Flashcards in Atherosclerosis Deck (22)
what is the risk multiplier for 2 risk factors in atherosclerosis? 4 risk factors?
2 risk factors - 4x
4 risk factors - 7x
ratio of LDL:HDL should not exceed what value for atherosclerosis risk?
which lipoprotein is a significant risk factor for atherosclerosis, independent of LDL?
type I familial lipoprotein lipase deficiency is characterized by an increase in what molecule?
type IIa familiarl hypercholesterolemia is characterized by an increase in what molecule?
type IIB familial combined hypercholesterolemia is characterized by an increase in what molecule?
LDL and VLDL
type III familial type III lipoproteinemia is characterized by an increase in what molecule?
type IV familial hypertriglyceridemia is characterized by an increase in what molecule?
type V only familial AI/CII deficiency is characterized by an absence in what molecule?
no HDL (severe atherosclerosis)
after age 45, what represents a stronger risk factor than hypercholesterolemia?
early injury to endothelial cells leads to the overexpression of what molecule? what is its role?
increases cellular adhesion and recruits inflammatory cells, release cytokines
which molecule is released by macrophages, SMCs, and endothelial cells, and recruits more monocytes in the media leading to proliferation of SMCs?
monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1)
MCP-1 is released by what cells?
which stain is used for lipids?
oil red O
what are the key features of atherosclerosis?
1. smooth muscle cell proliferation
2. accumulation of CT elements (collagen, elastin, proteoglycans)
3. lipid deposition (intra and extracellular)
what are the characteristic lesions of atherosclerosis?
fibrofatty plaques (atheromas)
what occurs once the grumous (necrotic) core is exposed?
what are the primary therapies for atherosclerosis?
control BP, DM, clotting
diet / lifestyle
what are the secondary therapies for atherosclerosis?
angioplasty with stent (coronary, carotid)
an ABPI of what value or higher is considered abnormal? what does it suggest?
calcification of walls of arteries and incompressible vessels (peripheral vascular disease)
what is the glagov's coronary remodeling hypothesis?
overstretch of serosa causes outward expansion first, before inward luminal obliteration