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Flashcards in World History Deck (278):
1

Alexander the Great

  • Ruler of Greece in the 4th century B.C.
  • Conquered most of the ancient world, extending his empire to India
  • Founded the city of Alexandria in Egypt

2

Attila the Hun

  • King of the Huns in the 5th century
  • His armies, known for their cruelty, overran much of eastern and central Europe

3

Augustus Caesar

  • First emperor of Rome and the adopted son of Julius Caesar
  • During his reign, Rome enjoyed a time of peace and a golden age for literature and the arts, resulting in the term "Augustan age"
  • The month of August is named after him
  • Jesus was born during his reign

4

Julius Caesar

  • Roman dictator and general in the first century B.C. who secured Roman rule over Gaul, present-day France, and later reported of a campaign in Asia, "I came, I saw, I conquered"
  • Fearing his power, the Roman senate demanded that he disband his army, but he refused and returned to Rome with his army, declaring himself dictator
  • Assassinated by his friend Brutus, an episode immortalized in Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar
  • Caesar endured as the family name of the next 11 rulers of Rome, while the word "caesar" later became adapted by emperors of Russia and Germany to "czar" and "kaiser"

5

Francis Bacon (philosopher)

  • English scientist, politician, and author of the 16th and 17th centuries
  • A leader of the Renaissance in England and advocate of the scientific method
  • Has been mentioned as a possible author of some of the plays attributed to Shakespeare

6

Vasco Núñez de Balboa

Spanish explorer of the 16th century who discovered the Pacific Ocean 

**The Pacific ocean was later named by Ferdinand Magellan**

7

Hannibal

  • General of the third and second centuries B.C. from the ancient northern African city of Carthage, which waged war against Rome in the Punic Wars
  • He tried to capture Rome by moving an enormous army from Spain through the Alps, but after several victories he was eventually defeated

8

Caligula

  • Tyrannical and ruthless ruler of Rome in the first century A.D.
  • One of the 12 Caesars
  • Once appointed his horse to the senate to mock the Roman senate

9

Charlemagne

Also known as "Charles the Great", the king of France in the 8th and 9th centuries and crowned the first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 800

10

Cleopatra

  • Queen of Egypt in the first century B.C.
  • Known for her beauty and luxurious lifestyle
  • After living for some time in Rome with Julius Caesar, she returned to Egypt where she lived with Roman politician Mark Antony
  • Antony's affair with her, as well as their suicides, was dramatized in a Shakespearean play

11

Christopher Columbus

  • Italian explorer who sailed across the Atlantic Ocean and discovered the New World in 1492
  • Casting off initially from Spain under the patronage of the king and queen of Spain, he had hoped to find a westward route to India

12

Constantine the Great

  • Roman emperor of the 4th century who founded Constantinople (present-day Istanbul), capital of the eastern part of the Roman Empire and later capital of the Byzantine Empire
  • Allowed Christians to practice their religion within the Roman Empire

13

Hernando Cortés

Spanish conquistador of the 16th century who conquered Mexico for Spain after overthrowing the Aztecs

14

Sir Thomas More

  • 16th-century English statesman and adviser to Henry VIII, who had him executed when he did not support Henry's becoming head of the Roman Catholic Church in England
  • Famous for his book Utopia, which depicts an ideal, imaginary society void of misery
  • Friend of Desiderius Erasmus

15

Desiderius Erasmus

  • 15th and 16th-century Dutch theologian and humanist, also known as Erasmus of Rotterdam
  • Proponent of religious toleration who sought to reform the Catholic Church while maintaining his recognition of the pope
  • Friend of Sir Thomas More

16

Leif Ericson

Norse explorer who is often regarded as the first European, rather than Columbus, to discover North America, around the year 1000

17

Genghis Khan

Mongolian emperor of the 12th and 13th centuries who conquered great areas of western Asia and northern China

18

Henry VIII

  • King of England from 1509 to 1547 who established himself the head of the Church in England when the pope refused to allow him to dissolve his marriage to Catherine of Aragon
  • England has remained a Protestant nation ever since
  • He had six wives in all

19

Joan of Arc

  • 15th-century French military heroine and Roman Catholic saint who led the French army to victories during the Hundred Years' War, eventually leading to the coronation of Charles VII
  • Her claims to have heard God speak to her led to a trial for heresy, after which she was burned at the stake at the age of 19

20

Francisco Pizarro

Spanish conquistador of the 16th century who established Peru after overthrowing the Incas

21

  • Ruler of Greece in the 4th century B.C.
  • Conquered most of the ancient world, extending his empire to India
  • Founded the city of Alexandria in Egypt

Alexander the Great

22

  • King of the Huns in the 5th century
  • His armies, known for their cruelty, overran much of eastern and central Europe

Attila the Hun

23

  • First emperor of Rome and the adopted son of Julius Caesar
  • During his reign, Rome enjoyed a time of peace and a golden age for literature and the arts, resulting in the term "Augustan age"
  • The month of August is named after him
  • Jesus was born during his reign

Augustus Caesar

24

  • Roman dictator and general in the first century B.C. who secured Roman rule over Gaul, present-day France, and later reported of a campaign in Asia, "I came, I saw, I conquered"
  • Fearing his power, the Roman senate demanded that he disband his army, but he refused and returned to Rome with his army, declaring himself dictator
  • Assassinated by his friend Brutus, an episode immortalized in Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar
  • Caesar endured as the family name of the next 11 rulers of Rome, while the word "caesar" later became adapted by emperors of Russia and Germany to "czar" and "kaiser"

Julius Caesar

25

  • English scientist, politician, and author of the 16th and 17th centuries
  • A leader of the Renaissance in England and advocate of the scientific method
  • Has been mentioned as a possible author of some of the plays attributed to Shakespeare

Francis Bacon (philosopher)

26

Spanish explorer of the 16th century who discovered the Pacific Ocean

Vasco Núñez de Balboa

27

  • General of the third and second centuries B.C. from the ancient northern African city of Carthage, which waged war against Rome in the Punic Wars
  • He tried to capture Rome by moving an enormous army from Spain through the Alps, but after several victories he was eventually defeated

