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Flashcards in Authors Deck (328):
1

Harper Lee

  • American author of the 20th century
  • Her first novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, was published in 1960 and has since become a classic of American literature
  • The novel won the Pulitzer Prize in 1961, and was adapted into an Oscar-winning film in 1962
  • Her second novel, Go Set A Watchmen, was published in 2015. 

2

J.D. Salinger

  • American author of the 20th century most famous for his 1951 novel The Catcher in the Rye
  • From the mid-sixties on, he was reclusive and did not publish any new material; he died in 2010

3

F. Scott Fitzgerald

  • American author of the 20th century, part of the Jazz Age and a member of the Lost Generation of American writers in Paris in the 1920s
  • He wrote five novels in all, one of them published posthumously
  • His most famous novel, The Great Gatsby, was published in 1925
  • "The Curious Case of Benjamin Button" is one of his many short stories

4

William Shakespeare

  • English poet and playwright of the 16th and 17th centuries, typically regarded as the greatest Anglophone writer
  • He wrote over 150 sonnets, and his plays include Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, A Midsummer Night's Dream, King Lear, and Othello
  • A large number of familiar English sayings and expressions come from his works
  • He spent most of his life in London, where he managed the Globe Theatre

5

Homer

  • Ancient Greek poet, likely to have lived in the 7th or 8th centuries B.C., and author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are central to the history of literature
  • It is believed that he was blind

6

Miguel de Cervantes

  • Spanish writer of the 16th and 17th centuries, greatly influential to the Spanish language in general
  • His masterpiece was Don Quixote, published in two volumes (in 1605 and 1615)
  • Don Quixote is considered the first modern European novel and a classic of Western literature

7

Sophocles

  • Ancient Greek playwright of the 5th century B.C.
  • One of three Greek authors of tragedies, along with Aeschylus and Euripides, whose plays have survived
  • His most famous tragedies feature Antigone and Oedipus

8

Ernest Hemingway

  • American author of the 20th century and a member of the Lost Generation of writers in the 1920s
  • Known for his economical, simple writing and adventurous lifestyle, his novels include The Old Man and the Sea, The Sun Also Rises, and A Farewell to Arms
  • He won both a Pulitzer Prize for Fiction and a Nobel Prize in Literature

9

John Steinbeck

  • American author of the 20th century
  • He is best known for his novels Of Mice and Men, The Grapes of Wrath, and East of Eden
  • He won both a Pulitzer Prize for Fiction and a Nobel Prize in Literature

10

William Faulkner

  • 20th-century American author most known for his novels The Sound and the Fury and As I Lay Dying
  • He won two Pulitzer Prizes for Fiction and a Nobel Prize in Literature

11

Toni Morrison

  • American professor and writer of the 20th and 21st centuries most known for her novels Beloved, The Bluest Eye, and Song of Solomon
  • In 2012 she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom

12

J.R.R. Tolkien

20th-century British writer and author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings trilogy

13

Herman Melville

American author of the 19th century most known for his novel Moby Dick

14

Nathaniel Hawthorne

American author of the 19th century most known for his novel The Scarlet Letter

15

Henry David Thoreau

  • American abolitionist, author, philosopher, and transcendentalist of the 19th century
  • He is best known for his essay "Civil Disobedience" and his book Walden

16

Charles Dickens

  • English author of the 19th century whose work was immensely popular during his lifetime
  • Seen as one of the great writers of the Victorian era, his works include A Christmas Carol, Great Expectations, Oliver Twist, and David Copperfield

17

J.K. Rowling

British writer best known as the author of the widely read Harry Potter series, the best-selling book series in history

18

Stephen King

  • American author and columnist of the 20th and 21st centuries whose popular suspense novels and short stories have frequently been adapted into films
  • Some of his notable works include The Shining, Carrie, Misery, and Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption

19

Emily and Charlotte Brontë

  • English authors of the 19th century
  • Emily most famously wrote Wuthering Heights and her sister Charlotte wrote Jane Eyre

20

Jane Austen

  • English novelist of the 18th and 19th centuries
  • She was noted for her irony and social commentary, as well as for the love stories she crafted
  • Notable works include Pride and Prejudice, Sense and Sensibility, and Emma

21

  • American author of the 20th century
  • Her first novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, was published in 1960 and has since become a classic of American literature
  • The novel won the Pulitzer Prize in 1961, and was adapted into an Oscar-winning film in 1962

Harper Lee

22

  • American author of the 20th century most famous for his 1951 novel The Catcher in the Rye
  • From the mid-sixties on, he was reclusive and did not publish any new material; he died in 2010

J.D. Salinger

23

  • American author of the 20th century, part of the Jazz Age and a member of the Lost Generation of American writers in Paris in the 1920s
  • He wrote five novels in all, one of them published posthumously
  • His most famous novel, The Great Gatsby, was published in 1925
  • "The Curious Case of Benjamin Button" is one of his many short stories

F. Scott Fitzgerald

24

  • English poet and playwright of the 16th and 17th centuries, typically regarded as the greatest Anglophone writer
  • He wrote over 150 sonnets, and his plays include Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, A Midsummer Night's Dream, King Lear, and Othello
  • A large number of familiar English sayings and expressions come from his works
  • He spent most of his life in London, where he managed the Globe Theatre

William Shakespeare

25

  • Ancient Greek poet, likely to have lived in the 7th or 8th centuries B.C., and author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are central to the history of literature
  • It is believed that he was blind

Homer

26

  • Spanish writer of the 16th and 17th centuries, greatly influential to the Spanish language in general
  • His masterpiece was Don Quixote, published in two volumes (in 1605 and 1615)
  • Don Quixote is considered the first modern European novel and a classic of Western literature

Miguel de Cervantes

27

  • Ancient Greek playwright of the 5th century B.C.
  • One of three Greek authors of tragedies, along with Aeschylus and Euripides, whose plays have survived
  • His most famous tragedies feature Antigone and Oedipus

Sophocles

28

  • American author of the 20th century and a member of the Lost Generation of writers in the 1920s
  • Known for his economical, simple writing and adventurous lifestyle, his novels include The Old Man and the Sea, The Sun Also Rises, and A Farewell to Arms
  • He won both a Pulitzer Prize for Fiction and a Nobel Prize in Literature

Ernest Hemingway

29

  • American author of the 20th century
  • He is best known for his novels Of Mice and Men, The Grapes of Wrath, and East of Eden
  • He won both a Pulitzer Prize for Fiction and a Nobel Prize in Literature

John Steinbeck

30

  • 20th-century American author most known for his novels The Sound and the Fury and As I Lay Dying
  • He won two Pulitzer Prizes for Fiction and a Nobel Prize in Literature

William Faulkner

31

  • American professor and writer of the 20th and 21st centuries most known for her novels Beloved, The Bluest Eye, and Song of Solomon
  • In 2012 she was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom

Toni Morrison

32

20th-century British writer and author of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings trilogy

J.R.R. Tolkien

33

American author of the 19th century most known for his novel Moby Dick

Herman Melville

34

American author of the 19th century most known for his novel The Scarlet Letter

Nathaniel Hawthorne

35

  • American abolitionist, author, philosopher, and transcendentalist of the 19th century
  • He is best known for his essay "Civil Disobedience" and his book Walden

Henry David Thoreau

36

  • English author of the 19th century whose work was immensely popular during his lifetime
  • Seen as one of the great writers of the Victorian era, his works include A Christmas Carol, Great Expectations, Oliver Twist, and David Copperfield

Charles Dickens

37

  • English authors of the 19th century
  • Emily most famously wrote Wuthering Heights and her sister Charlotte wrote Jane Eyre

Emily and Charlotte Brontë

38

British writer best known as the author of the widely read Harry Potter series, the best-selling book series in history

J.K. Rowling

39

  • American author and columnist of the 20th and 21st centuries whose popular suspense novels and short stories have frequently been adapted into films
  • Some of his notable works include The Shining, Carrie, Misery, and Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption

Stephen King

40

  • English novelist of the 18th and 19th centuries
  • She was noted for her irony and social commentary, as well as for the love stories she crafted
  • Notable works include Pride and Prejudice, Sense and Sensibility, and Emma

Jane Austen

41

Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.

