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Flashcards in Social Psych Deck (94)
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Reactance describes?
A. Behavior inhibits tx
B. undesirable thoughts/behaviors
C. Refuse to comply w suggestion
D. Turn on self what want others to do

3. Reactance occurs when ppl feel pressured by a message and increase their resistance to persuasion.

Response 1 is resistance.
Response 4 is retroflection--gestalt boundary disturbance


What is the halo effect?

Raters opinion of one characteristic is affected by the quality of the subject on a different characteristic.

Ie. attractive people are smart
Neatly written essay gets higher grade on content than messy one.


What is the Barnum effect?

Tendency to agree with vague descriptions that apply to them, such as a horoscope.


What is the rosenthal effect?

Also called self fulfilling prophecy. Expters inject their bias into expt so it fulfills their ho.

Also called experimental expectancies.


Ainsworth would say that avoidant babies respond how to their mothers in the strange situation?

They do not seek closeness.

Rarely cry when she leaves and ignores her upon return.


Kahneman and tverskys loss aversion a model says what about decisions?

More affected by desire to avoid losses than desire to make gains. Bias results I decisions that aren't objectively the best.


Sue and sue's racial/cultural identity developmental model says ct more comfortable with his race and less with others is likely in:
1. Dissonance
2. Introspection
3. Conformity
4. Immersion


Conformity..stage 1...prefer dominant culture and may adopt negative view of their own and other minorities.

Dissonance..awareness that not all dominant values are good and question it

Resistance and immersion..
Identifies with minority grp and rejects dominant culture.

Introspection..starts to find level of negative feeling toward majority is draining. And some of majority is desire able.


What is the actor observer bias?

Ppl make dispositional attributions about observed behavior in others but situational attributions about self.

(Vs fundamental attribution error..others behavior due to internal trait not situational)
Vs self serving bias...own successes due to internal factors
Own Failures due to external factors


What is groupthink and what types of groups lend itself to it?

Members suspend their independent judgement , favoring unanimity. Tends to occur in highly cohesive groups with autocratic leaders.

Different than group polarization when individuals become more extreme in their views after joining a grp of like minded ppl.

Social facilitation...perform better on easy tasks when being observed.


Pt didn't get promotion and says stupid mgmt can't see her talent. This is best described as:
1. Emic
2. Etic
3. Alloplastic
4. Autoplastic

Alloplastic....reactions to stress trying to change external environment or blame external environment.

Auto plastic...stress rx involving trying to blame oneself or change oneself.

Some theorists day personality disorder ppl use alloplastic defenses and neurotic use autoplastic defenses.


Intern follows a staff psychologists advice on case is using what type of power?
Follows clinic director?
A. Legitimate
B. expert
C. Referent
D. Coercive

C role model so referent dog
Coercive..maybe for sup


What is the difference between self serving bias, fundamental attribution error, wieners theory, and self perception theory?

Fundamental attribution error...explain others failures by attributing to internal causes

Self serving bias...attributions ppl make when they succeed or fail
Internal factors when succeed
External factors when fail

Wieners. Stability and instability of internal and external factors

Self perception theory..look outside self when don't know cause of a behavior.


40 yr. old man has 20 yr old unattractive partner. What explains?
Matching theory
Similarity hypothesis
Long distance relationship
Reciprocity hypothesis

4. People like those who like them

Matching is people of equal attractiveness select ea other

Similarity similar in age, race, religion etc..


What is the Hawthorne effect?

Associated with a change in behavior due to being observed.. Originally studying the physical and environmental aspects of workplace on productivity. It increased in all instances because being observed..


Which theory would job enrichment be a valuable intervention?

Reinforcement theory
Expectancy theory
Two factor theory
Equity theory

3. Enrichment is expanding jobs give greater role, giving possible motivators and satisfiers. Increase autonomy, authority, and encourages taking challenging tasks.
Vrooms expectancy theory days ppl behave based on perceived expectancy that certain rewards follow.
Equity ...ratio of self inputs/self outcomes vs others. Based on comparison theory.


