Pneumonia Flashcards Preview

Respiratory Diseases > Pneumonia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pneumonia Deck (25):
1

what is it

inflammation of one of both of lungs normally due to infection

2

what causes strep pneumoniae (community)

found worldwide - most common cause

3

what causes staph aureus (community)

recent flu, IV drug user

4

what causes mycoplasma pneumonia (community)

older kid, young adult

5

what causes legionella (community)

traveller - bad water

6

what causes gram negative enterobacteria (community)

alcoholic

7

what causes bordatella pertussis (community)

whooping cough / broncho pneumonia

8

what causes haemophilus influenzae (hospital)

atypical, nursery workers, COPD

9

what causes coxiella burnetti (hospital)

Q fever - sheep, goats, cattle, farm

10

what causes chlamydophilia pstaci (hospital)

pet birds

11

what causes klebsiella pneumoniae (hospital)

common in alcoholism, diabetes and chronic lung disease

12

what are other causes

viral (RSV, measles)
aspiration
fungal (aspergillus - chest infection become pneumonia)
chlamydia pneumoniae (person to person)
PCP (immunosuppressed patients)

13

what are the symptoms

cough
dyspnoea
tachypnoea
fever
rigors
sweats
pleuritic pain
myalgia
malaise
arthralgia
preceding UTI
diarhhoea
headache
haemoptysis
AF
confusion
sputum after 24 hours

14

what are the signs

fever
rigors
pleural rub
cyanosis
hypotension
tachypnoea
pleural effusion

15

what would be found upon examination

crepitations
dull percussion
consolidation
tactile vocal fremitus

16

what other tests are taken to diagnose it

serology
blood culture
CXR, ABC, FBC, U&Es, LFTs
sputum culture

17

what are severity markers

temp <35 or >40
cyanosis - PaCO2 <9
WBC - <4 or >30
multi lobar involvement

18

treatment is dependent on CURB65 score - what is this?

confusion - 1 point
Urea >7 - 1 point
BP<90 or <60 - 1 point
RR <30 - 1 point
Age >65

19

community acquired treatment with CURB65 score of 0-2 (mild)

amoxicillin 5 days
or doxycycline
or IV clarithromycin if NBM

20

community acquired treatment with CURB65 score of 3-5 (severe)

co-amoxicillin IV and doxycycline
allergic - IV levofloxacin

21

community acquired treatment if in ICU/HDU or NBM

co amoxiclav and clarithromycin
allergic - IV levofloxacin

22

hospital acquired treatment if severe

amoxicillin IV and metrondiazole and gentamicin
step down to co-trimoxazole and metrondiazole
allergic - IV co-trimoxazole and metrondiazole +/- gentamixin

23

hospital acquired treatment if non severe

PO amoxicillin and metrondiazole

24

what are complications

empyema
lung abscess
septicaemia

25

how do you prevent it

pneumonia and flu vaccine
smoking cessation
treat alcohol misuse