  • American writer of the 20th century whose works mixed satire and fantasy
  • He is best known for his novels Cat's Cradle and Slaughterhouse-Five

42

Arthur Miller

  • American playwright of the 20th and 21st centuries whose plays include Death of a Salesman, All My Sons, and The Crucible
  • A Pulitzer Prize winner, he was married for five years to Marilyn Monroe and known for having testified before the House Un-American Activities Committee

43

Tennessee Williams

American writer of the 20th century best known for his plays, including A Streetcar Named Desire, The Glass Menagerie, and The Rose Tattoo

44

Tom Stoppard

  • Czech-born English playwright best known for his plays Arcadia, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, Travesties, and The Real Thing
  • He co-wrote the Oscar-winning screenplay for the 1998 movie Shakespeare in Love

45

Henrik Ibsen

  • Norwegian playwright of the 19th century whose plays include A Doll's House, An Enemy of the People, The Wild Duck, and Hedda Gabler
  • He is regarded as one of the founders of Modernism in drama

46

Jean-Paul Sartre

  • French philosopher of the 20th century known as a central figure of existentialism
  • His works include Being and Nothingness and the play No Exit

47

Albert Camus

  • Algerian-born French author and philosopher of the 20th century
  • His works include L'Étranger, La Peste, and La Chute

48

Charles Baudelaire

  • French poet of the 19th century most famous for his collection of poems called Les Fleurs du mal (The Flowers of Evil)
  • His verse is known for its morbid beauty, depictions of the fleeting nature of modernity, and its use of and mixture with prose
  • He influenced later poets such as Mallarmé, Rimbaud, and Verlaine

49

Victor Hugo

French Romantic author of the 19th century best known for his collection of poetry La Légende des siècles and his novels Les Misérables and The Hunchback of Notre-Dame

50

Jules Verne

  • French author of the 19th century whose novels laid the groundwork for science fiction
  • His works include Around the World in Eighty Days, Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, and Journey to the Center of the Earth

51

Gustave Flaubert

  • French author of the 19th century known for his perfectionist writing style and his novels Madame Bovary and Sentimental Education
  • He served as a guardian and mentor to Guy de Maupassant

52

Leo Tolstoy

  • Russian writer of the 19th and early 20th centuries who is regarded as one of the great Russian novelists along with Fyodor Dostoyevsky
  • He is best known for his novels Anna Karenina and War and Peace

53

Fyodor Dostoyevsky

  • Russian author of the 19th century who, along with Leo Tolstoy, is regarded as one of the greatest Russian novelists
  • Among his most famous works are The Brothers Karamazov, Crime and Punishment, and The Idiot

54

Stendhal

  • The pen name of Marie-Henri Beyle, a 19th-century French writer, known for his psychologically realistic works
  • He is best known for his novels The Red and the Black and The Charterhouse of Parma

55

Honoré de Balzac

  • 19th-century French novelist known for his complex, fully human characters and regarded as one of the founders of realism in European literature
  • His most famous work, La Comédie humaine, is a long series of novels and short stories about modern French society after the fall of Napoleon

56

Guy de Maupassant

  • French writer of the 19th century best known for playing a fundamental role in the development of the modern short story
  • A protégé of Flaubert, his works include the novel Pierre et Jean and the stories "Boul de Suif", "Le Horla", and "Deux Amis"

57

Friedrich Nietzsche

  • German philosopher of the 19th century who subtantially influenced existentialism
  • He challenged Christianity and morality and believed strongly in the idea of "life-affirmation"

58

Sigmund Freud

  • Austrian physician of the 19th and 20th centuries, regarded as the founder of psychoanalysis
  • He was interested in the unconscious mind and developed the use of free association and theories about the Oedipus complex, sexual repression, and dreams

59

Gabriel García Márquez

  • Colombian writer of the 20th and 21st centuries, regarded as one of the great authors of his generation
  • A recipient of the 1982 Nobel Prize in Literature, he is best known for his novels, which include One Hundred Years of Solitude, The Autumn of the Patriarch, and Love in the Time of Cholera

60

Hunter S. Thompson

  • American journalist of the 20th century, known for his eccentric lifestyle and development of Gonzo journalism, for which reporters heavily involve themselves in the action
  • His most famous works include Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, Hell's Angels: The Strange and Terrible Saga of the Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs, and Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail '72

61

  • American writer of the 20th century whose works mixed satire and fantasy
  • He is best known for his novels Cat's Cradle and Slaughterhouse-Five

Kurt Vonnegut, Jr.

62

  • American playwright of the 20th and 21st centuries whose plays include Death of a Salesman, All My Sons, and The Crucible
  • A Pulitzer Prize winner, he was married for five years to Marilyn Monroe and known for having testified before the House Un-American Activities Committee

Arthur Miller

63

American writer of the 20th century best known for his plays, including A Streetcar Named Desire, The Glass Menagerie, and The Rose Tattoo

Tennessee Williams

64

  • Czech-born English playwright best known for his plays Arcadia, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead, Travesties, and The Real Thing
  • He co-wrote the Oscar-winning screenplay for the 1998 movie Shakespeare in Love

Tom Stoppard

65

  • Norwegian playwright of the 19th century whose plays include A Doll's House, An Enemy of the People, The Wild Duck, and Hedda Gabler
  • He is regarded as one of the founders of Modernism in drama

Henrik Ibsen

66

  • French philosopher of the 20th century known as a central figure of existentialism
  • His works include Being and Nothingness and the play No Exit

Jean-Paul Sartre

67

  • Algerian-born French author and philosopher of the 20th century
  • His works include L'Étranger, La Peste, and La Chute

Albert Camus

68

  • French poet of the 19th century most famous for his collection of poems called Les Fleurs du mal (The Flowers of Evil)
  • His verse is known for its morbid beauty, depictions of the fleeting nature of modernity, and its use of and mixture with prose
  • He influenced later poets such as Mallarmé, Rimbaud, and Verlaine

Charles Baudelaire

69

French Romantic author of the 19th century best known for his collection of poetry La Légende des siècles and his novels Les Misérables and The Hunchback of Notre-Dame

Victor Hugo

70

  • French author of the 19th century whose novels laid the groundwork for science fiction
  • His works include Around the World in Eighty Days, Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea, and Journey to the Center of the Earth

Jules Verne

71

  • French author of the 19th century known for his perfectionist writing style and his novels Madame Bovary and Sentimental Education
  • He served as a guardian and mentor to Guy de Maupassant

Gustave Flaubert

72

  • Russian writer of the 19th and early 20th centuries who is regarded as one of the great Russian novelists along with Fyodor Dostoyevsky
  • He is best known for his novels Anna Karenina and War and Peace

Leo Tolstoy

73

  • Russian author of the 19th century who, along with Leo Tolstoy, is regarded as one of the greatest Russian novelists
  • Among his most famous works are The Brothers Karamazov, Crime and Punishment, and The Idiot

Fyodor Dostoyevsky

74

  • The pen name of Marie-Henri Beyle, a 19th-century French writer, known for his psychologically realistic works
  • He is best known for his novels The Red and the Black and The Charterhouse of Parma

Stendhal

75

  • 19th-century French novelist known for his complex, fully human characters and regarded as one of the founders of realism in European literature
  • His most famous work, La Comédie humaine, is a long series of novels and short stories about modern French society after the fall of Napoleon

Honoré de Balzac

76

  • French writer of the 19th century best known for playing a fundamental role in the development of the modern short story
  • A protégé of Flaubert, his works include the novel Pierre et Jean and the stories "Boul de Suif", "Le Horla", and "Deux Amis"

Guy de Maupassant

77

  • German philosopher of the 19th century who subtantially influenced existentialism
  • He challenged Christianity and morality and believed strongly in the idea of "life-affirmation"

Friedrich Nietzsche

78

  • Austrian physician of the 19th and 20th centuries, regarded as the founder of psychoanalysis
  • He was interested in the unconscious mind and developed the use of free association and theories about the Oedipus complex, sexual repression, and dreams

Sigmund Freud

79

  • Colombian writer of the 20th and 21st centuries, regarded as one of the great authors of his generation
  • A recipient of the 1982 Nobel Prize in Literature, he is best known for his novels, which include One Hundred Years of Solitude, The Autumn of the Patriarch, and Love in the Time of Cholera

