
What techniques are based on cc?
Based on counterconditioning?
Based on extinction?
Based on aversive conditioning?
Counterconditioning..pair undesirable behavior (anxiety) w incompatible adaptive behavior (relaxation). Also Call reciprocal inhibition.
Extinction..direct exposure to object elicits maladaptive response until it is gone.
For agoraphobia and OCD
Aversive conditioning..noxious stimulus paired w maladaptive behavior until that behavior elicits same aversive response as noxious stimulus.
In imagination (covert sensitization) person imagines engaging in target behavior and imagines aversive consequence for doing so.
...self injurious behaviors
Only when no aversive tx failed, integrity in jeapordy,and w competent tx. Review panel. Ct consent.
Research on covert sensitization suggests:
More effective for obesity, addiction
More effective for paraphillas
Unethical to supplement w actual aversion
B. best for paraphillas vs obesity and addiction. Best w supplement of actual aversive stimuli.
Aversion works best?
If part of natural environment
Pt encouraged to take self control
Aversion is combined w positive reinforcement of adaptive responses
Biologically appropriate aversive stimulus is used, especially in same mode as target behavior.
What is reciprocal inhibition?
What disorders does it effectively treat?
Anxiety is inhibited by a response, relaxation, that is reciprocal or incompatible with anxiety. Only difference from counterconditioning is that reciprocal inhibition holds that their is an underlying physiological mechanism...dominance of parasympathetic nervous system over sympathetic nervous system.
Sexual dysfx. Sensate focus
Widely used for specific phobia
Some say it is extinction and not counterconditioning that is the mechanism that accounts for it.
Assertiveness training (incompatible w anxiety; pair and can insert assertive for anxiety). Ie...
Behavioral rehearsal (hierarchy behaviors practiced w tx, feedback til part of responses)
Discuss the techniques based on extinction. Flooding and implosive therapy.
Discuss disadvantage of flooding and way to overcome it.
Differences between implosion and flooding.
Counterconditioning is cs wout us.
Elevator elevator elevator (no mugging) and fear goes away.
Flooding is called direct exposure w response prevention.
In vivo more effective. Fear overwhelming may start imagination.
Some may have paradoxical effect and show increased fear or anxiety due to flooding. Called incubation effect or paradoxical enhancement effect. Overcome w gradual exposure called graded exposure or graduated extinction. As effective and associated w decreased levels of generalized anxiety.
Implosive tx involves a psychoanalytic and behavioral component. Themes incorporated into imagery. Not necessary.
Implosive tx...always immediately expose to stimulus that evoked greatest amt of anxiety. Not gradual. Gradual flooding is called graded.
Implosive therapy is always covert or in the imagination
(Similar to imaginal flooding. Both based on extinction and both imagination )
In vivo flooding is more effective than imaginal.
Imaginal is more effective than invivo.
Brief exposure is more effective
Prolonged exposure is more effective.
What disorders tx by flooding or graded exposure?
Very effective for agoraphobia and OCD. Long term improvement for up to 75 % with in vivo.
Exposé to stimuli that elicit obsessions or compulsions and prevent engaging in.
Interoceptive exposure involves:
Exposure to feared stimuli
Exposure to accompanying stimuli in the environment
Structured and repeated exposure to panic like sx (hyperventilate).
What is another name for aversive conditioning?
How does it work?
Give example. Shock to rid of Shoe fetish. What is us, cs, cr?
What disorders does it treat?
Noxious stimuli (Antabuse) pair w stimuli (alcohol) associated w behavior (nausea). Eventually, avoidance will also come from noxious stimuli (alcohol will bring nausea)
Noxious stimulus is us..Antabuse
Target stimulus is cs ...alcohol
Trying to condition aversion
Aversion from Antabuse is ur
Aversion from alcohol is cr
Shock to rid of Shoe fetish...
