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A dad nods when his kid is learning to tie shoes. Example of:
1. Discriminative stimulus
2. Primary reinforcer
3. Secondary reinforcer
4. Generalized conditioned reinforcer

3. Secondary reinforcers aquire reinforcing value only thru experience.

Primary...reinforcers everyone of all ages and cultures experience, like food.

Generalized conditioned reinforcers like $$ or tokens take on reinforcing value bc give access to other reinforcers.

Discriminative stimulus..signals if reinforcement or punishment will be given.


Teacher reward students for reading certain number of books with time frame. They read but no more and say enjoyment diminished. This explained by:
1. Behavioral contrast
2. Over justification
3. Satiation
4. Premack principle

2. Over justification....ppl reinforced for behaviors would do wo reinforcement. Reinforcement taken away, often decrease in behavior. Ppl look to environment to explain their behavior. When reinforced attribute behavior to that vs intrinsic motivation.

Behavioral contrast..2 behaviors reinforced and reinforcement for one discontinues. unreinforced diminishes and reinforced increases.

All operant concepts


Who introduced the concept of instrumental learning?
1. Thorndike
2. Pavlov
3. Tolman
4. Kohler

1. Term for operant conditioning associated with thorns ole and skinner. Law of effect..repeat behaviors that have positive consequences. Later revised re: negative consequences saying they may or may not decrease behavior.


Gradual decrease in ur due to repeated presentation with us is:

1. Classical extinction
2. Satiation
3. Habituation
4. Operant extinction

3. Habituation is cc concept. Repeatedly exposed to ucs and then ur eventually decreases.

Cc Extinction cs wo ucs

Satiation is operant term...reinforcer loses value over time.
Operant extinction ..with hold reinforcement for previously reinforced behavior. Ie stop pay attention to bad behavior, it will decrease.


As compared to a person on a variable interval schedule, a person on a variable ratio schedule:
A. Will respond at a fairly low rate.
B. will show brief post reinforcement pauses
C. Can better predict when reinforcement will take place
D.will have his or her behavior show greater resistance to extinction

D. VR. Most resistant to extinction


From operant learning perspective, it is best to manage a kids tantrums by:
1. Positive punishment
2. Negative reinforcement
3. Extinction
4. Shaping

3. Withhold attention or other reinforcement.

1. Entails pain or aversive stimulus


Response cost is an example of:
A. Negative reinforcement
B. negative punishment
C. Positive punishment
D. Operant extinction

Lose something for misbehavior. Take away is negative to decrease behavior is punishment

Neg reinforcement...remove aversive to increase behavior

Pos punishment..apply aversive to decrease behavior

Operant extinction...with hold reinforcement for previously reinforced behavior


Student is disruptive. Teacher a. Teachers yelling is under the control of:
Positive reinforcement
Negative reinforcement
Positive punishment
Negative punishment

Neg reinforcement

Teachers yelling. Is something added or removed after yelling? Removed. So does the yelling continue or stop? Likely increase.


Hold classically conditioned to be afraid of white rat. Now afraid of white rabbits. This is:
Response generalization
Mediated generalization
Avoidance behavior
Skinners conditioning

Mediated is stimulus generalization
Rat is cs
Fear response stayed same
Phobias involve stimulus generalization


What is the difference between higher order conditioning, stimulus generalization, pseudo conditioning?

Higher order..pair cs w another neutral stimulus that is typically unrelated. Deliberate pairing. New stimulus usually different from previous stimuli.

Stimulus generalization...generalizing from the cs to other neutral stimuli. Response to similar stimulus is not intentionally trained. No pairing! The response just happened. Stimuli is similar.

Pseudo conditioning ...response is elicited to a neutral stimulus that had not been paired w an ucs. May be due to inadvertent pairings


Mom nags kid take out trash.
Positive reinforcement
Positive punishment
Negative reinforcement
Negative punishment

3. Once take out mom stops nagging. This is the removal of an aversive stimulus in an attempt to increase behavior. Negative reinforcement is a form of relief...


What schedule of reinforcement is hardest to extinguish?

Variable ratio


Definition of learning:
Result of maturation, disease
Permanent change in potential performance or behavior due to experience
Change due to adaptation
Result of active participation, not necessarily cs

B, d


Identify thorndikes laws:
1. Response occurs often enough in presence of a particular stimuli will become more likely to be repeated in presence of that stimulus.

2. Act has satisfying consequences. This pleasure becomes associated w other acts that occur approximately at the same time.

3. Organism must be ready to perform an act before performing it can be satisfying.

4. Responses accompanied by satisfaction will be repeated. Those accompanied by discomfort will not be repeated.

1. Law of exercise . Exercise strengthens the effect of satisfiers but not sufficient enough to produce learning.
2. Law of spread of effect. Minor law.
3. Law of readiness. Allowed not to do it when not ready is also satisfying. Forced when not ready is annoying or not allowed to do act when ready was seen as annoying.
4. Law of effect...greater the satisfaction or discomfort, the greater strengthening or weakening of bond. Precursor to skinners reinforcement.