Gabriel García Márquez

80

  • American journalist of the 20th century, known for his eccentric lifestyle and development of Gonzo journalism, for which reporters heavily involve themselves in the action
  • His most famous works include Fear and Loathing in Las Vegas, Hell's Angels: The Strange and Terrible Saga of the Outlaw Motorcycle Gangs, and Fear and Loathing on the Campaign Trail '72

Hunter S. Thompson

81

David Foster Wallace

  • American writer regarded as one of the most influential writers of the late 20th and early 21st centuries
  • Among his best-known works are the short story collection Brief Interviews with Hideous Men and his novel Infinite Jest
  • Also a well-respected nonfiction writer and professor at Pomona College, he committed suicide in 2008

82

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

  • German author and politician of the 18th and 19th centuries, highly influential to European literature
  • His works include the two-part play Faust and the novels The Sorrows of Young Werther and Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship

83

John Locke

  • English philosopher from the 17th century who argued that governments should depend on the consent of the governed and criticized the notion of monarchs' divine right
  • Also claimed that the human mind is a blank slate (tabula rasa) at birth and until experience eventually begins to write on it
  • His writings greatly influenced the American Founding Fathers

84

Thomas Hobbes

  • English philosopher of the 17th century best known for his 1651 book Leviathan
  • He is regarded as a founder of modern political philosophy

85

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

  • Swiss-born French philosopher of the 18th century and one of the central figures of the Enlightenment
  • He argued that humans are good in the context of nature, but corrupted by society
  • Influential to modern thought and particularly to the French Revolution, he is known for his works On the Social Contract, Discourse on Inequality, Émile, and his autobiography Confessions

86

Walt Whitman

  • American humanist poet and journalist of the 19th century
  • He is known for his use of free verse, sexuality, and celebration of the material world
  • His most famous work is the collection Leaves of Grass, which contains the poem "Song of Myself"

87

T.S. Eliot

  • American-born English poet and playwright of the 20th century
  • He is best known for his play Murder in the Cathedral and the poems "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" and "The Waste Land"

88

Emily Dickinson

  • American poet of the 19th century whose short, unconventional poems were, for the most part, published posthumously
  • Now considered a major American poet, she was known in her later years for being reclusive and introverted

89

Langston Hughes

  • American author of the 20th century primarily associated with the Harlem Renaissance
  • In his writing he often depicted the black experience in the United States
  • His poems include "The Weary Blues" and "The Negro Speaks of Rivers"

90

Ralph Ellison

  • American author of the 20th century best known for his novel Invisible Man, about an unnamed black man who considers himself invisible to society
  • A recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1969, he also wrote the essay collections Going to the Territory and Shadow and Act

91

Ralph Waldo Emerson

  • American essayist and lecturer of the 19th century and a major leader of Trascendentalism
  • He is best known for championing individualism and for his essay Self-Reliance

92

Virginia Woolf

  • English author of the 20th century known as a modernist, particularly for her adoption of stream-of-consciousness writing
  • Her major works include the essay A Room of One's Own and the novels To the Lighthouse and Orlando

93

Alfred, Lord Tennyson

  • English poet of the 19th century who was Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom and highly popular during his time
  • His works include "The Charge of the Light Brigade" and "Crossing the Bar"
  • He wrote the famous lines "'Tis better to have loved and lost/Than never to have loved at all"

94

Truman Capote

  • American author of the 20th century whose works have frequently been adapted into films or TV dramas
  • He is best known for Breakfast at Tiffany's and In Cold Blood, about the murder of a Kansas family
  • His childhood friend Harper Lee helped him research and write In Cold Blood

95

Mark Twain

  • The pen name of Samuel Clemens, an American humorist and author of the 19th and 20th centuries
  • He is best known for his novels The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

96

Machado de Assis

  • Brazilian author of the 19th and 20th centuries, regarded as one of the greatest writers in Brazilian literature
  • His major works include Dom Casmurro, Quincas Borba, and The Posthumous Memoirs of Bras Cubas

97

Jorge Luis Borges

  • Argentinian writer and poet of the 20th century known for his short stories which combine myth, fantasy, magical realism, and philosophy
  • Some of his most famous works include The Aleph, Ficciones, and Los Conjurados

98

George Orwell

  • The pen name of Eric Blair, an English author of the 20th century known for his witty social commentary
  • His most famous works are Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four, a satirical novel depicting totalitarianism

99

Rudyard Kipling

  • English writer of the 19th and 20th centuries who wrote extensively about British imperialism
  • His works include the poems "The White Man's Burden" and "Gunga Din", the novella "The Man Who Would Be King", and the collection The Jungle Book

100

René Descartes

  • French philosopher of the 17th century who was fundamental to modern philosophy and the Scientific Revolution
  • Well versed in math as well, the Cartesian coordinate system is named after him
  • He is best known for the statement "I think, therefore I am"

101

  • American writer regarded as one of the most influential writers of the late 20th and early 21st centuries
  • Among his best-known works are the short story collection Brief Interviews with Hideous Men and his novel Infinite Jest
  • Also a well-respected nonfiction writer and professor at Pomona College, he committed suicide in 2008

David Foster Wallace

102

  • German author and politician of the 18th and 19th centuries, highly influential to European literature
  • His works include the two-part play Faust and the novels The Sorrows of Young Werther and Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe

103

  • English philosopher from the 17th century who argued that governments should depend on the consent of the governed and criticized the notion of monarchs' divine right
  • Also claimed that the human mind is a blank slate (tabula rasa) at birth and until experience eventually begins to write on it
  • His writings greatly influenced the American Founding Fathers

John Locke

104

  • English philosopher of the 17th century best known for his 1651 book Leviathan
  • He is regarded as a founder of modern political philosophy

Thomas Hobbes

105

  • Swiss-born French philosopher of the 18th century and one of the central figures of the Enlightenment
  • He argued that humans are good in the context of nature, but corrupted by society
  • Influential to modern thought and particularly to the French Revolution, he is known for his works On the Social Contract, Discourse on Inequality, Émile, and his autobiography Confessions

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

106

  • American humanist poet and journalist of the 19th century
  • He is known for his use of free verse, sexuality, and celebration of the material world
  • His most famous work is the collection Leaves of Grass, which contains the poem "Song of Myself"

Walt Whitman

107

  • American-born English poet and playwright of the 20th century
  • He is best known for his play Murder in the Cathedral and the poems "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" and "The Waste Land"

T.S. Eliot

108

  • American poet of the 19th century whose short, unconventional poems were, for the most part, published posthumously
  • Now considered a major American poet, she was known in her later years for being reclusive and introverted

Emily Dickinson

109

  • American author of the 20th century primarily associated with the Harlem Renaissance
  • In his writing he often depicted the black experience in the United States
  • His poems include "The Weary Blues" and "The Negro Speaks of Rivers"

Langston Hughes

110

  • American author of the 20th century best known for his novel Invisible Man, about an unnamed black man who considers himself invisible to society
  • A recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 1969, he also wrote the essay collections Going to the Territory and Shadow and Act

Ralph Ellison

111

  • American essayist and lecturer of the 19th century and a major leader of Trascendentalism
  • He is best known for championing individualism and for his essay Self-Reliance

Ralph Waldo Emerson

112

  • English author of the 20th century known as a modernist, particularly for her adoption of stream-of-consciousness writing
  • Her major works include the essay A Room of One's Own and the novels To the Lighthouse and Orlando

Virginia Woolf

113

  • English poet of the 19th century who was Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom and highly popular during his time
  • His works include "The Charge of the Light Brigade" and "Crossing the Bar"
  • He wrote the famous lines "'Tis better to have loved and lost/Than never to have loved at all"

Alfred, Lord Tennyson

114

  • American author of the 20th century whose works have frequently been adapted into films or TV dramas
  • He is best known for Breakfast at Tiffany's and In Cold Blood, about the murder of a Kansas family
  • His childhood friend Harper Lee helped him research and write In Cold Blood

Truman Capote

115

  • The pen name of Samuel Clemens, an American humorist and author of the 19th and 20th centuries
  • He is best known for his novels The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