Ucr. Shock aversion
Cr. shock aversion (less so)
Self injurious behaviors
Research suggests when systematic desensitization is used to tx agoraphobia w success, principle is;
Exposure to feared stimulus
D. Actually developed based on counterconditioning pair maladaptive w adaptive
Research shows exposure to feared stimulus is what makes it successful.
In aversive conditioning alcoholic, best to apply aversive stumulus
Immediate after drink
Immediately before drink
Some time after
Drinking is cs
Aversive stimuli is us
Optimal effectiveness in cc. Cs precedes and overlaps us. So best right after drink
Implosive and flooding both
Person is gradually exposed to feared object
Maladaptive response is extinguished
Exposure takes place in imagination
Who is important to operant conditioning?
What is operant?
Who is important to classical conditioning?
Thorndike and skinner
Skinner made the Skinner box so an animal could do a behavior and get a reward. Had a recording device to measure effectiveness.
Operant is voluntary behavior (respondent is reflexive and used in cc). Skinner measured by rate of responses during acquisition and total number of responses before extinction.
Classical conditioning is Pavlov and Watson!
Describe learned helplessness According to operant conditioning.
Re formulated model...
Compare to lewinsons model of depression.
Operant extinction re: depression.
Formerly successful behavior fails to produce expected reinforcers. Stop responding even if conditions change and can be successful. Also if reinforcement continues but is unpredictable. Can't tell what responses will work. Learned helplessness.
Reformulated model says depressed ppl blame themselves for bad outcomes which reduces self esteem and consider their attributions to be global And stable.
Lewinsohns behavioral model says depression due to low rate of responsive contingent positive reinforcement. Low rate of reinforcement results in low rate of social and other behaviors. So has deficits in skills that can produce positive reinforcement or minimize negative outcomes. As depressed then less active, expresses fewer behaviors, further limits opportunity and gets heightened negative self awareness leads to criticism and wdrawl. Negative feedback loop when social network is mobilized.
Decisions about reinforcement and punishment ...must know.
Target behavior is always a behavior.
Ask self if subject being brought to a more desirable state? If yes..increase likely do again. If not, then punishment.
Positive reinforcement...add something to increase behavior.
Negative reinforcement...remove something to increase behavior.
RELIEF. Nagging. After target behavior something annoying or aversive is removed.
Positive punishment..add something to decrease behavior.
PAIN. After target behavior, something aversive is added.
Ie. jump on couch get slapped (add). Decreased jumping.
Ie. spanking, humiliation
Negative punishment..remove something to decrease behavior.
Ie. jump on couch lose tv
Time out, response cost, late penalties, loss privilege
Ie. take aspirin due to headache
Take aspirin (target).
Headache removed so negative
Will repeat behavior so reinforcement.
Ask...did I get rewarded?
Ie. go to gym and lose 10 lbs
This is relief. Negative reinforcement. Gym (target).
Lost 10 (remove). Keep going..reinf
Ie. headache, take aspirin, go Er for allergic rx
Add allergic rx
Not repeat behavior.
1. Two behaviors reinforced separately. One extinguished and other increases in frequency.
2. Reinforcer that gets value through pairings with primary reinforcers. Value through experience.
3. When remove reinforcer there will be a temporary increase in behavior before it decreases.
4. Without any reinforcement, there is an increase in behavior after a period of extinctions. Occurs upon the next extinction session.
5. Reinforcer that is inherently reinforcing. Food, water, sex.
1. Behavioral contrast
2. Secondary reinforcer. Also, if paired w many types of primary reinforcers then generalized attractiveness over many types of responses. Generalized secondary reinforcers or generalized conditioned reinforcers. Like money which can get ya other things. Tokens.
3. Response burst
4. Spontaneous recovery
5. Primary reinforcer
Describe reinforcement schedules:
Variable ratio: varying number of responses. Unpredictable.
Highest resistance to extinction
Highest rate of responding and constant.
Fixed ratio: respond set no responses. Response rate moderate to hi. May pause after reinforcement ESP if large ratio.