The definition of social psychology:


Effects of social stimuli on individuals. Scientific study of how feelings, thoughts and behaviors are influenced by social stimuli (groups, norms, presence of others in real or imagined ways, and past social intx).

Sherif..showed possible to rigorously study such stuff.
Conformity and cooperation.

Lewin..first study how internal and external factors influence behavior.
Field theory


Lewins field theory:
1. Analysis of conflict situations. Person has need which arouse tension so person moves toward or away from a goal object.
2. Based on assumption that behavior is a fx of the intx between person and environment.
3. Conflicts exist in life space (psychological environment in the present or all possible events that influence a person) when forces directing person toward or away from goals are opposite in direction and about equal strength.
4. Conflicts in opposite direction of different strength.
5. Person moves toward goals w positive valence and away when negative or threaten needs.

All but 4 is correct


Describe lewins 3 types of conflicts in field theory.

Ps zeigarnik effect was born out of field theory. 68% unfinished puzzle like problems remembered; 43% finished remembered. Interrupting in middle of task leaves them in disequilibrium. To reduce ppl want to complete task. Varys w amt ego involved in the task.

Approach approach..between 2 positive goals of about equal attractiveness. Ambivalent at first. Move to one and it becomes more attractive and other less attractive.

Avoidance avoidance..between 2 negative valence alternatives.
If possible to leave the field or away from both goals this is the choice.
If not, vacillate and find equilibrium.
Ie. don't quit job but more sick days. May find a way to do lesser of two evils. Talk to boss and solve a few probs.

Approach avoidance...drawn to and repelled by same situation.
Find equilibrium. (Miller later studied w rats. Rats stopped at equilibrium pt. But may change as approach goal, strength of response and avoidance response increases. However, avoidance gradient is steeper so it becomes stronger).


Ct trapped in boring job. If leave can't support self. Initial response is:
Find new job
Commit to making a decision
Sign new contract at work
Vacillate between leaving job and staying

D. Avoidance avoidance conflict. Will attempt to leave the field or avoid a choice at all. if not possible initially vacillates between two. After vacillate equilibrium equidistant will be reached.


Bems self perception theory holds:
1. Rewarding ppl for an enjoyable activity undermines their interest in the activity
2. We evaluate our opinions by comparing ourselves to similar ppl
3. When internal cues are weak or hard to interpret, we infer them by observing our behavior and the situation.
4. Ppl get validation for their self concept even when it is negative.

1. Over justification hypothesis
If rewarded for behavior was previously intrinsically motivated, behavior becomes over rewarded and intrinsic loses its power and not perceived as enjoyable. Basis is self perception theory..see self doing behavior for enjoyable activity for reward then see selves doing it for the reward.
2. Social comparison theory
When objective info not available we compare to SIMIlAR others. Those w low self esteem or feel threatened compare to others but often less successful ppl.
3. Correct!
4. Self verification theory


The fundamental attribution error is:
1. We attribute our success to personal factors and failures to situational factors.
2. When explaining our behavior, make situational attributions.
3. Blame others for their own misfortune bc get what we deserve.
4. Tend to underestimate the impact of situations and overestimate personal factors when describing others behavior.

1. Self serving bias
2. Actor observer effect
3. Belief in just world
4. Fundamental attribution error


Schachter and singer did the epinephrine study. They found:
1. Support for the two factor theory of emotion
2. Informed subjects took on feelings of confederates (happy if they were, angry if they were)
3. Uninformed subjects took on feelings of confederates.
4. Shows self perception theory is wrong.

1. experience a specific emotion the person must first experience physiological arousal (due to epinephrine) and then make a cognitive interpretation of the arousal.
2. Wrong
3. Yep!
4. Wrong. Shows support because when the reasons for arousal were ambiguous, observed own behavior and external environment to interpret feelings.


Social comparison theory (festiger) indicates what we do when Not sure about our abilities and opinions. We:
1. Compare to ppl higher status than us.
2. Downward those inferior to us.
3. To those similar to us in relevant ways.
4. Confirm self concept...positive or negative by comparing.