Mark Twain

116

  • Brazilian author of the 19th and 20th centuries, regarded as one of the greatest writers in Brazilian literature
  • His major works include Dom Casmurro, Quincas Borba, and The Posthumous Memoirs of Bras Cubas

Machado de Assis

117

  • Argentinian writer and poet of the 20th century known for his short stories which combine myth, fantasy, magical realism, and philosophy
  • Some of his most famous works include The Aleph, Ficciones, and Los Conjurados

Jorge Luis Borges

118

  • The pen name of Eric Blair, an English author of the 20th century known for his witty social commentary
  • His most famous works are Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four, a satirical novel depicting totalitarianism

George Orwell

119

  • English writer of the 19th and 20th centuries who wrote extensively about British imperialism
  • His works include the poems "The White Man's Burden" and "Gunga Din", the novella "The Man Who Would Be King", and the collection The Jungle Book

Rudyard Kipling

120

  • French philosopher of the 17th century who was fundamental to modern philosophy and the Scientific Revolution
  • Well versed in math as well, the Cartesian coordinate system is named after him
  • He is best known for the statement "I think, therefore I am"

René Descartes

121

Vladimir Nabokov

  • Russian-born American writer of the 20th century who wrote at first in Russian and later in English
  • He is known for such works as the novels Lolita, Pale Fire, and The Defense, and the memoir Speak, Memory

122

Dylan Thomas

  • Welsh poet of the 20th century known for his rhythmic verse and turbulent lifestyle
  • His works include the radio dramas Under Milk Wood and A Child's Christmas in Wales, but he is most famous for the beginning of one poem, "Do not go gentle into that good night"

123

Robert Frost

  • American poet of the 19th and 20th centuries, celebrated by critics and readers alike and noted for his realistic treatment of rural life in America
  • Some of his poems include "Mending Wall", "Acquainted with the Night", and "The Road Not Taken"

124

Edgar Allen Poe

  • American author and poet of the 19th century known for his macabre horror stories and for establishing the detective fiction genre with his mysteries
  • His best-known works include the poem "The Raven" and the story "The Fall of the House of Usher"

125

the Brothers Grimm

  • Jacob and Wilhelm, German siblings, scholars, and authors of the 18th and 19th centuries
  • They collected folklore and published their collections, which included such classics as "Hansel and Gretel", "Little Red Riding Hood", "Sleeping Beauty", "Rumpelstiltskin", "Snow White", and "Cinderella"

126

Dr. Seuss

  • The pen name of Theodor Seuss Geisel, an American illustrator and author of the 20th century
  • His children's books are celebrated, and they include The Cat in the Hat, How the Grinch Stole Christmas!, Green Eggs and Ham, and Oh, the Places You'll Go!

127

Maurice Sendak

  • 20th and 21st-century American author and illustrator of children's books
  • His best-known works are Where the Wild Things Are, Outside Over There, and In the Night Kitchen

128

Roald Dahl

  • British author of the 20th century best known for his children's stories
  • His works include Fantastic Mr Fox, Matilda, James and the Giant Peach, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, and The Witches

129

Rodgers and Hammerstein

  • A 20th-century American musical theatre writing team; their first names were Richard and Oscar
  • Richard composed the music and Oscar the lyrics
  • Their best-known musicals are The Sound of Music and The King and I

130

Immanuel Kant

  • German philosopher from the 18th century whose major work is Critique of Pure Reason
  • He aimed to unite reason and experience, as in his mind metaphysics had not arrived at answers on important topics such as free will, God, and the soul

131

C.S. Lewis

Irish author and academic of the 20th century, best known for his works The Allegory of Love, The Screwtape Letters, The Space Trilogy, and The Chronicles of Narnia

132

Lewis Carroll

  • The pen name of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, an English author of the 19th century
  • He is best known for writing Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass

133

Simone de Beauvoir

  • French existentialist and feminist writer and philosopher of the 20th century
  • Her most famous works include the treatise The Second Sex and the novels Les Mandarins and L'Invitée
  • She is also known for her lifelong relationship with Jean-Paul Sartre

134

Dante

  • An Italian poet of the 13th and 14th centuries; commonly known by his first name, his surname was Alighieri
  • He is best known for his Divine Comedy, an epic poem about heaven, hell, and purgatory, considered a masterpiece of Italian and world literature

135

Geoffrey Chaucer

  • English poet of the 14th century who is regarded as the father of English poetry and the first major poet to write in English
  • His most famous work is The Canterbury Tales, a collection of stories written in rhyme and in Middle English about a group of pilgrims who tell stories to one another

136

John Milton

English poet of the 17th century best known as the author of Paradise Lost, an epic poem about the Biblical fall of man, regarded as one of the greatest works of English literature

137

Stan Lee

American comic book writer best known as the co-creator of characters such as Thor, Iron Man, the X-Men, the Hulk, and Spider-Man

138

Bob Kane

American comic book writer and artist best known for co-creating Batman, along with Bill Finger

139

Ian Fleming

English author of the 20th century who wrote the children's book Chitty-Chitty-Bang-Bang: The Magical Car and the James Bond series of spy novels

140

Jerry Siegel (writer) and Joe Shuster (artist)

The creators of the comic book superhero Superman

141

  • Russian-born American writer of the 20th century who wrote at first in Russian and later in English
  • He is known for such works as the novels Lolita, Pale Fire, and The Defense, and the memoir Speak, Memory

Vladimir Nabokov

142

  • Welsh poet of the 20th century known for his rhythmic verse and turbulent lifestyle
  • His works include the radio dramas Under Milk Wood and A Child's Christmas in Wales, but he is most famous for the beginning of one poem, "Do not go gentle into that good night"

Dylan Thomas

143

  • American poet of the 19th and 20th centuries, celebrated by critics and readers alike and noted for his realistic treatment of rural life in America
  • Some of his poems include "Mending Wall", "Acquainted with the Night", and "The Road Not Taken"

Robert Frost

144

  • American author and poet of the 19th century known for his macabre horror stories and for establishing the detective fiction genre with his mysteries
  • His best-known works include the poem "The Raven" and the story "The Fall of the House of Usher"

Edgar Allen Poe

145

  • Jacob and Wilhelm, German siblings, scholars, and authors of the 18th and 19th centuries
  • They collected folklore and published their collections, which included such classics as "Hansel and Gretel", "Little Red Riding Hood", "Sleeping Beauty", "Rumpelstiltskin", "Snow White", and "Cinderella"

the Brothers Grimm

146

  • The pen name of Theodor Seuss Geisel, an American illustrator and author of the 20th century
  • His children's books are celebrated, and they include The Cat in the Hat, How the Grinch Stole Christmas!, Green Eggs and Ham, and Oh, the Places You'll Go!

Dr. Seuss

147

  • 20th and 21st-century American author and illustrator of children's books
  • His best-known works are Where the Wild Things Are, Outside Over There, and In the Night Kitchen

Maurice Sendak

148

  • British author of the 20th century best known for his children's stories
  • His works include Fantastic Mr Fox, Matilda, James and the Giant Peach, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory, and The Witches

Roald Dahl

149

  • A 20th-century American musical theatre writing team; their first names were Richard and Oscar
  • Richard composed the music and Oscar the lyrics
  • Their best-known musicals are The Sound of Music and The King and I

Rodgers and Hammerstein

150

  • German philosopher from the 18th century whose major work is Critique of Pure Reason
  • He aimed to unite reason and experience, as in his mind metaphysics had not arrived at answers on important topics such as free will, God, and the soul

Immanuel Kant

151

Irish author and academic of the 20th century, best known for his works The Allegory of Love, The Screwtape Letters, The Space Trilogy, and The Chronicles of Narnia

C.S. Lewis

152

  • The pen name of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, an English author of the 19th century
  • He is best known for writing Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass

Lewis Carroll

153

  • French existentialist and feminist writer and philosopher of the 20th century
  • Her most famous works include the treatise The Second Sex and the novels Les Mandarins and L'Invitée
  • She is also known for her lifelong relationship with Jean-Paul Sartre

Simone de Beauvoir

154

  • An Italian poet of the 13th and 14th centuries; commonly known by his first name, his surname was Alighieri
  • He is best known for his Divine Comedy, an epic poem about heaven, hell, and purgatory, considered a masterpiece of Italian and world literature