What is the concept of identical elements that thorndike proposed?
Transfer of training is general
Transfer of training increases as the similarity of the stimulus/constructs and response elements/techniques in the training and performance environments increase.
Transfer of training is specific
Transfer of training is based on similarity of concepts.

B. contrary to formal discipline which was a popular construct saying practice or formal studying strengthens intellectual fx such as reasoning and judgement. They thought this training could be transferred.

In other words...new learning is facilitated by previous learning only to the extent that new learning contains elements identical to those in previous or the amt of transfer is determined by the number of elements the two situations have in common.
Research shows identical elements improves transfer of training for verbal and motor tasks
Psychological similarity (perceived similar meanings in training and performance environments) has been shown to be more important than physical similarity.

C and d are subsumed in the answer.


Whose work marked the beginning of animal experimentation?
Who is known As the father of modern behaviorism?

D. Published Animal Intelligence
Studied learning behavior if cats using puzzle boxes. Simple act allowed them to escape. Trail and error learning. This was similar to Darwin's adaptive selection.

B. he introduced term behaviorism in 1912 in a lecture. Believed in observable, measurable behaviors. Born w reflexes and learning is result of cc. Little Albert study. Differences in experiences alone
Can account for behavior differences. Radical behaviorism.


Which illustrates thorndike a law of effect?
Child forced to take piano is not as good as child who wishes to learn.
Child gets money to play plays more often then the kid who gets no money.
Child who plays in his den prefers to play there compared to anywhere
Child gets money to play learns to enjoy tv since he usually has tv on at the same time he is playing the piano.

A. Law of readiness
B. law of effect
C. Law of exercise
D. Spread of effect

FYI law of effect eventually eliminated the negative...punishment does not necessarily decrease behavior.


Match a term w concept:

Respondent behavior that is learned and appears following a conditioned stimulus.

Process of pairing a neutral stimulus cs w a stimulus that naturally evokes a response us until the cs elicits same response as us.

Previously neutral stimulus that thru repeated pairings w ucs elicits the same respondent behavior (cr) when applied alone. Ie. bell

Conditioned to discriminate between different stimuli. If one reinforced and other is not, only reinforced stimulus will evoke cr

Create a sequence of desired behaviors by means of reinforcing nature of previous response. Response can be a reinforcer for behavior preceded it and a cue for next in chain. Skinner used this to learn complex behaviors.

Unusual behavior that occurs when an organism is forced to undergo a difficult discrimination task.

Cr is artifact of the conditioning situation. Response does not occur outside the learning situation, even if cs present. So respond to all the cues in the room instead of the cs us pairing. False conditioning. Accidental pairing.

1. CR

2. Cc or respondent conditioning

3. Cs

4. Stimulus discrimination

5. Chaining

6. Experimental neurosis

7. Pseudo conditioning


Define types of cs us sequences:


Which is most effective?

Temporal relationship in cc is important. .5 seconds is optimal time interval.

Simultaneous...cs and us presented at the same time.
Delayed..cs precedes and overlaps us. Strongest and most rapidly aquired..
Trace..cs presented and terminated prior to us.
Backward...us presented first.usually no conditioning.sensitization issue to all cues and may look like it worked (pseudo conditioning). Least effective.

Cr not identical no matter which one. Cr less intense than ur in quality and quantity.


Extinction in cc is:
Tone tone tone...no meat powder.
Flooding...exposé cs wout us. Eventually not afraid. No phobia.

Cs repeatedly presented wout ucs.

2. When no longer respond to cs. Response reappears, weaker, if cs readministered.

Two cs's presented together and followed by ucs. More salient cs is more strongly conditioned than a less salient cs.

4. Repeated exposure of us.

1. extinction...So bell wout ever putting w ucs will lose power. Some reinforcement is necessary to maintain conditioning.

2. Spontaneous recovery...suggests extinguished response is not forgotten but just inhibited or suppressed.

3. Overshadowing...the extinction of responding to the more salient (overshadowing) cs sometimes produces increased cr strength to less salient cs.

4. Habituation getting used to something. Repeated highway noise at night keeps ya awake. Eventually get used to it and sleep more.


What is cue deflation effect?

Extinction of a response to one cue leads to an increased reaction to the other conditioned stimulus.

Sometimes occurs in a situation where two simultaneous CSs of different saliences are paired w an ucs (overshadowing).


What is stimulus generalization?

Mediated generalization?

Stimulus discrimination?


Learning that generalizes to similar stimuli. Similar stimulus to cs elicits the cr. Little Albert.