Hannibal

28

  • Tyrannical and ruthless ruler of Rome in the first century A.D.
  • One of the 12 Caesars
  • Once appointed his horse to the senate to mock the Roman senate

Caligula

29

Also known as "Charles the Great", the king of France in the 8th and 9th centuries and crowned the first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire in 800

Charlemagne

30

  • Queen of Egypt in the first century B.C.
  • Known for her beauty and luxurious lifestyle
  • After living for some time in Rome with Julius Caesar, she returned to Egypt where she lived with Roman politician Mark Antony
  • Antony's affair with her, as well as their suicides, was dramatized in a Shakespearean play

Cleopatra

31

  • Italian explorer who sailed across the Atlantic Ocean and discovered the New World in 1492
  • Casting off initially from Spain under the patronage of the king and queen of Spain, he had hoped to find a westward route to India

Christopher Columbus

32

  • Roman emperor of the 4th century who founded Constantinople (present-day Istanbul), capital of the eastern part of the Roman Empire and later capital of the Byzantine Empire
  • Allowed Christians to practice their religion within the Roman Empire

Constantine the Great

33

Spanish conquistador of the 16th century who conquered Mexico for Spain after overthrowing the Aztecs

Hernando Cortés

34

  • 16th-century English statesman and adviser to Henry VIII, who had him executed when he did not support Henry's becoming head of the Roman Catholic Church in England
  • Famous for his book Utopia, which depicts an ideal, imaginary society void of misery
  • Friend of Desiderius Erasmus

Sir Thomas More

35

  • 15th and 16th-century Dutch theologian and humanist, also known as Erasmus of Rotterdam
  • Proponent of religious toleration who sought to reform the Catholic Church while maintaining his recognition of the pope
  • Friend of Sir Thomas More

Desiderius Erasmus

36

Norse explorer who is often regarded as the first European, rather than Columbus, to discover North America, around the year 1000

Leif Ericson

37

Mongolian emperor of the 12th and 13th centuries who conquered great areas of western Asia and northern China

Genghis Khan

38

  • King of England from 1509 to 1547 who established himself the head of the Church in England when the pope refused to allow him to dissolve his marriage to Catherine of Aragon
  • England has remained a Protestant nation ever since
  • He had six wives in all

Henry VIII

39

  • 15th-century French military heroine and Roman Catholic saint who led the French army to victories during the Hundred Years' War, eventually leading to the coronation of Charles VII
  • Her claims to have heard God speak to her led to a trial for heresy, after which she was burned at the stake at the age of 19

Joan of Arc

40

Spanish conquistador of the 16th century who established Peru after overthrowing the Incas

Francisco Pizarro

41

Montezuma II

Also known as Moctezuma II, an Aztec emperor and ruler of Tenochtitlan who was overthrown by the Spanish under Hernando Cortés

42

Nero

  • Roman emperor from the first century A.D. known for his tyranny and persecution of Christians
  • Although during his short reign he oversaw a successful war and sought to enhance cultural, artistic, and athletic life in Rome, he was driven from the throne and became the first Roman emperor to commit suicide
  • Many believed he had started the Great Fire of Rome himself

43

William The Conqueror

Duke of Normandy who in 1066 launched the Norman conquest of England, eventually becoming the first Norman king of England

44

Ferdinand Magellan

  • Portuguese explorer whose final expedition was the first expedition to sail around the Earth (though he was killed before completion of the voyage)
  • His expedition was also the first to sail from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean, which he named "Mar Pacifico" (the "Peaceful Sea")
  • The Strait of Magellan is named for him

45

Marco Polo

  • Italian merchant and explorer from the 13th and 14th centuries whose travels across Asia were recorded in the travelogue The Travels of Marco Polo and introduced Europeans to the cultures of Central Asia
  • The book later inspired Christopher Columbus, and claims that Polo became a government official at the court of Kublai Khan, the Mongol ruler of China

46

Juan Ponce de León

  • Spanish conquistador from the 15th and 16th centuries who established and became the first governor of Puerto Rico
  • He also named Florida, where he led an expedition in search of the legendary Fountain of Youth

47

Pericles

  • Greek statesman and general of Athens from the 5th century B.C.
  • Promoted Athenian democracy and championed the arts, overseeing the creation of many great structures like the Parthenon and much of the Acropolis
  • His rule is sometimes known as the Age of Pericles or the Golden Age

48

Kemal Ataturk

Turkish statesman who helped found modern-day Turkey in the 1920s after the fall of the Ottoman Empire, establishing a secular government

49

Yasir Arafat

  • Palestinian leader and head of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and of the Fatah political party
  • Opposed and fought against Israel for much of his life but later engaged in negotiations to end conflicts between Israel and the PLO
  • For his participation in the Oslo Accords, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1994
  • After his death in 2004, he has remained a controversial figure, revered by many and reviled by many others

50

David Ben-Gurion

20th-century Israeli leader who was important to the formation of Israel and was named the country's first prime minister

51

Salvador Allende

  • 20th-century Chilean politician who became the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country when he won the Chilean presidency in 1970
  • He was overthrown and committed suicide during a military coup supported by the CIA in 1973
  • Following the coup, Chile became a military junta

52

Osama bin Laden

  • Islamic terrorist and founder of al-Qaeda, the jihadist network that bombed the American embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998 and attacked the World Trade Center and Pentagon in the September 11 attacks of 2001
  • After a decade of being the major target of the War on Terror, he was killed by American forces in Pakistan in May 2011

53

Otto von Bismarck

  • German statesman of the 19th century who was largely responsible for the unification of modern Germany
  • After the Franco-Prussian War ended in 1871, he unified numerous German states as a single German Empire under Prussian leadership, with him as the first chancellor
  • His leadership was marked by economic progress, conservatism, and a preserved peace in Europe in the later 19th century

54

Simón Bolívar

  • 18th and 19th-century Venezuelan military and political leader who successfully fought the Spanish Empire for the independence of countries in South America
  • He helped lead Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia (named in his honor) to independence
  • One of the most important politicians in Latin American history, he helped lay the foundation for democracy in much of the region