Variable interval: respond after unpredictable pd of time.
Respond moderate rate wout pause.
Fixed interval: respond fixed time period no matter number of responses.
Lowest rate of responding
Lowest resistance to extinction.
Most scalloped profile...respond more closer to anticipated reward
Good for Xmas
Fixed has more predictable profiles
Ratio most resistant to extinction
Variable steadiest rate of responding.
What is the matching law in operant conditioning?
When two or more reinforcement opportunities are available, the rate of responding of each will be proportional to the level of reinforcement.
Shown in a study with 3 point shots. Predicted by number of shots scored.
Escape conditioning is:
Based on negative reinforcement
Based on mowers two factory theory
Requires action to free from aversive stimulus
Very resistant to extinction
3. Requires action that allows pp to escape aversive stimulus (neg reinforcer)
1 is also true
Ie terminate shock in floor by pecking lever.
Ie. torture stops when give info in spy movie.
The other two have to do w avoidance conditioning.
Avoidance conditioning is based on classical conditioning and negative reinforcement as noted by mowers two factor theory:
Various behaviors, situations etc. are persistently avoided due to cc (pair w aversive stimuli)
Avoidance responses are negatively reinforced by termination of fear or anxiety ea time avoided
Ie poisen ivy from certain place will avoid for long time
These behaviors are very resistant to extinction.
Phobias learned this way
Discriminative stimulus or stimulus control is:
1.Stimulus that signals reinforcement
2.Stimulus that doesn't signal reinforcement
3. Emit target behavior in presence of stimuli similar but not exactly same
4.A behavior that is similar but not identical to one previously reinforced.
1. Discriminative stimulus
Learn to discriminate between situations in which reinforcement will be forthcoming and those that won't
2. S delta. Reinforcement will not take place. (S delete!)
3. Stimulus generalization. Greater similarity between the two stimuli or situations, more likely will occur. Ppl w PTSD show fear for many types of similar stimuli.
4. Response generalization
This is only a operant term. Not in cc.
FYI mediated generalization is a special case of stimulus generalization in which a response is elicited by stimuli not physically similar to cs and not previously encountered in conditioning.
What are prompting and fading?
Promting is cueing the subject about what to perform. Over time gradually reduces prompts or fades.
Prompting used in successive approximations
Sequence of desired behavior by reinforcing (secondary reinforcer)the nature of the previous response. Given response is both a reinforcer for behavior preceded of and a
Cue or discriminative stimulus that the next behavior in the chain will be reinforced.
Skinner used to learn complex behaviors.
Backward chaining...begin w last behavior in the to be learned sequence of behaviors and work backward. Ie. teach kid to put on pants. Teach pull to waist as first step. Master and then go to next.
Shaping or method of successive approximations includes response generalization. This outcome is one simple behavior (vs chaining has complex series of independent behaviors; each link in the chain must be maintained for behavior to occur). In shaping...once learn final behavior the successive approximations are no longer necessary or reinforced.
What are the factors that effect reinforcement?
1. Pos reinf most successful if reinforcement available only after target behavior is done.
2. Shorter interval between beh and reinf, more effective. Immediate
3. Acquisition quickest w continuous reinforcement. Maintenance is maximized w intermittent schedule.
4. Verbal clarification of relationship of behavior and delivery of reinforcement increases effectiveness of reinf, as do verbal and physical prompts
5. Up to pt, greater magnitude of reinforcer, greater effectiveness. Satiation can occur.
What factors effect punishment?
Reminder that punishment behavior returns to baseline when removed. Punishment suppresses behavior but not completely eliminate it.
1. Best if extreme and continual.
2. Sooner delivered, better. Best right at pt behavior begins
3. Best if consistently applied.
4. Best w verbal clarification re punishment and behavior trying to eliminate. Warning cue increases effectiveness.
5. Max effectiveness withhold reinforcers for target behavior while being punished. Not doing target behavior, alternate behaviors should be reinforced.