Mediated generalization..stimulus serves as connecting link between 2 stimuli that are never paired.
Ie. lt flash paired cheek tap that evoked eye blink. Eventually lt flash got eye blink. Then paired cheek tap w shock evoking finger wdrawl from flat surface. Reintro lt which evoked finger wdrawl even tho never paired. So lt evoked eye blink and eye blink evoked finger wdrawl.

Stimulus discrimination...able to distinguish between similar stimuli. Stimulus very similar doesn't elicit the cr. one reinforced evokes cr.

Habituation ...always involves us
Bcome used to us after repeated exposure. No longer get ur. Not possible w all us (ie extreme shock)


Define higher order conditioning vs sensory preconditioning vs blocking and backward blocking.

Higher order is when cs is established. Then pair that cs w another neutral stimulus until the latter elicits cr. what was cs fx as us. Only got to second order conditioning. Second response to cs always weaker.

Sensory preconditioning...two CSs paired during preconditioning. One is paired w us. If other is presented, it may exhibit same response due to pairing w other cs during preconditioning.

Blocking...after cs paired w us.
Second cs introduced. Block when first cs inhibits or blocks the learning of the second cs. Both CSs are paired w us in second phase (in higher order it is second cs only paired w first cs and not paired w us).

Backward blocking..cr to second stimulus is reduced.
Two CSs simultaneously paired w ucs. Only one continues to be paired w ucs.


What techniques are based on cc?

Based on counterconditioning?

Based on extinction?

Based on aversive conditioning?

Counterconditioning..pair undesirable behavior (anxiety) w incompatible adaptive behavior (relaxation). Also Call reciprocal inhibition.
...systematic desensitization
...sensate focus
...assertiveness training

Extinction..direct exposure to object elicits maladaptive response until it is gone.

...implosive tx
For agoraphobia and OCD

Aversive conditioning..noxious stimulus paired w maladaptive behavior until that behavior elicits same aversive response as noxious stimulus.
In imagination (covert sensitization) person imagines engaging in target behavior and imagines aversive consequence for doing so.
....substance dependence
...self injurious behaviors
Only when no aversive tx failed, integrity in jeapordy,and w competent tx. Review panel. Ct consent.


Research on covert sensitization suggests:
More effective for obesity, addiction
More effective for paraphillas
Unethical to supplement w actual aversion

B. best for paraphillas vs obesity and addiction. Best w supplement of actual aversive stimuli.


Aversion works best?
If part of natural environment
Pt encouraged to take self control
Aversion is combined w positive reinforcement of adaptive responses
Biologically appropriate aversive stimulus is used, especially in same mode as target behavior.



What is reciprocal inhibition?

What disorders does it effectively treat?


Anxiety is inhibited by a response, relaxation, that is reciprocal or incompatible with anxiety. Only difference from counterconditioning is that reciprocal inhibition holds that their is an underlying physiological mechanism...dominance of parasympathetic nervous system over sympathetic nervous system.

Treats phobias
Sexual dysfx. Sensate focus
Widely used for specific phobia

Some say it is extinction and not counterconditioning that is the mechanism that accounts for it.

Other uses:
Assertiveness training (incompatible w anxiety; pair and can insert assertive for anxiety). Ie...
Behavioral rehearsal (hierarchy behaviors practiced w tx, feedback til part of responses)


Discuss the techniques based on extinction. Flooding and implosive therapy.

Discuss disadvantage of flooding and way to overcome it.

Differences between implosion and flooding.

Counterconditioning is cs wout us.
Elevator elevator elevator (no mugging) and fear goes away.

Flooding is called direct exposure w response prevention.

In vivo more effective. Fear overwhelming may start imagination.

Some may have paradoxical effect and show increased fear or anxiety due to flooding. Called incubation effect or paradoxical enhancement effect. Overcome w gradual exposure called graded exposure or graduated extinction. As effective and associated w decreased levels of generalized anxiety.

Implosive tx involves a psychoanalytic and behavioral component. Themes incorporated into imagery. Not necessary.
Implosive tx...always immediately expose to stimulus that evoked greatest amt of anxiety. Not gradual. Gradual flooding is called graded.

Implosive therapy is always covert or in the imagination
(Similar to imaginal flooding. Both based on extinction and both imagination )


Research shows:
In vivo flooding is more effective than imaginal.
Imaginal is more effective than invivo.
Brief exposure is more effective
Prolonged exposure is more effective.

Pick 2.

What disorders tx by flooding or graded exposure?

1, 4

Very effective for agoraphobia and OCD. Long term improvement for up to 75 % with in vivo.

Exposé to stimuli that elicit obsessions or compulsions and prevent engaging in.


Interoceptive exposure involves:
Exposure to feared stimuli
Exposure to accompanying stimuli in the environment
Structured and repeated exposure to panic like sx (hyperventilate).