55

Fidel Castro

  • 20th-century Cuban communist political leader who led the 1959 revolution that overthrew the United States-backed dictator of Cuba
  • He then oversaw Cuba's transformation into a communist state, serving first as prime minister then as president
  • Due to his alliance with the Soviet Union, the United States implemented an economic blockade of Cuba and unsuccessfully invaded the island in 1961
  • In 1962, he allowed the Soviets to place nuclear weapons on Cuba, leading to the Cuban Missile Crisis, at the end of which the missiles were removed
  • He remains a controversial world figure, regarded by some as an abusive dictator and by others as a champion of socialism and anti-imperialism

56

Catherine the Great

  • Empress of Russia in the 18th century who reigned for over thirty years
  • Under her rule Russia grew larger and stronger than ever and became one of the great powers of Europe
  • She encouraged the cultural influences of Western Europe and presided over the Russian Enlightenment
  • She is known for her many romantic affairs, many of them with members of her court and government

57

Chiang Kai-shek

  • Chinese nationalist military and political leader of the 20th century who was president of China until he was overthrown by Mao Zedong's communist forces in 1949
  • He then fled to Taiwan and established the Republic of China, which exists to this day

58

Winston Churchill

  • British author and statesman best known for serving twice as Prime Minister, most notably during World War II
  • Formed an alliance with Franklin D. Roosevelt (USA) and Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union) against Hitler's Germany and came to epitomize British resistance to conquest by the Nazis
  • Regarded as a great orator, he also won a Nobel Prize in Literature

59

Georges Clemenceau

  • 19th and 20th-century French doctor, journalist, and statesman who twice served as Prime Minister of France and led the country to victory in World War I
  • One of the principal architects of the Treaty of Versailles, he was less forgiving than American president Woodrow Wilson and wanted to punish Germany for having started the Great War
  • As an editor and journalist, he is noted for having published Émile Zola's famous article "J'accuse" on the front page of his newspaper L'Aurore, one of the major events of the Dreyfus Affair

60

Captain James Cook

18th-century English explorer noted for establishing the first European colony in Australia and for exploring the western coast of North America, New Zealand, and Hawaii

61

Also known as Moctezuma II, an Aztec emperor and ruler of Tenochtitlan who was overthrown by the Spanish under Hernando Cortés

Montezuma II

62

  • Roman emperor from the first century A.D. known for his tyranny and persecution of Christians
  • Although during his short reign he oversaw a successful war and sought to enhance cultural, artistic, and athletic life in Rome, he was driven from the throne and became the first Roman emperor to commit suicide
  • Many believed he had started the Great Fire of Rome himself

Nero

63

Duke of Normandy who in 1066 launched the Norman conquest of England, eventually becoming the first Norman king of England

William The Conqueror

64

  • Portuguese explorer whose final expedition was the first expedition to sail around the Earth (though he was killed before completion of the voyage)
  • His expedition was also the first to sail from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean, which he named "Mar Pacifico" (the "Peaceful Sea")
  • The Strait of Magellan is named for him

Ferdinand Magellan

65

  • Italian merchant and explorer from the 13th and 14th centuries whose travels across Asia were recorded in the travelogue The Travels of Marco Polo and introduced Europeans to the cultures of Central Asia
  • The book later inspired Christopher Columbus, and claims that Polo became a government official at the court of Kublai Khan, the Mongol ruler of China

Marco Polo

66

  • Spanish conquistador from the 15th and 16th centuries who established and became the first governor of Puerto Rico
  • He also named Florida, where he led an expedition in search of the legendary Fountain of Youth

Juan Ponce de León

67

  • Greek statesman and general of Athens from the 5th century B.C.
  • Promoted Athenian democracy and championed the arts, overseeing the creation of many great structures like the Parthenon and much of the Acropolis
  • His rule is sometimes known as the Age of Pericles or the Golden Age

Pericles

68

Turkish statesman who helped found modern-day Turkey in the 1920s after the fall of the Ottoman Empire, establishing a secular government

Kemal Ataturk

69

  • Palestinian leader and head of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and of the Fatah political party
  • Opposed and fought against Israel for much of his life but later engaged in negotiations to end conflicts between Israel and the PLO
  • For his participation in the Oslo Accords, he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1994
  • After his death in 2004, he has remained a controversial figure, revered by many and reviled by many others

Yasir Arafat

70

20th-century Israeli leader who was important to the formation of Israel and was named the country's first prime minister

David Ben-Gurion

71

  • 20th-century Chilean politician who became the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country when he won the Chilean presidency in 1970
  • He was overthrown and committed suicide during a military coup supported by the CIA in 1973
  • Following the coup, Chile became a military junta

Salvador Allende

72

  • Islamic terrorist and founder of al-Qaeda, the jihadist network that bombed the American embassies in Tanzania and Kenya in 1998 and attacked the World Trade Center and Pentagon in the September 11 attacks of 2001
  • After a decade of being the major target of the War on Terror, he was killed by American forces in Pakistan in May 2011

Osama bin Laden

73

  • German statesman of the 19th century who was largely responsible for the unification of modern Germany
  • After the Franco-Prussian War ended in 1871, he unified numerous German states as a single German Empire under Prussian leadership, with him as the first chancellor
  • His leadership was marked by economic progress, conservatism, and a preserved peace in Europe in the later 19th century

Otto von Bismarck

74

  • 18th and 19th-century Venezuelan military and political leader who successfully fought the Spanish Empire for the independence of countries in South America
  • He helped lead Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia (named in his honor) to independence
  • One of the most important politicians in Latin American history, he helped lay the foundation for democracy in much of the region

Simón Bolívar

75

  • 20th-century Cuban communist political leader who led the 1959 revolution that overthrew the United States-backed dictator of Cuba
  • He then oversaw Cuba's transformation into a communist state, serving first as prime minister then as president
  • Due to his alliance with the Soviet Union, the United States implemented an economic blockade of Cuba and unsuccessfully invaded the island in 1961
  • In 1962, he allowed the Soviets to place nuclear weapons on Cuba, leading to the Cuban Missile Crisis, at the end of which the missiles were removed
  • He remains a controversial world figure, regarded by some as an abusive dictator and by others as a champion of socialism and anti-imperialism