6. Ineffective if progressively increase magnitude of punishment. Max intensity at outset. Otherwise habituation will hamper effectiveness. Habituation requires a larger stimulus to achieve previous level of responsiveness.
Behavior learned thru avoidance conditioning eliminated by:
A. Must expose to feared response wout original us. Flooding
What are the techniques based on reinforcement.
Shaping or method if approximate associations. Often w autism.
Premack principle or probability differential theory or grandmas rule.
Hi probability behavior to reinforce lo probability behavior
First work then play.
What techniques are based on punishment and extinction?
Time out..cut off positive reinforcers for short pd of time.
Extinction...remove from reinforcers
Punishment..the isolation is an aversive stimulus
Designed to eliminate undesirable and promote alternative ones.
Correct negative behavior and repeat and exaggerate practice if an appropriate one. Practice component of over correction. Ie. mr child pick up broken pieces and exaggerated play nice w new toy properly.
Response cost...neg punishment
Remove pre specified rewards ea time.
Tv away, pay late fee
One of more effective w neg punishment. Found more effective than physical punishment or social disapproval for teaching sociopaths avoidance task.
Fewer side effects than they aversive techniques.
Differential reinforcement of other behaviors operant and + reinf
Extinction (nonreiforcement) of target behavior and reinforcement of all others but target.
Differential reinf for low frequency behaviors and differ reinf for incompatible behaviors
What has contingency contracting been used to treat?
What are the necessary components?
Contract must be informative about tx strategies and expected outcomes
Explicitly defines rewards for goals, sanctions for failing to meet
Behaviors can be monitored
Has statement from ct they will participate fully.
What is a token economy and
Structured environments use these.
Tokens as reinforcers for target behavior. Response cost often involved. In other words undesirable behaviors are punished thru token fines.
Identification of target behaviors
Exchange system w back up reinforcers that exchanged for and rate of exchange.
Allow individual select back up reinf so maximizes value
Allow immediate and easy delivery
Less susceptible to satiation like primary reinforcers
Don't generalize to other environment. Can gradually switch reinforcers to something will be available and reinforce only beh can be reinforced in natural environment
Kohler is associated with:
Learning how to learn
A. Sudden learning due to a cognitive restructuring of environment.
Sultan had a ha experience. Put sticks together and allowed to achieve goal. Some trial and error experience with sticks was needed. Moment of insight was immediate.
Tolmans cognitive learning theory contended:
Learning can occur immediately
Learning is an acquisition of cognitive structure or a cognitive map.
Learning due to connection of behavior with a specific stimulus.
Learning occurs when one watches a model.
B. believed rat learned the layout of the maze (not a series of movements in response to specific stimuli)
Trained rats to swim maze w goal box. Wout water they ran wo errors.
Place learning occurred. This underlies latent learning or learning that occurs wout reinforcement and does not immediately manifest in performance.
Rats in 3 rd grp. Maze wout food then food introduced. W food learning increased big time. So displayed map when had motivation to do so. Reinforcement not nec for learning.
What does social learning theory postulate as important?
Connect behavior to stimuli
Environmental consequences needed
Cognitive mediational processes
C. Influence of stimuli and reinforcement on behavior is largely determined by cognitive processes. This decides what environmental influences are attended to and how perceived and interpreted.
Underlies observational learning. Watch model and imitate. External reinforcement not nec or cause of why imitate.
What are the four mechanisms in banduras theory?
Attentional..decide who imitate
Retentional.. Process modeled beh in memory, remember what see and hear
performance...what modeled concepts express
Reinforcement. Motivation. What attend to, rehearse, what express...
Anticipation of reinforcement (a cognitive activity) in the future not doing a behavior bc reinforced in the past.
Graded participant modeling slowly engage in tx modeled technique..bandura thought more effective than simple modeling. Behavior can be reinforcing in itself. Successful performance of a behavior can increase ones self efficacy or feeling of pride, accomplishment,...
