Pathophysiology of hypertension Flashcards Preview

Year 2 Cardiovascular > Pathophysiology of hypertension > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pathophysiology of hypertension Deck (18):
1

normal BP according to JNC 7

systolic: less than 120
diastolic: less than 80

2

HTN predisposes to what major conditions?

ischemic heart disease
heart failure
atrial fibrillation
stroke

3

what does each incremental increase in SBP (20 mm Hg) do to risk of comorbid conditions?

doubles it

4

how is obesity related to BP?

as BMI increases, BP increases

5

what is the pathophysiology of obesity in the context of HTN?

increased leptin - increases SNS activation - RAAS and MR activation - increased renal sodium reabsorption - increased BP

6

essential (primary) HTN is caused by what factors?

genes
environment
behavior
physiology

7

what are the main causes of secondary HTN?

chronic kidney disease
renovascular disease
"other"

8

what reflex responds to a drop in renal BP to increase renin release?

intrarenal baroreceptors

9

in secondary HTN what activates the intrarenal baroreceptors?

drop in renal BP

10

what is the main cause of secondary HTN?

obstructive sleep apnea

11

what is the pathophysiology of obstructive sleep apnea on HTN?

1. nocturnal hypoxia / hypercapnia
2. heightened sensitivity of chemoreceptor reflex
3. activation of cardiopulmonary excitatory centers
4. increased sympathetic, decreased parasympathetic outflow
5. increased ventilation and HR
6. decreased CO2, increased O2

12

definition: pressure natriuresis

ability of kidneys to respond to BP by excreting more salt and water

13

what are the central factors related to the pathophysiology of essential HTN?

1. augmented sympathetic outflow
2. aberrant responses to peripheral signals

14

what are the vascular dysfunctions related to pathophysiology of essential HTN?

1. exaggerated response to vasoconstrictors
2. depressed response to vasodilators
3. remodeling

15

what is the renal dysfunction related to pathophysiology of essential HTN?

sodium and water handling defects

16

what is a device based therapy used to treat resistant HTN?

carotid sinus stimulation

17

carotid sinus stimulation exploits what physiological process?

baroreceptor reflex

18

long term volume control occurs in what organ?

kidney