Fidel Castro

76

  • Empress of Russia in the 18th century who reigned for over thirty years
  • Under her rule Russia grew larger and stronger than ever and became one of the great powers of Europe
  • She encouraged the cultural influences of Western Europe and presided over the Russian Enlightenment
  • She is known for her many romantic affairs, many of them with members of her court and government

Catherine the Great

77

  • Chinese nationalist military and political leader of the 20th century who was president of China until he was overthrown by Mao Zedong's communist forces in 1949
  • He then fled to Taiwan and established the Republic of China, which exists to this day

Chiang Kai-shek

78

  • British author and statesman best known for serving twice as Prime Minister, most notably during World War II
  • Formed an alliance with Franklin D. Roosevelt (USA) and Joseph Stalin (Soviet Union) against Hitler's Germany and came to epitomize British resistance to conquest by the Nazis
  • Regarded as a great orator, he also won a Nobel Prize in Literature

Winston Churchill

79

  • 19th and 20th-century French doctor, journalist, and statesman who twice served as Prime Minister of France and led the country to victory in World War I
  • One of the principal architects of the Treaty of Versailles, he was less forgiving than American president Woodrow Wilson and wanted to punish Germany for having started the Great War
  • As an editor and journalist, he is noted for having published Émile Zola's famous article "J'accuse" on the front page of his newspaper L'Aurore, one of the major events of the Dreyfus Affair

Georges Clemenceau

80

18th-century English explorer noted for establishing the first European colony in Australia and for exploring the western coast of North America, New Zealand, and Hawaii

Captain James Cook

81

Oliver Cromwell

  • Puritan English political and military leader of the 17th century who led the Parliamentarians to victory in the English Civil War and became the Lord Protector of the Commonwealth
  • Monarchy was restored shortly after his death
  • He remains a controversial figure, particularly for his ruthless dictatorial style and harsh treatment of Catholics in Scotland and Ireland

82

Charles De Gaulle

  • French general and politician of the 20th century famous for heading the French Resistance to the Nazis in World War II
  • Later, as president of France, he helped end the Algerian War by granting independence to Algeria
  • Fiercely patriotic, he sought to strengthen France by developing its atomic weapons program and by championing a foreign policy independent of the influences of other world powers

83

Elizabeth I

  • Daughter of Henry VIII and queen of England in the 16th and 17th centuries
  • Her reign, known as the Elizabethan Period, coincided with the Renaissance in England, including Shakespeare's rise to fame
  • The US state of Virginia is named for her; because she never married, she was called the Virgin Queen

84

Karl Marx

  • German economist, philosopher, and socialist of the 19th century who founded Marxism, the fundamental theory of communism that calls for a classless society where all means of production are commonly owned
  • Working closely with his friend Friedrich Engels, Marx's two most famous works are Das Kapital and The Communist Manifesto
  • Marxist ideology contributed to the creation of socialist states like the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China in the 20th century

85

Vladimir Lenin

  • Russian communist revolutionary leader, member of the Bolshevik party, and central figure in the 1917 Russian Revolution and establishment of the Soviet Union
  • Oversaw Soviet industrialization, the implementation of state capitalism, the transfer of land to workers' soviets, and the country's exit from World War I
  • Served as the chief of government until his death in 1924, whereby he was succeeded by Joseph Stalin

86

Joseph Stalin

  • Soviet leader of the 20th century who ruled the Soviet Union from Lenin's death in 1924 to 1953
  • His policies of collectivization and industrialization displaced millions and contributed to a famine, and they were followed by the Great Purge, a period of brutal repression against those seen as opponents of the government
  • After leading the Soviet Union to victory in World War II, he figured prominently in the Potsdam and Yalta Conferences, then led the USSR in its development as a world power, contributing to the Cold War

87

Nelson Mandela

  • 20th-century South African politician and most prominent leader in the struggle against Apartheid
  • As a member of the African National Congress, he was arrested and convicted of sabotage in 1962 and sentenced to life imprisonment by the white minority government
  • Released in 1990, he helped in the establishment of democracy in 1994, and was then elected South Africa's president in the country's first fully representative, all-race democratic election
  • He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993

88

Mahatma Gandhi

  • The leader of India's drive for independence from Britain, noted for employing non-violent and passive resistance
  • The honorific Mahatma means "Great Soul"
  • Regarded as a hero and father of India, he was assassinated in 1948 shortly after India had secured its independence

89

Mao Zedong

  • Chinese communist revolutionary and the founder of the People's Republic of China in 1949 following the flight of Chiang Kai-shek to Taiwan
  • In the two decades before the communist takeover, his Communist Party of China had clashed with Chiang's Kuomintang party in the Chinese Civil War, with the two sides uniting temporarily to defeat invading Japanese forces
  • He served as Chairman of the Communist Party of China until his death in 1976, overseeing the nationalization of the country's industries and businesses, socialist reforms, the improvement of healthcare and education, and the modernization of China
  • He is criticized for his Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, a program to purge and weed out all capitalist culture, and for many perceived human rights abuses that occurred during his rule

90

Elizabeth II

  • The present queen of Britain, the longest-lived British monarch ever
  • During her reign many former British territories have gained independence
  • Her husband is Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and her daughter-in-law was Diana, Princess of Wales

91

Archduke Francis Ferdinand

Austrian prince whose assassination in 1914 led to the outbreak of World War I

92

Francisco Franco

  • Fascist Spanish military leader and dictator of the 20th century
  • Led the Nationalists to victory in the Spanish Civil War (1936-39) and ruled Spain until his death in 1975

93

Adolf Hitler

  • Austrian-born German politician of the 20th century who was head of the Nazi Party, dictator of Nazi Germany, and led Germany in World War II
  • Author of the memoir Mein Kampf (My Struggle), which outlined his program for Germany
  • As chancellor of Germany he established the Third Reich, a single-party dictatorship, and began World War II in 1939 by invading Poland
  • Wishing to create a master race of Aryans, he supervised the systematic murder of 11 million people, including 6 million Jews (the Holocaust)
  • In 1945, with Germany's defeat imminent, he and his wife Eva Braun committed suicide

