Flashcards in School Psych Deck (26)
Which affected the use of selection tests?
Larry p vs riles
Debra vs turlington
Griggs vs duke power
Hobson vs Hansen
3. Certain tests like the wonderlic are unfair to make decisions about hiring and promotion. Required to test specific not general skills.
1...intelligence testing unfairly discriminated against minorities
Brown vs board of education, Supreme Court ruled racial segregation. Of public school kids is violation of fourteenth amendment. Used folks to identify harm on kids due to segregation. Who did tests?
B. John David
C. Kenneth Clark
D. Linda brown
C. Case on behalf of Linda brown a black girl from Kansas. Marshall was NAACP council. Davis was defendant...schools. Clark did tests.
Match theories of intelligence with theorist:
A. 7 primary abilities
B. general and specific factor unique to the question at hand
C. 120 separate abilities
D. Crystallized and fluid intelligence
E. viewed as a global capacity
F. Inherited trait distributed normally in the population
G. Theory of multiple intelligences
H. Tri archaic model of 3 intersecting aspects: componential, experiential, practical.
A. Thurstone..ie. word fluency, memory, reasoning, spatial relat.
B. spearman 2 factor theory;
Perf on cognitive task is g + one or more specific factors unique to task.
C. guildford. Structure of intellect model; divergent and convergent
D. Cattell. Fluid (effected by age; solve problems, reasoning) vs crystallized (aquired; stable over time)
E. wechsler..measure different ways intelligence manifests itself (vs different kinds of intelligence).
F. Galton---measurement of individual differences. Distributed like height/normally in population.
G. Gardner..simultaneous and complementary intelligences that included real life stuff and all needed. Used in schools.
Infant intelligence tests:
A. Correlate with later iq scores
B. give score only for that age
C. Useful as a screening method
D. Demonstrate genetics contribution to intelligence.
C correct! Screens for high risk infants. Not effective in predicting future intelligence.
Some long term prediction for very low scoring infants
Match test with name:
A. Assess infant/early development
B. military or industry grp intelligence test
C. Tailored to needs/values of certain culture
D. Hierarchical model of intelligence w g on too and general verbal and nonverbal groupings of subtests in the middle, specific tests on the bottom.
E. dx mental retardation
F. Nonverbal tests of intelligence
G. Measure an innate capacity for future learning is a specific area
H. Measures what has already been learned
A. Developmental scales; bayley
C. Culture free or fair tests
D. Stanford Binet
E. adaptive behavior tests; Vineland
F. Nonverbal tests of intelligence; Peabody picture vocab test ravens matrices
G. Aptitude tests
H. Achievement tests
Genetics and environment:
Genetics trumps environment
Environment trumps genetics
Intelligence is intx of the two
Research says diff on std iq attributes each at about 50%
In general, the greater the genetic similarity, the higher the correlation between iq scores.
Heritability range .6 to .8 or 32 to 64% of variability of intelligence related to genetic factors.
Impact of environment factors decrease w aging and at least until middle age impact of genetics increases
Group differences in intelligence have found:
A. No differences among sexes
B. some research found no difference betwn sexes and some found a male advantage
C. Gender differences have declined and where they exist tend to be small
D. Males do better on iq tests
E. Females have a processing speed and less reading disorders
F. Males have an advantage in spatial ability.
E. true. Plus verbal skills better
F. True. Also better on tests of math skills. Hemispheric specialization shows thicker rt hemisphere of the cortex and rats are better at learning mazes.
What is the confluence model?
A. First born have greater intellectual ability than later born.
B. no differences consistently noted on iq re sibs
C. Caucasians score higher than blacks on tests of intellectual functioning due to genetic theory
D. Year after year of rise in iq scores.
A. Correct! As number of kids increase amt of intellectual stimulation and resources declines so older kids have advantage. This is more so for kids born closer together. Family size negatively correlated w iq of kids.
C. True but not confluence model. The bell curve note due to genetics but flawed. Adopted black kids into white homes w above ave ses and iq the kids had at least ave iq. Supports that environment can considerably impact iq scores. Examiner race unrelated to iq performance (rapport matters for black and white kids).
D. Flynn effect. Consistently increased due to fluid intelligence. Due to environment..nutrition, smaller families, better education.. Originally a global effect. Continues in US but stopped or reversed in some places.
