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Respiratory Diseases > Asthma > Flashcards

Flashcards in Asthma Deck (13):
1

what is it

hyperplasia of smooth muscle
oedema accumulation
increased mucus secretion
bronchoconstriction
chronic airway inflammation (eosinophilic)
airway remodelling

2

what type hypersensitivity

type 1

3

when does it come on

it is an episodic reversible bronchoconstriction
early or late onset

4

what are intrinsic causes

exercise, cold

5

what are extrinsic causes

drugs, chemical, smoke, pollen, dust, animal dander, fungi, viral infection

6

what are symptoms

dyspnoea
tight chest
wheezing
non-productive cough
diurnal variation
non-progressive
episodic/intermittent

7

how is it diagnosed

salbutamol reversibility >15%
diurnal variation in peak flow rate
normal gas exchange
reduced FEV1 to under 75%
preserved FVC and TLCO
provocation testing - exercise or allergen
may find crackles if infection

8

1st line treatment

SABA (salbutamol)

9

2nd line treatment

low dose ICS (beclomethasone, budesonide, prednisolone)

10

3rd line treatment

add LABA (salmeterol) to low dose ICS

11

4th line treatment

leukotriene receptor antagonist (monteleukast)
Xanthines (theophylline)
LAMA (tiotropium)

12

5th line treatment

consider increasing ICS up to high dose or addition of fourth drug eg LTRA, xanthine or LAMA - refer to specialist

13

6th line treatment

use daily steroid tablet in lowest dose providing adequate control
maintain high dose ICS and consider other treatments to minimise use of steroid tablets
refer to specialist