Dante

155

  • English poet of the 14th century who is regarded as the father of English poetry and the first major poet to write in English
  • His most famous work is The Canterbury Tales, a collection of stories written in rhyme and in Middle English about a group of pilgrims who tell stories to one another

Geoffrey Chaucer

156

English poet of the 17th century best known as the author of Paradise Lost, an epic poem about the Biblical fall of man, regarded as one of the greatest works of English literature

John Milton

157

American comic book writer best known as the co-creator of characters such as Thor, Iron Man, the X-Men, the Hulk, and Spider-Man

Stan Lee

158

American comic book writer and artist best known for co-creating Batman, along with Bill Finger

Bob Kane

159

English author of the 20th century who wrote the children's book Chitty-Chitty-Bang-Bang: The Magical Car and the James Bond series of spy novels

Ian Fleming

160

The creators of the comic book superhero Superman

Jerry Siegel (writer) and Joe Shuster (artist)

161

Ayn Rand

  • Russian-born American writer of the 20th century
  • She is noted for her promotion of individual rights, reason as the central mode of knowledge and learning, and her philosophical system Objectivism
  • Her best-known works are the novels The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged

162

Samuel Beckett

  • Influential Irish author and playwright of the 20th century who wrote in both French and English
  • He is associated with modernism, minimalism, and the Theatre of the Absurd
  • He wrote the novel Molloy and the play Endgame, but he is best known for his play Waiting for Godot

163

Aesop

  • Ancient Greek storyteller credited with a series of fables
  • The tales are characterized by animal characters who can speak, and each contains a moral lesson
  • Some fables include "The Boy Who Cried Wolf" and "The Tortoise and the Hare"

164

Hans Christian Andersen

19th-century Danish author known for his children's fairy tales, which include "The Ugly Duckling", "The Emperor's New Clothes", "The Princess and the Pea", "Thumbelina", and "The Little Mermaid"

165

Anton Chekhov

  • Russian author of the 19th century, noted for his short stories and plays
  • Two of his major works are the plays Three Sisters and The Cherry Orchard

166

Noam Chomsky

  • American liguist and academic of the 20th and 21st centuries who is a professor at MIT
  • Considered the father of modern linguistics, he has written over 100 books on linguistics, politics, philosophy, media, and war

167

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

  • German philosopher of the 18th and 19th centuries who influenced a great many writers and thinkers, notably Karl Marx
  • He stressed the all-important nature of mind or spirit

168

Hermann Hesse

  • German-born Swiss author of the 19th and 20th centuries
  • He is best known for his novels Steppenwolf and Siddhartha, which explore such themes as spirituality, the duality of existence, and knowledge

169

Franz Kafka

  • Austrian author of the 20th century who is noted for the surreal, bizarre nature of his writing
  • His works include the novella The Metamorphosis and the novels The Castle and The Trial

170

Soren Kierkegaard

  • Danish philosopher from the 19th century, considered a forerunner of existentialism
  • A consistent theme of his writing was the loneliness and fear that can come with religion

171

Jean de La Fontaine

17th-century French author known for his classic Fables, a series of stories about animal characters that poke fun of and dispense moral lessons about the human condition

172

Niccolo Machiavelli

Italian Renaissance philosopher and author of The Prince, which advises rulers to maintain power by ruthlessly subordinating moral principles to personal or political goals

173

Molière

  • The stage name of Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, a French playwright and actor of the 17th century
  • Regarded as a genius of comedy, he was adored by the court of Louis XIV and aristocrats of Paris
  • His comedies include Tartuffe, or The Impostor, The Miser, and The Imaginary Invalid

174

Michel de Montaigne

  • French writer of the 16th century credited with establishing the essay as a literary genre
  • His best-known work is Essais, translated as "Attempts"

175

Montesquieu

  • French baron and political philosopher of the 18th century
  • His treatise The Spirit of Laws is famous for its articulation of the merits of the separation of powers in government

176

Pablo Neruda

  • Chilean statesman and poet, revered in Latin America during his lifetime
  • He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1971

177

Plutarch

  • Greek historian and biographer of the first and second centuries
  • He is known for his works Moralia and Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans

178

Marcel Proust

  • French author of the 19th and 20th centuries
  • He is most famous for his multi-volume novel À la recherche du temps perdu (In Search of Lost Time), which explores the theme of memory

179

François Rabelais

  • French writer of the 16th century
  • A French Renaissance humanist, his most famous work is the series of novels Gargantua and Pantagruel

180

Adam Smith

Scottish philosopher and writer of the 18th century, noted for his classic book The Wealth of Nations, considered the first work of modern economics

181

  • Russian-born American writer of the 20th century
  • She is noted for her promotion of individual rights, reason as the central mode of knowledge and learning, and her philosophical system Objectivism
  • Her best-known works are the novels The Fountainhead and Atlas Shrugged

Ayn Rand

182

  • Influential Irish author and playwright of the 20th century who wrote in both French and English
  • He is associated with modernism, minimalism, and the Theatre of the Absurd
  • He wrote the novel Molloy and the play Endgame, but he is best known for his play Waiting for Godot

Samuel Beckett

183

  • Ancient Greek storyteller credited with a series of fables
  • The tales are characterized by animal characters who can speak, and each contains a moral lesson
  • Some fables include "The Boy Who Cried Wolf" and "The Tortoise and the Hare"

Aesop

184

19th-century Danish author known for his children's fairy tales, which include "The Ugly Duckling", "The Emperor's New Clothes", "The Princess and the Pea", "Thumbelina", and "The Little Mermaid"

Hans Christian Andersen

185

  • Russian author of the 19th century, noted for his short stories and plays
  • Two of his major works are the plays Three Sisters and The Cherry Orchard

Anton Chekhov

186

  • American liguist and academic of the 20th and 21st centuries who is a professor at MIT
  • Considered the father of modern linguistics, he has written over 100 books on linguistics, politics, philosophy, media, and war

Noam Chomsky

187

  • German philosopher of the 18th and 19th centuries who influenced a great many writers and thinkers, notably Karl Marx
  • He stressed the all-important nature of mind or spirit

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

188

  • German-born Swiss author of the 19th and 20th centuries
  • He is best known for his novels Steppenwolf and Siddhartha, which explore such themes as spirituality, the duality of existence, and knowledge

Hermann Hesse

189

  • Austrian author of the 20th century who is noted for the surreal, bizarre nature of his writing
  • His works include the novella The Metamorphosis and the novels The Castle and The Trial

Franz Kafka

190

  • Danish philosopher from the 19th century, considered a forerunner of existentialism
  • A consistent theme of his writing was the loneliness and fear that can come with religion

Soren Kierkegaard

191

17th-century French author known for his classic Fables, a series of stories about animal characters that poke fun of and dispense moral lessons about the human condition

Jean de La Fontaine

192

Italian Renaissance philosopher and author of The Prince, which advises rulers to maintain power by ruthlessly subordinating moral principles to personal or political goals

Niccolo Machiavelli

193

  • The stage name of Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, a French playwright and actor of the 17th century
  • Regarded as a genius of comedy, he was adored by the court of Louis XIV and aristocrats of Paris
  • His comedies include Tartuffe, or The Impostor, The Miser, and The Imaginary Invalid

Molière

194

  • French writer of the 16th century credited with establishing the essay as a literary genre
  • His best-known work is Essais, translated as "Attempts"

Michel de Montaigne

195

  • French baron and political philosopher of the 18th century
  • His treatise The Spirit of Laws is famous for its articulation of the merits of the separation of powers in government

Montesquieu

196

  • Chilean statesman and poet, revered in Latin America during his lifetime
  • He won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1971

Pablo Neruda

197

  • Greek historian and biographer of the first and second centuries
  • He is known for his works Moralia and Lives of the Noble Greeks and Romans

Plutarch

198

  • French author of the 19th and 20th centuries
  • He is most famous for his multi-volume novel À la recherche du temps perdu (In Search of Lost Time), which explores the theme of memory

Marcel Proust

199

  • French writer of the 16th century
  • A French Renaissance humanist, his most famous work is the series of novels Gargantua and Pantagruel