Individually administered iq test
Group iq test
Hierarchical model of intelligence
5 content areas and load on g
Not good with developmental or gifted individuals
A. Correct. Ages 2 thru adult
4 types of scores
Domain (verbal and nonverbal)
Abbreviated battery iq (two routing subtests)
Full scale iq
D. True. Verbal and nonverbal domains
E. false. Good for testing extreme
Test starts w two routing tests vocab for verbal and object series for nonverbal. Go until hit ceiling level or fail 3 or 4 times.
Use deviation iq so can compare across ages.
X is 100. Sd is 15
A.10 core and 5 supplemental tests
B. Index scores include verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, processing speed
C. Contains a general ability index from the verbal comp index and perceptual reasoning index that is used for a summary score that minimizes the impact of working memory and proc speed
D. Test shows practice effects
E. new subtests were added
D. Except in 70 plus ppl
E. visual puzzles, figure weights, cancellation
F. Object assembly, picture arrangement, coding copy, coding recall
What tests make up the verbal comprehension factor?
The perceptual reasoning factor?
VCI: S, V, I,
PRI: BD, matrix, visual puzzles, PC
Figure weights (supplemental)
WMI: A, DS,
Letter number sequencing (supplemental)
PSI: SS, DS
Blacks and whites score the same
May be culturally biased
Supplement w other tests if English is not first language
Supplement w nonverbal test of intelligence, like ravens progressive matrices if not white.
A only one wrong.
Match test w use:
A. Slosson intelligence test
B. Kaufman assessment battery
C. Differential aptitude test
D. Woodcock Johnson
A. Quick; at risk educ failure or who needs more testing
B. culture free; min verbal instructions
D. 2 forms..scholastic and general iq; diff of two det eligibility for 2 programs
A. Gesell developmental schedule
B. bayley scales of infant dev
C. Denver dev screening
D. Fagan test of infant intelligence
A. Norm compare; suspect neuro or organic prob
B. dev delays, plan intervention;1 to 42 mo; best for patterns early dev
C. Medical setting for dev delays
D. Mr or cogn impairment
Adaptive behavior assessment:
A. Personal competency and independence.
B. Assess for mr, autism,
D. Attempts at culture free tests unsuccessful.
Culture free tests:
Peabody picture vocab test gives nonverbal estimate of iq
Leiter international performance
Use those w language or reading problems or hearing problems; non English speaking
Hinsky Nebraska test..deaf
Ravens progressive matrices:
Designed as test of general iq
Used for perceptual and spatial logic
Used in neuro batteries
Determine next matrix in set is
Don't believe possible to make a completely culture fair test.
Even nonverbal tests rely on logic
Not found to do better on alternatives if nonwhite
May be due to diff problem solving, cognitive styles, etc..
SOMPA system if multicultural pluralistic assessment
A. Sensorimotor,cognitive, adaptive skills of kids from diverse backgrounds
B. estimates academic potential
C. 5 to 11
D. Part kid; part for parents
Group intelligence tests used when need test alot of ppl, like military
Often multiple choice
Otis Lennon school ability test
Cognitive abilities test
Wonderlic personnel test
Wonderlic basic skills
A. Limited, defined, homogeneous groups of abilities
B. measure end result of learning program
c. Predictors of future behavior, like GRe
D. Correlate strongly w educational acheivement
All but b that is achievement tests. Used in to educational settings
Aptitude measures potential for future learning and achievement measures what already learned or developed capacity
Some say don't distinguish and say both ability tests.
Coaching on standardized testing
Higher initial ability, more benefit
More complex item type, more advantage from coaching
Use of pretest improves effects
May just be due to retesting
Larger effects if multiple practice tests and if similar:identical to test
All but e is correct
SAT had coaching effect of 9 pts
Recognize and improve score by using cues in test tens, format, testing situation
Nothing to do w content
Includes coaching effects and experience
Multiple choice more susceptible to cues
Really just persons ability to apply what they know
Higher self esteem
Process info more efficiently, ESP on novel tasks that need insight
Better metacognitive skills
Result lower scores and Ed attainment
Countered by highly structured and no stressful environments.
Put with definition of tools used for selecting and evaluating psyc tests:
A. Standards for educational and psychological tests
B. mental measurement yearbooks
C. Tests in print
A. Apa publication. Covers all aspects of construction, disseminating etc and use.
B. reviews of tests, reliablity/validity
C. References to tests and cross index reviews in yearbook
What makes an effective school?
Strong leadership, active principals
Orderly, structured environment
Teachers participate in decisions
Ed staff hi expectations kids
Frequent performance monitoring