94

Mikhail Gorbachev

  • The Soviet Union's last president, who attempted to restructure the country's economy by adopting certain capitalist elements
  • Hard-line communists staged a coup against him in 1991, but it quickly collapsed and he returned to the presidency, but he was unable to prevent the eventual dissolution of the USSR

95

Che Guevara

  • Argentine Marxist revolutionary who figured prominently in the Cuban Revolution that saw Fidel Castro rise to power
  • He later became a guerrilla leader in Latin America, eventually captured and killed in Bolivia in 1967
  • His visage has since become a countercultural symbol of rebellion

96

Hirohito

  • Japanese emperor of the 20th century who reigned over Japan in World War II
  • After the war, he was not prosecuted for war crimes and was forced to give up the claim to divine status
  • He then became the symbol of Japan's recovery, and he died in 1989, his nation's economy the second largest in the world

97

Ho Chi Minh

  • Vietnamese revolutionary of the 20th century who helped found the communist Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945
  • His forces helped drive out Japanese forces in the 40s and defeat the French in 1954
  • Although he died during the Vietnam War, he served as an inspiration for the People's Army of Vietnam and the Viet Cong fighting for a united, communist Vietnam
  • Saigon was renamed in his honor

98

Saddam Hussein

  • Dictator of Iraq from 1979 to 2003, noted for the brutality of his dictatorship, namely his suppression of Shi'ite Muslims and Kurds
  • He nationalized oil and sought to make Iraq the dominant force in the Persian Gulf, invading Iran in 1980 and Kuwait in 1990, leading to the Persian Gulf War
  • In 2003, British and American forces invaded Iraq to depose him and institute a transition to democracy
  • Under the interim Iraqi government, he was tried and sentenced to death for the killing of Iraqi Shi'ites in 1982; he was executed in 2006

99

Pol Pot

  • 20th-century Cambodian revolutionary who led the Khmer Rouge, the communist movement in Cambodia that came to power in 1975
  • His three-year dictatorship saw the Cambodian population being forced to relocate to work in labor projects and collective farms, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 1 to 3 million people
  • When the Khmer Rouge fell in 1979, he fled to the jungles and died under house arrest in 1998

100

Louis XIV

  • Powerful French king who ruled in the 17th and 18th centuries
  • Known as the Sun King, he reigned for more than 70 years and strongly believed in the divine right of kings
  • During his reign France was the leading European power, and he helped create a centralized state by pacifying the aristocracy by inviting many nobles to live at his palace at Versailles

101

  • Puritan English political and military leader of the 17th century who led the Parliamentarians to victory in the English Civil War and became the Lord Protector of the Commonwealth
  • Monarchy was restored shortly after his death
  • He remains a controversial figure, particularly for his ruthless dictatorial style and harsh treatment of Catholics in Scotland and Ireland

Oliver Cromwell

102

  • French general and politician of the 20th century famous for heading the French Resistance to the Nazis in World War II
  • Later, as president of France, he helped end the Algerian War by granting independence to Algeria
  • Fiercely patriotic, he sought to strengthen France by developing its atomic weapons program and by championing a foreign policy independent of the influences of other world powers

Charles De Gaulle

103

  • Daughter of Henry VIII and queen of England in the 16th and 17th centuries
  • Her reign, known as the Elizabethan Period, coincided with the Renaissance in England, including Shakespeare's rise to fame
  • The US state of Virginia is named for her; because she never married, she was called the Virgin Queen

Elizabeth I

104

  • German economist, philosopher, and socialist of the 19th century who founded Marxism, the fundamental theory of communism that calls for a classless society where all means of production are commonly owned
  • Working closely with his friend Friedrich Engels, Marx's two most famous works are Das Kapital and The Communist Manifesto
  • Marxist ideology contributed to the creation of socialist states like the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China in the 20th century

Karl Marx

105

  • Russian communist revolutionary leader, member of the Bolshevik party, and central figure in the 1917 Russian Revolution and establishment of the Soviet Union
  • Oversaw Soviet industrialization, the implementation of state capitalism, the transfer of land to workers' soviets, and the country's exit from World War I
  • Served as the chief of government until his death in 1924, whereby he was succeeded by Joseph Stalin

Vladimir Lenin

106

  • Soviet leader of the 20th century who ruled the Soviet Union from Lenin's death in 1924 to 1953
  • His policies of collectivization and industrialization displaced millions and contributed to a famine, and they were followed by the Great Purge, a period of brutal repression against those seen as opponents of the government
  • After leading the Soviet Union to victory in World War II, he figured prominently in the Potsdam and Yalta Conferences, then led the USSR in its development as a world power, contributing to the Cold War

Joseph Stalin

107

  • 20th-century South African politician and most prominent leader in the struggle against Apartheid
  • As a member of the African National Congress, he was arrested and convicted of sabotage in 1962 and sentenced to life imprisonment by the white minority government
  • Released in 1990, he helped in the establishment of democracy in 1994, and was then elected South Africa's president in the country's first fully representative, all-race democratic election
  • He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1993

Nelson Mandela

108

  • The leader of India's drive for independence from Britain, noted for employing non-violent and passive resistance
  • The honorific Mahatma means "Great Soul"
  • Regarded as a hero and father of India, he was assassinated in 1948 shortly after India had secured its independence

Mahatma Gandhi

109

  • Chinese communist revolutionary and the founder of the People's Republic of China in 1949 following the flight of Chiang Kai-shek to Taiwan
  • In the two decades before the communist takeover, his Communist Party of China had clashed with Chiang's Kuomintang party in the Chinese Civil War, with the two sides uniting temporarily to defeat invading Japanese forces
  • He served as Chairman of the Communist Party of China until his death in 1976, overseeing the nationalization of the country's industries and businesses, socialist reforms, the improvement of healthcare and education, and the modernization of China
  • He is criticized for his Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, a program to purge and weed out all capitalist culture, and for many perceived human rights abuses that occurred during his rule

Mao Zedong

110

  • The present queen of Britain, the longest-lived British monarch ever
  • During her reign many former British territories have gained independence
  • Her husband is Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, and her daughter-in-law was Diana, Princess of Wales