Hi status models more likely modeled than lo status ones.
Imitation more likely when model perceived as similar and when multiple models are used.
In other words, models who were hi status, nurturant, and same sex as observer more likely to be imitated.
Discuss harlows research on curiosity and learning sets.
Research showed monkeys will solve a complicated puzzle for intrinsic reward. If later given extrinsic reward, lose interest in solving wout the extrinsic rewards.
Monkeys motivated by visual curiosity. More interesting scene, more rapid the learning. So reinforcers may include things like need to explore and manipulate.
Found experience w certain types of problems enables an individual to solve similar kinds of probs more efficiently. Learning how to learn. This process depends on experiences and transferring these experiences to other situations. What is learned is a learning set or strategy.
What is the difference between satiation and habituation?
Satiation is a operant conditioning term. When a primary reinforcer loses its value from being presented too much.
Habituation is a cc term when subject gets used to ucs and no longer reacts to it.
What is banduras concept of reciprocal determinism?
Personal factors (cognition, affect, and bio events), behavior, and environmental influences create intx that result in triadic reciprocity. Each influences the other and regulates behavior.
In general, bandura believes cognition plays a critical role.
What is a discriminative stimulus in operant conditioning?
A cue or contextual feature that signals whether or not reinforcement is available for a particular operant behavior.
Ie. out of order sign in vending machine cues not to use it.
What did hull say influenced learning?
Due to strength of learning habit
Due to motivation
Biological factors biol prepared
Behaviors learned due to conflicts like approach-avoidance.
Hull posited the drive reduction theory. Behavior is fx of strength of learning habit (conditioning) and motivation or level of drive (hunger, thirst...)
So 1,2 together. Drive level is the motivation for learning. Ie. hungry rat runs faster to food then a full one.
The desire to reduce the drive motivates learning.
What did miller and dollard find regarding aggression and behavior?
1. Frustration always comes before hostility
2. Psychopathic sx are learned behaviors.
3. Aggression is expressed directly or displaced if learn direct expression is a problem.
4. Learned responses or coping responses are developed to reduce the drive. Reduction of drive is reward. Includes neurotic and psychotic disorders. Ie. sx allow escape from original fear and reinforce sx behavior.
5. Drives have two categories. One is approach and another avoidance.
All of the above
The drives to approach and to avoid the situation are called gradients.
Gradients depend on the goal. Closer to goal, more intense the drive.
Avoidance gradient is stronger than the approach gradient.
Behavior can't be divided into simply instinctual and learned but on how much it is influenced by genetics. 4 levels of susceptibility.
Give examples to
Somewhat..learn to avoid pain, pick healthy food
Contra prepared..diff due to genetics. Ie. dog learning not to bark
What did Olds find in regards to conditioning through self stimulation?
There is an optimal level of arousal to learn
Reward centers are in the hypothalamus
Behavior can't be divided into biological or environmental alone
Medial forebrain bundle in lateral hypothalamus most effective for getting rats to self stimulate an electrical stimulation (vs eating). This reward center closely parallels the norepinephrine tracts. Possible that release if be is associated w well being, elation...
Yerkes Dodson law:
Optimal level of arousal for learning and performing any task
Higher levels of arousal most appropriate for simple tasks
Lower levels of arousal optimal for complex tasks
Moderate levels of arousal are generally associated w optimal learning.
Inverted u relationship
Inverted u..increases arousal is associated w better learning performance to pt. Past that arousal decreases learning and performance.
In other words, moderate levels of arousal tend to be associated w best performance while extremely hi and lo levels tend to be associated w worst performance.
Behavioral assessment which posits a personality is a repertoire of behaviors (modified w in a given range depending on environmental contingencies) and focuses on specific behaviors vs traditional assessments that look at underlying traits. What we observe is the personality. What is this model called and how does it work?
ABC model has 3 steps
Called functional analysis..find functional relationships between the phases.