François Rabelais

200

Scottish philosopher and writer of the 18th century, noted for his classic book The Wealth of Nations, considered the first work of modern economics

Adam Smith

201

Alexandre Dumas

  • French writer of the 19th century, best known for his historical novels
  • His most famous works are The Three Musketeers and The Count of Monte Cristo

202

Voltaire

  • The pen name of François-Marie Arouet, a French philosopher of the 18th century and a leading figure in the Enlightenment
  • A considerable influence on the French and American Revolutions, he championed freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and the separation of church and state
  • One of his major works is the satirical novella Candide

203

Émile Zola

  • French writer of the 19th century, noted as an important naturalist
  • He was a leading figure in the sociopolitical liberalization of France, and is most famous for his essay "J'Accuse", his criticism of the French government during the Dreyfus Affair

204

Maya Angelou

  • Influential American author of the 20th and 21st centuries
  • Her work has been viewed as representative of African-American culture
  • She was most famous for her autobiographical work I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings

205

Joseph Heller

  • American satirical writer of the 20th century
  • His major work is the war novel Catch-22, whose title entered the English lexicon, meaning any situation that puts one in a double bind

206

Chinua Achebe

  • Nigerian writer and professor of the 20th and 21st centuries
  • He often focused on colonialism, the effect of Christianity, and the clash between African and Western values
  • His most famous work is the novel Things Fall Apart

207

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

Scottish writer of the 19th and 20th centuries, best known as the creator of Sherlock Holmes

208

John Dos Passos

  • American author of the 20th century, considered part of the Lost Generation
  • He is best known for his experimental trilogy of novels U.S.A., which depict American society of the early 20th century

209

Robert Louis Stevenson

  • Scottish author of the 19th century
  • He is best known for The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde and Treasure Island

210

Agatha Christie

  • English author of the 20th century best known for her crime and detective novels
  • She is one of the most widely read and translated authors of all time

211

E.E. Cummings

American poet and author of the 20th century noted for his sometimes unconventional style and use of presentation or typography

212

Allen Ginsberg

American poet of the 20th century and one of the major figures of the Beat Generation in the 1950s, best known for his epic poem "Howl"

213

James Joyce

  • Celebrated Irish author of the 20th century, noted as an avant-garde modernist and for his occasional use of stream-of-consciousness writing
  • His major works include Ulysses, Dubliners, and Finnegans Wake

214

Norman Mailer

  • American author of the 20th century noted as a central figure in the development of creative nonfiction
  • A Pulitzer Prize-winner, he co-founded The Village Voice
  • His major works include The Executioner's Song, The Armies of the Night, and The Naked and the Dead

215

Stephen Hawking

  • English author, physicist, and professor of the 20th and 21st centuries
  • Noted for his research in general relativity, he wrote the popular book A Brief History of Time
  • He suffers from a disease related to ALS, which has left him almost entirely paralyzed

216

D.H. Lawrence

  • English author of the 20th century, noted for his at times controversial reflections on modernity, sex, and health
  • His novels include Sons and Lovers, Lady Chatterley's Lover, and Women in Love

217

Jack London

  • American author of the 19th and 20th centuries, often associated with magazine fiction
  • His works include White Fang and The Call of the Wild

218

Ogden Nash

  • American poet of the 20th century, noted for his witty poems and humorous light verse
  • One of his most famous lines is, "Candy is dandy but liquor is quicker"

219

A.A. Milne

English playwright and author of the 20th century, most famous for his books about Winnie-the-Pooh

220

Jonathan Swift

  • Irish satirist and author of the 17th and 18th centuries
  • He is best known for writing the novel Gulliver's Travels and the satirical essay "A Modest Proposal"

221

  • French writer of the 19th century, best known for his historical novels
  • His most famous works are The Three Musketeers and The Count of Monte Cristo

Alexandre Dumas

222

  • The pen name of François-Marie Arouet, a French philosopher of the 18th century and a leading figure in the Enlightenment
  • A considerable influence on the French and American Revolutions, he championed freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and the separation of church and state
  • One of his major works is the satirical novella Candide

Voltaire

223

  • French writer of the 19th century, noted as an important naturalist
  • He was a leading figure in the sociopolitical liberalization of France, and is most famous for his essay "J'Accuse", his criticism of the French government during the Dreyfus Affair

Émile Zola

224

  • Influential American author of the 20th and 21st centuries
  • Her work has been viewed as representative of African-American culture
  • She is most famous for her autobiographical work I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings

Maya Angelou

225

  • American satirical writer of the 20th century
  • His major work is the war novel Catch-22, whose title entered the English lexicon, meaning any situation that puts one in a double bind

Joseph Heller

226

  • Nigerian writer and professor of the 20th and 21st centuries
  • He often focused on colonialism, the effect of Christianity, and the clash between African and Western values
  • His most famous work is the novel Things Fall Apart

Chinua Achebe

227

Scottish writer of the 19th and 20th centuries, best known as the creator of Sherlock Holmes

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

228

  • American author of the 20th century, considered part of the Lost Generation
  • He is best known for his experimental trilogy of novels U.S.A., which depict American society of the early 20th century

John Dos Passos

229

  • Scottish author of the 19th century
  • He is best known for The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde and Treasure Island

Robert Louis Stevenson

230

  • English author of the 20th century best known for her crime and detective novels
  • She is one of the most widely read and translated authors of all time

Agatha Christie

231

American poet and author of the 20th century noted for his sometimes unconventional style and use of presentation or typography

E.E. Cummings

232

American poet of the 20th century and one of the major figures of the Beat Generation in the 1950s, best known for his epic poem "Howl"

Allen Ginsberg

233

  • Celebrated Irish author of the 20th century, noted as an avant-garde modernist and for his occasional use of stream-of-consciousness writing
  • His major works include Ulysses, Dubliners, and Finnegans Wake

James Joyce

234

  • American author of the 20th century noted as a central figure in the development of creative nonfiction
  • A Pulitzer Prize-winner, he co-founded The Village Voice
  • His major works include The Executioner's Song, The Armies of the Night, and The Naked and the Dead

Norman Mailer

235

  • English author, physicist, and professor of the 20th and 21st centuries
  • Noted for his research in general relativity, he wrote the popular book A Brief History of Time
  • He suffers from a disease related to ALS, which has left him almost entirely paralyzed

Stephen Hawking

236

  • English author of the 20th century, noted for his at times controversial reflections on modernity, sex, and health
  • His novels include Sons and Lovers, Lady Chatterley's Lover, and Women in Love

D.H. Lawrence

237

  • American author of the 19th and 20th centuries, often associated with magazine fiction
  • His works include White Fang and The Call of the Wild

Jack London

238

  • American poet of the 20th century, noted for his witty poems and humorous light verse
  • One of his most famous lines is, "Candy is dandy but liquor is quicker"

Ogden Nash

239

English playwright and author of the 20th century, most famous for his books about Winnie-the-Pooh

A.A. Milne

240

  • Irish satirist and author of the 17th and 18th centuries
  • He is best known for writing the novel Gulliver's Travels and the satirical essay "A Modest Proposal"

Jonathan Swift

241

James Matthew Barrie

Scottish author and playwright of the 19th and 20th centuries best known as the creator of Peter Pan

242

Washington Irving

American author of the 19th century, noted for his biographies and his short stories "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle"

243

Sylvia Plath

  • American writer and poet of the 20th century, known for the confessional nature of her poetry
  • She committed suicide at the age of 30, but left behind notable works such as The Bell Jar, Ariel, and The Colossus and Other Poems

244

Salman Rushdie

  • Indian-born British writer of the 20th and 21st centuries
  • He is known as the author of Midnight's Children, Shame, and the highly controversial The Satanic Verses

245

Gertrude Stein

  • Expatriate American writer, intellectual, and literary figure of the 20th century
  • Often credited with coining the term "Lost Generation", she hosted American artists at her Parisian home for many years, and published The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas

246

Milan Kundera

  • Czech-born writer of the 20th century, now a French citizen
  • The Czech Republic's most famous living author, his works include The Book of Laughter and Forgetting and The Unbearable Lightness of Being