Elizabeth II

111

Austrian prince whose assassination in 1914 led to the outbreak of World War I

Archduke Francis Ferdinand

112

  • Fascist Spanish military leader and dictator of the 20th century
  • Led the Nationalists to victory in the Spanish Civil War (1936-39) and ruled Spain until his death in 1975

Francisco Franco

113

  • Austrian-born German politician of the 20th century who was head of the Nazi Party, dictator of Nazi Germany, and led Germany in World War II
  • Author of the memoir Mein Kampf (My Struggle), which outlined his program for Germany
  • As chancellor of Germany he established the Third Reich, a single-party dictatorship, and began World War II in 1939 by invading Poland
  • Wishing to create a master race of Aryans, he supervised the systematic murder of 11 million people, including 6 million Jews (the Holocaust)
  • In 1945, with Germany's defeat imminent, he and his wife Eva Braun committed suicide

Adolf Hitler

114

  • The Soviet Union's last president, who attempted to restructure the country's economy by adopting certain capitalist elements
  • Hard-line communists staged a coup against him in 1991, but it quickly collapsed and he returned to the presidency, but he was unable to prevent the eventual dissolution of the USSR

Mikhail Gorbachev

115

  • Argentine Marxist revolutionary who figured prominently in the Cuban Revolution that saw Fidel Castro rise to power
  • He later became a guerrilla leader in Latin America, eventually captured and killed in Bolivia in 1967
  • His visage has since become a countercultural symbol of rebellion

Che Guevara

116

  • Japanese emperor of the 20th century who reigned over Japan in World War II
  • After the war, he was not prosecuted for war crimes and was forced to give up the claim to divine status
  • He then became the symbol of Japan's recovery, and he died in 1989, his nation's economy the second largest in the world

Hirohito

117

  • Vietnamese revolutionary of the 20th century who helped found the communist Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945
  • His forces helped drive out Japanese forces in the 40s and defeat the French in 1954
  • Although he died during the Vietnam War, he served as an inspiration for the People's Army of Vietnam and the Viet Cong fighting for a united, communist Vietnam
  • Saigon was renamed in his honor

Ho Chi Minh

118

  • Dictator of Iraq from 1979 to 2003, noted for the brutality of his dictatorship, namely his suppression of Shi'ite Muslims and Kurds
  • He nationalized oil and sought to make Iraq the dominant force in the Persian Gulf, invading Iran in 1980 and Kuwait in 1990, leading to the Persian Gulf War
  • In 2003, British and American forces invaded Iraq to depose him and institute a transition to democracy
  • Under the interim Iraqi government, he was tried and sentenced to death for the killing of Iraqi Shi'ites in 1982; he was executed in 2006

Saddam Hussein

119

  • 20th-century Cambodian revolutionary who led the Khmer Rouge, the communist movement in Cambodia that came to power in 1975
  • His three-year dictatorship saw the Cambodian population being forced to relocate to work in labor projects and collective farms, resulting in the deaths of an estimated 1 to 3 million people
  • When the Khmer Rouge fell in 1979, he fled to the jungles and died under house arrest in 1998

Pol Pot

120

  • Powerful French king who ruled in the 17th and 18th centuries
  • Known as the Sun King, he reigned for more than 70 years and strongly believed in the divine right of kings
  • During his reign France was the leading European power, and he helped create a centralized state by pacifying the aristocracy by inviting many nobles to live at his palace at Versailles

Louis XIV

121

Louis XVI

  • The last king of France before the French Revolution
  • Although he first accepted a change from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy, he and his family, including his wife Marie Antoinette, tried to flee the country but were caught and returned to Paris as traitors and prisoners
  • He and Marie Antoinette were beheaded in 1793

122

Benito Mussolini

  • Fascist Italian dictator of the 1930s and 40s who allied with Germany and Japan in World War II
  • He was killed in April 1945, with Italian defeat looming

123

Napoleon Bonaparte

  • French general and emperor of the 18th and 19th centuries
  • After climbing the ranks of army and government during and after the French Revolution, he declared himself emperor in 1804
  • He and his armies conquered most of continental Europe, and he sought to promote the ideals of the French Revolution, most notably via the Napoleonic Code, a greatly influential legal code that allowed freedom of religion and forbade privileges based on birth
  • After a catastrophic campaign in Russia, he was eventually defeated and exiled to Elba, but he briefly returned to power before losing at Waterloo in 1815
  • He died in 1821 in confinement on the island of St. Helena

124

Eva Perón

  • Argentine political figure and wife of President Juan Perón
  • From 1946 on, she became incredibly popular in Argentina, promoting labor rights, founding the charitable Eva Perón Foundation, and championing women's suffrage
  • She died of cancer in 1952 at the age of 33
  • The musical Evita is based on her life

125

Peter the Great

  • Russian czar of the 17th and 18th centuries who expanded Russia into a large empire and transformed its medieval sociopolitical system into a more modern and Western science-based one
  • He established the new capital, St. Petersburg (which was temporarily renamed Leningrad in the 20th century)

126

Jawaharlal Nehru

  • Indian politician and close associate of Mahatma Gandhi who served as India's first prime minister from 1947 until his death in 1964
  • His daughter, Indira Gandhi, later served as Indian prime minister two times, but was killed in 1984

127

Vladimir Putin

  • President of Russia currently serving his third term
  • He has also served as Russia's Prime Minister
  • A former officer in the KGB, he is credited with helping to return Russia to political and economic stability
  • Accused at times of being a dictator, he is a generally popular figure, namely for his adventurous image

128

Muammar Gaddafi

  • Libyan politician who was ruler of Libya, holding various official titles, from 1969 to 2011
  • An Arab nationalist, he pushed Libya toward socialism and championed anti-imperialism, but was also seen as a dictator who oversaw many humans rights abuses
  • In 2011, an uprising (with NATO and EU support) broke out and he was captured and executed by rebel militia

129

Grigori Rasputin

  • Russian mystic and healer of the 19th and 20th centuries who was a close adviser to the czar of Russia, Nicholas II, and his wife Alexandra
  • He appeared to be the only person capable of alleviating the symptoms of the czar's only son Alexei, who suffered from hemophilia
  • He was greatly influential in the later years of the czar's reign, his political suggestions ultimately proving to be disastrous for the czar, who was overthrown in 1917
  • He was killed in 1916 by jealous Russian noblemen