Antecedents or situations behavior typically occurs
Behaviors ...specific responses or response enumeration phase
Consequences ..how adaptive or maladaptive the responses are. Called response evaluation.
What is the name of Ebbinhaus' method regarding memory?
What was a finding in this area?
Savings method or method of relearning.
Measure of speed of relearning a list. Amt of time it takes to learn a second time.
Found that original over learning or repeating the list beyond min criteria resulted in a savings not both time and errors upon relearning.
Said for nature of forgetting...
Initial drop off followed by
Slower forgetting over time.
63 % remember After 20 mins.
38%. Remember after 1 day
31% after 2 days
25% after 31 days
What is the multistory model of memory?
Divides memory up into
Sensory. Retain info 2 to 3 sec. Fading sensory input. echoic (auditory). Iconic store is unprocessed visual picture retained at retina level.
Short term or working memory...holding place before to lt or lost. Chunking or grouping large amounts of info into smaller units. Use rapid verbal repetition of to be remembered info to facilitate maintaining it in working memory. Articulatory loop.
5 to 9 piece capacity
Long term..may have 3 parts
Procedural, episodic, semantic
Unlimited capacity. Gets to LTM via elaborative rehearsal (thinking about the meaning of new information and its relation to info already in memory)
Describe the 3 components of ltm.
Procedural memory..how to do things. Learned via observation, practice. Difficult to forget.
Semantic..knowledge about language, Common sense knowledge, and rules of logic and inference.
Episodic memory or autobiographical. Info about events personally experienced.
How are memories retrieved! Difference between explicit and implicit memory.
Explicit memories (declarative). are retrieved w an awareness of remembering and seen by directly testing memory.
Semantic and episodic memory.
Implicit memory are retrieved w out cs effort or even awareness. Skills and conditioned responses.
Equate w procedural memory.
What is the serial position effect?
Remembering words from the beginning of a recall list best
Remembering words from the end of the recall list beat
Remembering words from the middle best
Remembering words from beginning and the end best
Supports STM and LTM distinction
Words at beginning are transferred to ltm (even if distract they will recall) and words at end are still in STM (distract then don't remember).
Middle words effected by interference and not stored in either place.
Eg. Remember alphabet
What makes a flashbulb memory?
Emotionally charged or surprising event.
Involve specific people, places or things and occurred at a specific time.
Most accurate when personal significance or consequences.
Do fade. Ppl express certainty about their fading memories.
Difference between anterograde and retrograde amnesia.
Retrograde..can't remember prior to trauma. Ie. accident caused trauma
Anterograde amnesia..can't remember new info. Remember prior info. Can't remember what happened after trauma. Can't transfer info from STM to LtM.
Both may be signs of disease, brain trauma, substance use.
Concussion...moderate degree of retrograde amnesia (immediately before memory loss). Extreme retrograde amnesia is rarer and more serious sign than loss of anterograde amnesia.
Neurologically impaired...When have retrograde usually have anterograde. Reverse not necessarily true.
Pseudodementia., dissociative amnesia....sx is retrograde but not anterograde.. Lack of physiological etiology.
What is a mnemonic device?
1. Cognitive structures or mental models that affect how we store and retrieve info.
2. Device that improves memory
3. Mental picture of object once it has been removed.
2. Ie method of loci...associate ea item w mental images of places. Help remember things in order.
3. Eidetic imagery...photographic memory. More common in kids.
1. Schema theory of memory...memory filtered through schemas and may be biased.
What does the encoding specificity hypothesis state? Also called encoding retrieval interaction.
1. Practice or rehearse beyond point of mastery.
2. Closer relationship of encoding, storage, and retrieval, better recall.
3. Different environments helps the encoding process
4. Angry when learn and angry when you retieve.
1. Over learning...good when learning something w little meaning like multiplication. Best for simple tasks
3. Recall better when environments are same of similar. Called context dependence. Example of it.
4. State dependence is emotional state is same during learning and retrieval. Remember better.
Also have physical state (if learn under influence and test same way)
Sensory modality (learn verbal answer verbal better)
What are the theories of forgetting?