247

Harriet Beecher Stowe

American abolitionist and author of the 19th century, best known for her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, which had a tremendous effect on anti-slavery sentiment in America

248

Oscar Wilde

Irish author of the 19th century, best known for his wit, his novel The Picture of Dorian Gray, and the play The Importance of Being Earnest

249

H.G. Wells

  • English author of the 19th and 20th centuries, noted for his prolific writing in a variety of different genres
  • He is most famous, however, as a writer of science fiction; his major works include The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, and The Invisible Man

250

William Butler Yeats

  • Irish poet of the 19th and 20th centuries, a prominent literary figure and recipient of the 1923 Nobel Prize in Literature
  • He is perhaps best known for his collection The Tower, which contains poems like "Among School Children", "Leda and the Swan", and "Sailing to Byzantium"

251

William Wordsworth

  • English poet of the 18th and 19th centuries, a major figure of Romanticism
  • Named Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom, he is known for his poem "The Prelude" and for his close friendship with Samuel Taylor Coleridge

252

Richard Wright

  • American author of the 20th century, noted for his works concerning the black experience in America
  • He is known for his autobiography Black Boy and his novels The Outsider and Native Son

253

Francis Scott Key

18th and 19th-century American lawyer and author who is best known for writing the lyrics to the American national anthem "The Star-Spangled Banner"

254

Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein

Washington Post journalists who did much of the original reporting on the Watergate scandal, which resulted in government investigations and the resignation of President Nixon

255

George Bernard Shaw

  • Irish author of the 19th and 20th centuries, best known as a playwright
  • His most famous play, Pygmalion, was later adopted into a film
  • He co-founded the London School of Economics

256

Lord Byron

  • English Romantic poet of the 19th century
  • His best-known work is the satirical poem "Don Juan"
  • He is noted for his rebellious nature and many love affairs
  • A hero in Greece for his aid in fighting against the Ottoman Empire in the Greek War of Independence, he died at age 36 from a fever contracted in Greece

257

José Saramago

  • Portuguese author of the 20th and 21st centuries
  • A celebrated world literary figure, he won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1998
  • His major works include Blindness and The Gospel According to Jesus Christ

258

William Goldman

  • American author and screenwriter of the 20th and 21st centuries
  • His works include the memoir Adventures in the Screen Trade, the novel (and screenplay for) The Princess Bride, and the screenplays for Misery, All the President's Men, and Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid

259

Joseph Campbell

  • American author of the 20th century noted for his work in comparative religion and mythology
  • His works include A Skeleton Key to Finnegans Wake and The Hero with a Thousand Faces, which had a considerable influence on George Lucas and the development of his Star Wars series
  • He is known for the line "Follow your bliss"

260

Joan Didion

  • American author of the 20th and 21st centuries, best known for her nonfiction works which explore American culture and family life
  • Her works include the essay collection The White Album and The Year of Magical Thinking

261

Scottish author and playwright of the 19th and 20th centuries best known as the creator of Peter Pan

James Matthew Barrie

262

American author of the 19th century, noted for his biographies and his short stories "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" and "Rip Van Winkle"

Washington Irving

263

  • American writer and poet of the 20th century, known for the confessional nature of her poetry
  • She committed suicide at the age of 30, but left behind notable works such as The Bell Jar, Ariel, and The Colossus and Other Poems

Sylvia Plath

264

  • Indian-born British writer of the 20th and 21st centuries
  • He is known as the author of Midnight's Children, Shame, and the highly controversial The Satanic Verses

Salman Rushdie

265

  • Expatriate American writer, intellectual, and literary figure of the 20th century
  • Often credited with coining the term "Lost Generation", she hosted American artists at her Parisian home for many years, and published The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas

Gertrude Stein

266

  • Czech-born writer of the 20th century, now a French citizen
  • The Czech Republic's most famous living author, his works include The Book of Laughter and Forgetting and The Unbearable Lightness of Being

Milan Kundera

267

American abolitionist and author of the 19th century, best known for her novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, which had a tremendous effect on anti-slavery sentiment in America

Harriet Beecher Stowe

268

Irish author of the 19th century, best known for his wit, his novel The Picture of Dorian Gray, and the play The Importance of Being Earnest

Oscar Wilde

269

  • English author of the 19th and 20th centuries, noted for his prolific writing in a variety of different genres
  • He is most famous, however, as a writer of science fiction; his major works include The Time Machine, The War of the Worlds, and The Invisible Man

H.G. Wells

270

  • Irish poet of the 19th and 20th centuries, a prominent literary figure and recipient of the 1923 Nobel Prize in Literature
  • He is perhaps best known for his collection The Tower, which contains poems like "Among School Children", "Leda and the Swan", and "Sailing to Byzantium"

William Butler Yeats

271

  • English poet of the 18th and 19th centuries, a major figure of Romanticism
  • Named Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom, he is known for his poem "The Prelude" and for his close friendship with Samuel Taylor Coleridge

William Wordsworth

272

  • American author of the 20th century, noted for his works concerning the black experience in America
  • He is known for his autobiography Black Boy and his novels The Outsider and Native Son

Richard Wright

273

18th and 19th-century American lawyer and author who is best known for writing the lyrics to the American national anthem "The Star-Spangled Banner"

Francis Scott Key

274

Washington Post journalists who did much of the original reporting on the Watergate scandal, which resulted in government investigations and the resignation of President Nixon

Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein

275

  • Irish author of the 19th and 20th centuries, best known as a playwright
  • His most famous play, Pygmalion, was later adopted into a film
  • He co-founded the London School of Economics

George Bernard Shaw

276

  • English Romantic poet of the 19th century
  • His best-known work is the satirical poem "Don Juan"
  • He is noted for his rebellious nature and many love affairs
  • A hero in Greece for his aid in fighting against the Ottoman Empire in the Greek War of Independence, he died at age 36 from a fever contracted in Greece

Lord Byron

277

  • Portuguese author of the 20th and 21st centuries
  • A celebrated world literary figure, he won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1998
  • His major works include Blindness and The Gospel According to Jesus Christ

José Saramago

278

  • American author and screenwriter of the 20th and 21st centuries
  • His works include the memoir Adventures in the Screen Trade, the novel (and screenplay for) The Princess Bride, and the screenplays for Misery, All the President's Men, and Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid

William Goldman

279

  • American author of the 20th century noted for his work in comparative religion and mythology
  • His works include A Skeleton Key to Finnegans Wake and The Hero with a Thousand Faces, which had a considerable influence on George Lucas and the development of his Star Wars series
  • He is known for the line "Follow your bliss"

Joseph Campbell

280

  • American author of the 20th and 21st centuries, best known for her nonfiction works which explore American culture and family life
  • Her works include the essay collection The White Album and The Year of Magical Thinking

Joan Didion

281

E.B. White

American writer and journalist of the 20th century, best known as the co-author of The Elements of Style and the author of Stuart Little and Charlotte's Web

282

Elizabeth Bishop

20th-century American poet who was Poet Laureate of the United States and a recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for her work, characterized by its highly detailed yet distant nature

283

Italo Calvino

  • 20th-century Italian author known for his short stories and novels
  • His works include Invisible Cities, The Baron in the Trees, and If on a winter's night a traveler
  • He was a member of Oulipo, a mostly French group of experimental writers

284

Georges Perec

  • French author of the 20th century
  • A member of the experimental writing group Oulipo, he is known for experimenting with word play in his writing
  • His works include La Vie mode d'emploi and La disparition, a novel written without the use of the letter "e"

285

Raymond Queneau

  • French writer of the 20th century best known as the co-founder of Oulipo, a group of writers who sought to stimulate creativy in their works by establishing writing constraints and techniques such as palindromes or lipograms
  • His works include Exercices de style, in which the same story is retold 99 times, each in a different way

286

Jack Kerouac

  • 20th-century American author and member of the Beat Generation
  • A countercultural icon, his writing was spontaneous in nature
  • He is known for works such as On the Road and The Dharma Bums

287

Henry James

  • 19th and 20th-century American author known for his novels The American and The Portrait of a Lady
  • He was the brother of psychologist William James

288

Virgil

  • Ancient Roman poet of the first century B.C.
  • He wrote the epic masterpiece Aeneid, and served as an inspiration to many, including Dante, who included him in his Divine Comedy