1. No
2. Yes if our self esteem is at stake we look to those less successful. Happens when feel threatened, when negative characteristic is subject to self eval, and w ppl who have low s esteem.
3. Correct
4. Self verification theory...ppl need and seek to confirm their self concept, pos or negative. Strategies such as selective intx (those who confirm and avoid those who don't).


How is self verification theory applied to depression?
1. If find confirm negative, motivated to attend to, recall, and believe it.
2. Ppl more satisfied w and intimate in self verifying relationships
3. Women are more depressed bc they act in line w gender stereotypes.
4. Depressed ppl seek more negative feedback and more rejected by others as compared to non depressed.

1. True
2. True
3. Social role and women confirm gender stereotypes bc the diff roles they perform place diff social demands on them. They behave differently in social situations along gender lines.
4. This exacerbates depressive sx.


Results of the study on speeches regarding the fundamental attribution error.

Underestimate impact of situations and overestimate the role of personal factors when explaining the behavior of others.

Fundamental attribution error doesn't apply to our own behavior
(That is actor observer bias).

Infer attitudes of speeches students wrote by free choice or assigned.

Believed represented true opinions even when knew assigned. Even when they were the ones who assigned the speech topics!

Focus on person and not the situation.

We often are wrong. Most ppl respond based on the situation regardless of personality traits.


What is the exception to the actor observer effect when looking at our own successes?
1. Fundamental attribution error
2. Three dimensional taxonomy for successes and failures
3. Locus of control
4. Self serving bias

1. About others behavior ( due to personality).

2.weiner's attribution theory of motivation and emotion

3. Rotters trait continuum that describes extent individual believed life events are under control of self (internal) or external forces

4. Correct! The actor observer effect is our own behaviors due to external factors instead of internal ones. However, when looking at our own successes we r more likely to make dispositional attributions. Failures or negative consequences we still hold to actor observer bias that due to situation. So take credit for successes but blame situational factors for failures.

Not universal. Depressed ppl or w low self esteem. Successes due to external factors and failures internal.


Weiner's attributional theory has to do with success and failure. The three dimensional taxonomy is:

Global/specific wasn't added until later.
Added with intentional/unintentional
Attributions thought of as intentional and specific..most pride
Negative behaviors attributed to specific and intentional...most blame, shame and guilt.

Controllable dimension similar to rotters locus of control . Hi internal locus view selves as cause.
Hi internals more achievement oriented and confident, less anxious, suspicious, and dogmatic.


Sue developed a theory with internal locus of control and internal locus of responsibility that are influenced by ethnic and racial identity. Four combos are:

Internal control, internal responsibility...success or failure due to own efforts or abilities. Don't understand other cultures great if tx.

Internal control, external shape own life but external barriers exist (discrimination). Minorities here more cs of own identity and are active and want ax from tx.

External control, internal responsibility..marginalized ppl feel little control over fate yet deny racism and blame self for plight. Culturally sensitive tx help understand political forces.

External control, external responsibility...little controls over life and blame system. Tx teach coping , arrange success, validate


What is the cause of the hostile attribution hypothesis?
Deficits in social information processing
Paranoid personality
Familial transmission

A. Less accurate at interpreting the intentions of others and more likely to attribute hostile intent


Connect these terms from impression formation to their definitions:

1. Weigh negative info more heavily than positive when evaluate others

2. Tendency to seek, interpret, and create info that verifies our beliefs

3. Tend to overestimate the degree others conform to us in terms of opinions, behaviors, attributes

4. Existence of certain trait dimensions that to us are associated w many other characteristics

5. Tendency to place greater emphasis on first impressions than later info that is learned.

1. Trait negativity bias
2. Confirmation bias. Pseudo pt study. Out expectations can then have self fulfilling prophecy. Ie. study of random kids told verge breakthrough. Their iq went up up to 30 pts. Pygmalion effect.
3. False consensus bias. Judges made hypothetical decisions on how peers would judge cases. No matter how ruled. Thought colleagues would rule the same.
4. Central traits
5. Primacy effect. Early presented info persists even w later opposing evidence. List of traits. If positive first then pos impression. If negative trait at the end and read reverse then negative impression. If warned not to jump to conclusion or intervening irrelevant activity occurs more recent info is likely to have impact.