Decay or disuse...not proven except for from STM.
Competing information..either proactive interference..previous learned info causes forgetting of new info. Learn Spanish. Learn French and Spanish words come up when trying to learn French.
Retroactive interference..newly learned info causes forgetting of recently learned info. Only occurs in waking life. Sleep after learn retain better.
Learn Spanish. Learn French. Learning French caused u to forget Spanish.
Dynamically motivated repression
Possible to forget and later recall trauma . Not a true loss of info
What is the misinformation effect and what are the factors associated with it? (4)
Incorporate incorrect or inaccurate info, received after event into memory of the event.
Combo of. Actual memories w content of suggestions from other sources (others who were there, overhear, media...)
The discrepancy detection principle according to loftus susceptibility is inversely related to ability to notice discrepancies. Greater susceptibility:
Passage of time..lowers ability to detect and more impairing effect of misleading info gets stronger; more easily modified when fading
Retention. Times...longer decreases memory performance.
Timing of reporting/testing...do worse if mislead rt before testing (vs right after witness)
Age..young children more susceptible than older children and adults. Elderly more susceptible than young adults.
Reisitance to post event suggestion greatest if strong, accurate memory.
Memory performance improves w consistent info and probability of misinfo effect is reduced if aware post info info may not be right. Inform them it may be misleading before they get info, increases vigilance and discrepancies will be spotted.
Give term w type of attention:
1. Automatic attraction of attention to and among others . Sudden appearance of a stimulus. Bottom up. Controlled by external stimulus presentation. Not under subjects control.
2.direct and focus cog activity on specific stimuli over extended pd.
3. Focus on more than one event simultaneously.
4. Difficulty to perceive major changes to unattended parts of a visual image when changes intro during brief interruptions in presentation of image.
5. Focus on one event while filtering or ignoring irrelevant. Ie. focus on speaker in noisy room.
6. Part of selective attention when focused on convo and unaware of another, mention of ur name immediately gets attention.
7. Top down attentional effort. Under persons control. Ie. focus on instruction
1. Exogenous attention
2. Sustained attention
3. Divided attention.
4. Change blindness
5. Selective attention
6. Cocktail party phenomenon
7. Endogenous attention
What is feature integration theory?
1. Thinking about thinking
3. Perceive object as entire entity
1. Meta cognition or knowing about knowing. Awareness of own cognitive state and process.
Develop early teens or later
Mnemonics, eval own cognitive skills, how much info have and need...
2. Chunk or move info between working and ltm so efficiently that entails virtually no attention. Developed thru over learning.
Adv: long term retention, robust under Stress, low effort performance.
Disadv. Extended training, long time to acquire, little memory modification or new learning, individual components relatively inaccessible to cs, separate parts diff to explain or analyze, automatic behaviors hard to suppress or modify.
3. Correct! Focused visual attention is what allows us to perceive an object as entire entity vs meaningless cluster of features. Features of objects are processed rapidly and at same time and doesn't require focused visual attention. But perception of an object does require serial or one to one processing and needs focused visual attention to integrate features into a whole.
In an approach avoidance conflict, organism is likely to:
Distance self from the goal
Attempt to attain goal, despite negative consequences
Attempt to find equilibrium point between approach and avoidance
Attempt to find equilibrium close to goal since the approach gradient is much stronger than the avoidance gradient.
D wrong because the avoidance gradient is stronger
Mowers two factor theory has been proposed to explain avoidance behavior. 2 factors:
Escape conditioning and negative reinforcement
Avoidance conditioning and negative reinforcement
Avoidance conditioning and positive reinforcement
Escape conditioning and positive reinforcement.
B. avoidance explained by
Individual learns to avoid stimuli that have been paired w aversive consequences
Avoidance behavior is maintained bc reinforced by termination of anxiety. Neg reinf.