130

Sir Walter Raleigh

English explorer of the 16th and 17th centuries who explored the Americas and is credited with introducing both the potato and tobacco into England

131

Cardinal Richelieu

  • French clergyman and statesman of the 17th century and King Louis XIII's chief minister
  • He helped to establish absolute monarchy in France, founded the Académie Française, and contributed to the retention of Quebec as a French colony
  • He is a character in Dumas's The Three Musketeers, depicted as the antagonist

132

Maximilien Robespierre

  • French political leader of the 18th century and one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution
  • Responsible in large part for the Reign of Terror, he was executed in 1794 after public opinion of him and his extreme policies shifted

133

Margaret Thatcher

  • British politician and Prime Minister of the UK from 1979-90, the only woman to have held the position
  • Nicknamed the Iron Lady and a member of the Conservative Party, she emphasized deregulation and privatization

134

Queen Victoria

  • Queen of the United Kingdom from 1837 until her death in 1901
  • Her reign, the longest of any British monarch, is known as the Victorian Era, and characterized by the growth and power of the British Empire
  • The Victorian Era was a period of great industrial and cultural development within the UK, and is also associated with a certain strict sense of morality

135

Pancho Villa

  • 19th and 20th-century Mexican revolutionary general who famously raided Columbus, New Mexico in 1916 and was pursued unsuccessfully by American General John Pershing
  • He was assassinated in 1923 at the age of 45, and today his memory is honored by Mexicans

136

Duke of Wellington

Arthur Wellesley, a British general and statesman of the 19th century who commanded the allied army that defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo

137

Marshal Tito

Yugoslav military leader and statesman of the 20th century who led the resistance movement in Yugoslavia during World War II and who later established communist rule in Yugoslavia

138

Angela Merkel

  • The current Chancellor of Germany and the first woman to have held the position
  • Regarded as a leader of the EU and in managing the financial crisis, she is considered one of the most powerful women in the world

139

Pope John Paul II

  • Pope of the Catholic Church from 1978 until his death in 2005
  • Regarded as one of most influential leaders of the 20th century, he sought to improve the Church's standing with other world religions such as Islam and Judaism

140

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

Former president of Iran (2005-13) and controversial international figure for his hard-line conservative views, perceived disregard for human rights, and support of Iran's nuclear program

141

  • The last king of France before the French Revolution
  • Although he first accepted a change from absolute monarchy to constitutional monarchy, he and his family, including his wife Marie Antoinette, tried to flee the country but were caught and returned to Paris as traitors and prisoners
  • He and Marie Antoinette were beheaded in 1793

Louis XVI

142

  • Fascist Italian dictator of the 1930s and 40s who allied with Germany and Japan in World War II
  • He was killed in April 1945, with Italian defeat looming

Benito Mussolini

143

  • French general and emperor of the 18th and 19th centuries
  • After climbing the ranks of army and government during and after the French Revolution, he declared himself emperor in 1804
  • He and his armies conquered most of continental Europe, and he sought to promote the ideals of the French Revolution, most notably via the Napoleonic Code, a greatly influential legal code that allowed freedom of religion and forbade privileges based on birth
  • After a catastrophic campaign in Russia, he was eventually defeated and exiled to Elba, but he briefly returned to power before losing at Waterloo in 1815
  • He died in 1821 in confinement on the island of St. Helena

Napoleon Bonaparte

144

  • Argentine political figure and wife of President Juan Perón
  • From 1946 on, she became incredibly popular in Argentina, promoting labor rights, founding the charitable Eva Perón Foundation, and championing women's suffrage
  • She died of cancer in 1952 at the age of 33
  • The musical Evita is based on her life

Eva Perón

145

  • Russian czar of the 17th and 18th centuries who expanded Russia into a large empire and transformed its medieval sociopolitical system into a more modern and Western science-based one
  • He established the new capital, St. Petersburg (which was temporarily renamed Leningrad in the 20th century)

Peter the Great

146

  • Indian politician and close associate of Mahatma Gandhi who served as India's first prime minister from 1947 until his death in 1964
  • His daughter, Indira Gandhi, later served as Indian prime minister two times, but was killed in 1984

Jawaharlal Nehru

147

  • President of Russia currently serving his third term
  • He has also served as Russia's Prime Minister
  • A former officer in the KGB, he is credited with helping to return Russia to political and economic stability
  • Accused at times of being a dictator, he is a generally popular figure, namely for his adventurous image

Vladimir Putin

148

  • :Libyan politician who was ruler of Libya, holding various official titles, from 1969 to 2011
  • An Arab nationalist, he pushed Libya toward socialism and championed anti-imperialism, but was also seen as a dictator who oversaw many humans rights abuses
  • In 2011, an uprising (with NATO and EU support) broke out and he was captured and executed by rebel militia

Muammar Gaddafi

149

  • Russian mystic and healer of the 19th and 20th centuries who was a close adviser to the czar of Russia, Nicholas II, and his wife Alexandra
  • He appeared to be the only person capable of alleviating the symptoms of the czar's only son Alexei, who suffered from hemophilia
  • He was greatly influential in the later years of the czar's reign, his political suggestions ultimately proving to be disastrous for the czar, who was overthrown in 1917
  • He was killed in 1916 by jealous Russian noblemen

Grigori Rasputin

150

English explorer of the 16th and 17th centuries who explored the Americas and is credited with introducing both the potato and tobacco into England

Sir Walter Raleigh

151

  • French clergyman and statesman of the 17th century and King Louis XIII's chief minister
  • He helped to establish absolute monarchy in France, founded the Académie Française, and contributed to the retention of Quebec as a French colony
  • He is a character in Dumas's The Three Musketeers, depicted as the antagonist

Cardinal Richelieu

152

  • French political leader of the 18th century and one of the most radical leaders of the French Revolution
  • Responsible in large part for the Reign of Terror, he was executed in 1794 after public opinion of him and his extreme policies shifted

Maximilien Robespierre

153

  • British politician and Prime Minister of the UK from 1979-90, the only woman to have held the position
  • Nicknamed the Iron Lady and a member of the Conservative Party, she emphasized deregulation and privatization

