Myocardial infarction III Flashcards Preview

Year 2 Cardiovascular > Myocardial infarction III > Flashcards

Flashcards in Myocardial infarction III Deck (32):
1

do arrhythmias occur during STEMIs, NSTEMIs, or both?

both

2

what is the most common type of arrhythmia seen with MI?

ventricular premature

3

what is done for PVCs?

correct electrolytes
beta blockers

4

when is accelerated idioventricular rhythm observed?

shortly after successful reperfusion

5

accelerated idioventricular rhythm is a result of what type of conduction abnormality?

enhanced automaticity of purkinje fibers

6

VT induced by ischemia has what morphology?

polymorphic

7

VT induced by scarring has what morphology?

monomorphic

8

what is the significance of having late VT/VF (after 48 hours) following MI?

increased risk of sudden cardiac death

9

what are the high risk factors for sudden cardiac death?

late VT/VF
EF less than 35% (strongest factor)

10

what is the strongest risk factor for sudden cardiac death?

EF less than 35% when leaving the hospital

11

inferior MIs typically result from a block at what level?

AV node

12

what are three causes of inferior MIs due to AV nodal block?

high parasympathetic tone
local accumulation of K, adenosine
AV node ischemia

13

what is the best management option for acute MI phase of heart failure?

vasodilators (NTG unless hypotensive)

14

what are the three management options for post acute phase of heart failure?

diuretic
ACE inhibitor
aldosterone antagonists (spironolactone, epleronone)

15

what is the treatment for cardioembolism?

anticoagulation with warfarin

16

what type of pain characterizes pericarditis?

pleuritic, can radiate to trapezius

17

what is the treatment for pericarditis?

aspirin (650 mg for 4-6 hours)

18

what treatments should be avoided in pericarditis?

NSAIDs, steroids

19

the syndrome for late pericarditis goes by what name?

dressler's syndrome

20

what is dressler's syndrome?

(late) pericarditis plus systemic symptoms (malaise, arthralgias, fever, pleural / pericardial effusions, high sedimentation rate, CRP)

21

what is the mechanism type for dressler's syndrome?

autoimmune

22

what is the treatment for dressler's syndrome?

aspirin, colchicine

23

how does auscultation of a VSD differ from mitral regurg?

in VSD the murmur is found at the LLSB as opposed to the apex and typically louder

24

acute mitral regurg is found primarily in the setting of inferior MI involving which papillary muscle?

posteromedial

25

what is the best diagnostic test for mitral regurg?

echo or TEE

26

how can VSD be differentiated from papillary muscle rupture?

VSD - loud holosystolic murmr as LSB
MR - may be faint, more commonly at apex

VSD - can lie flat
MR - cannot lie flat

27

what are the risk factors for free wall rupture?

older
female
history of HTN
first MI
absent reperfusion

28

echo will show what features for free wall rupture?

pericardial effusion, tamponade

29

true aneurysm

all three layers are present
bulges out

30

which layer holds a pseudoaneurysm in place?

epicardium

31

which type of aneurysm has a higher risk of rupture?

pseudoaneurysm

32

what are the goals of an intra-aortic pump?

1. augments coronary blood flow during diastole
2. decreases afterload during systole by deflating at onset of systole
3. reduces myocardial ischemia by both mechanisms