289

Murasaki Shikibu

  • 10th and 11th-century Japanese writer and lady-in-waiting at the Japanese Imperial court
  • She is best known as the author of the classic Japanese work The Tale of Genji, often regarded as the world's first novel

290

Laozi

  • Ancient philosopher of China, believed to have lived in the 6th century B.C.
  • He is known as the author of the classical text Tao Te Ching, which laid the foundation for Taoism

291

Sun Tzu

  • Ancient Chinese general and philosopher of the 6th century B.C.
  • He is widely credited as the author of The Art of War, regarded as the fundamental text on military strategy of its time

292

Joseph Conrad

  • Polish-born English author of the 19th and 20th centuries
  • Noted for his stylish prose, his works include Heart of Darkness, Nostromo, and Lord Jim

293

Jaroslav Hašek

Czech humorist and writer of the 19th and 20th centuries, most famous for his satirical collection The Good Soldier Švejk

294

Malcolm Gladwell

  • British-Canadian journalist of the 20th and 21st centuries who works for The New Yorker
  • His popular books, which often deal with social psychology and academic research, include The Tipping Point and Outliers

295

Bill Simmons

  • American sports columnist of the 20th and 21st centuries, highly popular and nicknamed The Sports Guy
  • He is noted for mixing pop culture into his analysis of sports, and currently heads Grantland.com, a sports site affiliated with ESPN

296

Boccaccio

  • 14th-century Italian poet, regarded as an important humanist of the Renaissance
  • A friend of Petrarch, his works include The Decameron and his collection of biographies On Famous Women

297

Petrarch

  • Italian poet and humanist of the 14th century
  • A contemporary of Boccaccio, he is known for coining the term "the Dark Ages" and for contributing to the development of lyrical poetry

298

Herodotus

  • Greek historian of the fifth century B.C. who is frequently referred to as the "Father of History"
  • The first historian to collect materials and resources and to arrange them in narrative form, his major work was a detailed history of the Greco-Persian Wars

299

Mary Wollstonecraft

  • English writer of the 18th century who is regarded as one of the founding feminist philosophers
  • Her daughter, Mary Shelley, wrote Frankenstein

300

Alice Walker

African-American writer of the 20th century best known for her novel The Color Purple, which won a Pulitzer Prize for Fiction and was adapted into a film

301

David Sedaris

  • American humorist and author of the 20th and 21st centuries
  • He is best known for his popular collections of essays and short stories, which are self-deprecating and often deal with his own personal or familial experiences

302

Carlos Fuentes

  • Mexican author of the 20th and 21st centuries, celebrated throughout the Spanish-speaking world
  • His major works include The Death of Artemio Cruz and The Old Gringo

303

Samuel Taylor Coleridge

  • English poet of the 18th and 19th centuries, regarded as a founder of English Romanticism along with his friend William Wordsworth
  • He is known for his poem "Kubla Khan", about Xanadu, the summer palace of the ancient Mongol emperor Kublai Khan

304

Ezra Pound

  • American expatriate modernist poet and author of the 20th century, noted for his promotion of Imagism
  • His works include the collection Ripostes and the long poem "Hugh Selwyn Mauberley"
  • He served as a mentor to many notable 20th-century authors such as Hemingway, Joyce, and T.S. Eliot, helping to publish their work
  • He later controversially supported Mussolini and Hitler

305

American writer and journalist of the 20th century, best known as the co-author of The Elements of Style and the author of Stuart Little and Charlotte's Web

E.B. White

306

20th-century American poet who was Poet Laureate of the United States and a recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for her work, characterized by its highly detailed yet distant nature

Elizabeth Bishop

307

  • 20th-century Italian author known for his short stories and novels
  • His works include Invisible Cities, The Baron in the Trees, and If on a winter's night a traveler
  • He was a member of Oulipo, a mostly French group of experimental writers

Italo Calvino

308

  • French author of the 20th century
  • A member of the experimental writing group Oulipo, he is known for experimenting with word play in his writing
  • His works include La Vie mode d'emploi and La disparition, a novel written without the use of the letter "e"

Georges Perec

309

  • French writer of the 20th century best known as the co-founder of Oulipo, a group of writers who sought to stimulate creativy in their works by establishing writing constraints and techniques such as palindromes or lipograms
  • His works include Exercices de style, in which the same story is retold 99 times, each in a different way

Raymond Queneau

310

  • 20th-century American author and member of the Beat Generation
  • A countercultural icon, his writing was spontaneous in nature
  • He is known for works such as On the Road and The Dharma Bums

Jack Kerouac

311

  • 19th and 20th-century American author known for his novels The American and The Portrait of a Lady
  • He was the brother of psychologist William James

Henry James

312

  • Ancient Roman poet of the first century B.C.
  • He wrote the epic masterpiece Aeneid, and served as an inspiration to many, including Dante, who included him in his Divine Comedy

Virgil

313

  • 10th and 11th-century Japanese writer and lady-in-waiting at the Japanese Imperial court
  • She is best known as the author of the classic Japanese work The Tale of Genji, often regarded as the world's first novel

Murasaki Shikibu

314

  • Ancient philosopher of China, believed to have lived in the 6th century B.C.
  • He is known as the author of the classical text Tao Te Ching, which laid the foundation for Taoism

Laozi

315

  • Ancient Chinese general and philosopher of the 6th century B.C.
  • He is widely credited as the author of The Art of War, regarded as the fundamental text on military strategy of its time

Sun Tzu

316

  • Polish-born English author of the 19th and 20th centuries
  • Noted for his stylish prose, his works include Heart of Darkness, Nostromo, and Lord Jim

Joseph Conrad

317

Czech humorist and writer of the 19th and 20th centuries, most famous for his satirical collection The Good Soldier Švejk

Jaroslav Hašek

318

  • British-Canadian journalist of the 20th and 21st centuries who works for The New Yorker
  • His popular books, which often deal with social psychology and academic research, include The Tipping Point and Outliers

Malcolm Gladwell

319

  • American sports columnist of the 20th and 21st centuries, highly popular and nicknamed The Sports Guy
  • He is noted for mixing pop culture into his analysis of sports, and currently heads Grantland.com, a sports site affiliated with ESPN

Bill Simmons

320

  • 14th-century Italian poet, regarded as an important humanist of the Renaissance
  • A friend of Petrarch, his works include The Decameron and his collection of biographies On Famous Women

Boccaccio

321

  • Italian poet and humanist of the 14th century
  • A contemporary of Boccaccio, he is known for coining the term "the Dark Ages" and for contributing to the development of lyrical poetry

Petrarch

322

  • Greek historian of the fifth century B.C. who is frequently referred to as the "Father of History"
  • The first historian to collect materials and resources and to arrange them in narrative form, his major work was a detailed history of the Greco-Persian Wars

Herodotus

323

  • English writer of the 18th century who is regarded as one of the founding feminist philosophers
  • Her daughter, Mary Shelley, wrote Frankenstein

Mary Wollstonecraft

324

African-American writer of the 20th century best known for her novel The Color Purple, which won a Pulitzer Prize for Fiction and was adapted into a film

Alice Walker

325

  • American humorist and author of the 20th and 21st centuries
  • He is best known for his popular collections of essays and short stories, which are self-deprecating and often deal with his own personal or familial experiences

David Sedaris

326

  • Mexican author of the 20th and 21st centuries, celebrated throughout the Spanish-speaking world
  • His major works include The Death of Artemio Cruz and The Old Gringo

Carlos Fuentes

327

  • English poet of the 18th and 19th centuries, regarded as a founder of English Romanticism along with his friend William Wordsworth
  • He is known for his poem "Kubla Khan", about Xanadu, the summer palace of the ancient Mongol emperor Kublai Khan

Samuel Taylor Coleridge

328

  • American expatriate modernist poet and author of the 20th century, noted for his promotion of Imagism
  • His works include the collection Ripostes and the long poem "Hugh Selwyn Mauberley"
  • He served as a mentor to many notable 20th-century authors such as Hemingway, Joyce, and T.S. Eliot, helping to publish their work
  • He later controversially supported Mussolini and Hitler

Ezra Pound