Pneumothorax Flashcards Preview

Respiratory Diseases > Pneumothorax > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pneumothorax Deck (15):
1

what is it

collection of air in pleural space resulting in collapsed lung

2

what are primary cause

normal lungs then apical bullae rupture

3

what is secondary cause

pre-existing lung diseases eg smoking, severe asthma, COPD, marfans

4

who is it common in

those with existing respiratory conditions, cannabis users, smokers and tall, thin men

5

what are symptoms

sudden onset of pleuritic pain
SOB
tachycardia

6

what are signs

hyper-resonant percussion note
reduced expansion
quiet breath sounds on auscultation
hamman's sign (click on auscultation at left side)

7

how is it diagnosed

CXR - small <2cm rim of air, large >2cm
ABG - hypoxia

8

treatment if <20%

observe, air will usually reabsorb

9

treatment if 20-50%

needle aspiration using 16-18G cannula sited in 2nd IC space, mid clavicular line

10

treatment if >50%

chest drainage - intercostal small bore drain in 5th IC space, mid auxillary line

11

treatment if recurrence

pleurodesis/pleurectomy

12

what is the follow up

CXR
discuss flying and diving (not for 6 weeks)
general recurrance risk
smoking cessation

13

what is tension pneumothorax

medical emergency
can lead to cardiac arrest due to one way valve mechanism (between pleural layers) resulting in increased pressure in pleural space

14

what is signs of tension pneumothorax

tracheal deviation
mediastinal shift to opposite side
hypotension
raised JVP
reduced air entry

15

what is treatment of TP

O2 and needle compression usually with large bore venflon in 2nd intercostal space