Margaret Thatcher

154

  • Queen of the United Kingdom from 1837 until her death in 1901
  • Her reign, the longest of any British monarch, is known as the Victorian Era, and characterized by the growth and power of the British Empire
  • The Victorian Era was a period of great industrial and cultural development within the UK, and is also associated with a certain strict sense of morality

Queen Victoria

155

  • 19th and 20th-century Mexican revolutionary general who famously raided Columbus, New Mexico in 1916 and was pursued unsuccessfully by American General John Pershing
  • He was assassinated in 1923 at the age of 45, and today his memory is honored by Mexicans

Pancho Villa

156

Arthur Wellesley, a British general and statesman of the 19th century who commanded the allied army that defeated Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo

Duke of Wellington

157

Yugoslav military leader and statesman of the 20th century who led the resistance movement in Yugoslavia during World War II and who later established communist rule in Yugoslavia

Marshal Tito

158

  • The current Chancellor of Germany and the first woman to have held the position
  • Regarded as a leader of the EU and in managing the financial crisis, she is considered one of the most powerful women in the world

Angela Merkel

159

  • Pope of the Catholic Church from 1978 until his death in 2005
  • Regarded as one of most influential leaders of the 20th century, he sought to improve the Church's standing with other world religions such as Islam and Judaism

Pope John Paul II

160

Former president of Iran (2005-13) and controversial international figure for his hard-line conservative views, perceived disregard for human rights, and support of Iran's nuclear program

Mahmoud Ahmadinejad

161

Kim Jong-il

  • Leader of North Korea from 1994 until his death in 2011
  • Known for having a cult of personality within North Korea and for a poor human rights record, whereby most aspects of sociopolitical and economic life were controlled by his government

162

Hugo Chávez

  • The president of Venezuela from 1999 until his death in 2013
  • A divisive figure, he worked to implement socialist reforms in Venezuela as part of his Bolivarian Revolution

163

Justinian The Great

Byzantine Emperor of the 6th century who sought and partly realized the recovery of the western territories of the lost Western Roman Empire

164

Confucius

Chinese philosopher of the 6th century B.C. and founder of Confucianism, a code of ethics that still governs Chinese culture and stresses ancestor worship, family relationships, learning, and loyalty

165

Princess Diana

  • Princess of Wales, member of the British Royal Family, and first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to Queen Elizabeth II
  • One of the most famous women in the world in the late 20th century, she was well known for her grace, beauty, and charity work
  • She died in 1997 in a car accident in Paris

166

Mother Teresa

Albanian-born Roman Catholic nun of the 20th century who won the Nobel Peace Price in 1979 for her humanitarian work, namely in Calcutta

167

Socrates

  • Ancient Greek philosopher who was the teacher of Plato and is known for the Socratic method of teaching, which proceeds by question and answer instead of by lecture
  • Seen as one of the founders of Western philosophy, particularly as it relates to ethics and logic
  • He was condemned to death by the citizens of Athens, who found him guilty of denying the existence of the gods and of corrupting the minds of the Athenian youth

168

Plato

  • Ancient Greek philosopher and founder of the Academy in Athens, the Western world's first institution of higher learning
  • One of the most important figures in Western science and philosophy, he was a student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle
  • He is known for his philosophical dialogues, which include the Republic and the Symposium

169

Aristotle

  • Ancient Greek philosopher who was a student of Plato and served as tutor to Alexander the Great
  • One of the most important figures in Western philosophy, he wrote on many subjects and his writings and philosophy continue to be studied today
  • His most important surviving treatises include Metaphysics, Politics, Poetics, and Physics

170

Martin Luther

  • 16th-century German religious leader and founder of Protestantism
  • A priest of the Roman Catholic Church, he began the Reformation by attacking the Church for allowing the sale of indulgences
  • Believing that the Church was also opposed to the Bible on the question of justification by grace through faith and the doctrine of transubstantiation, he called for the formation of a new body of Christians

171

Thomas Aquinas

  • Italian philosopher and priest of the 13th century and a saint of the Roman Catholic Church
  • A proponent of natural theology, he reconciled reason and faith by arguing that philosophy could be compatible with Christianity

172

Vasco da Gama

  • Portuguese explorer of the 15th and 16th centuries and one of the most famous explorers of the Age of Discovery
  • The first European to reach India by sea, he helped to establish Portugal's colonial empire in Asia

173

Suleiman the Magnificent

  • Emperor of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century who oversaw his empire at its political, economic, and military height
  • He restructured the Ottoman legal system and was a great patron of culture, his reign coinciding with the Ottoman Empire's golden age of artistic development

174

John Calvin

  • French Protestant religious reformer from the 16th century and the founder of Calvinism
  • His most famous doctrine was that of predestination

175

Anne Frank

  • German-born Jewish girl who has become remembered as one of the most prominent victims of the Holocaust
  • Her diary, published after her death and the conclusion of World War II as The Diary of a Young Girl, documents her experiences hiding from Nazis during the German occupation of the Netherlands
  • She and her family were discovered in 1944, and she died in 1945 after being sent to a concentration camp

176

de Medici Family

  • A family of politicians and patrons of the arts, based in Florence during the Renaissance
  • One of them, Lorenzo, is best known as a patron of many of the great artists of the period

177

Pablo Escobar

  • Colombian drug lord of the 20th century who headed the Medellín drug cartel and gained considerable wealth, political power, and popularity in Colombia
  • He was killed in 1993

178

King John of England

  • John Lackland, King of England in the 13th century most famous for having been pressured in 1215 into signing the Magna Carta, considered to have laid the groundwork for the constitution of the UK
  • He is depicted in the Robin Hood legends as a villain

179

Kublai Khan

  • 13th-century Mongol emperor and founder of the Yuan Dynasty in China, who reigned over present-day Mongolia, Korea, and China
  • Marco Polo claimed to have become a member of the emperor's court during his travels to Asia

180

Lech Walesa

  • Polish statesman and activist who founded Solidarity, an influential independent trade union, and later became President of Poland in 1990
  • A recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, he oversaw Poland's transition into a post-communist state

181

  • Leader of North Korea from 1994 until his death in 2011
  • Known for having a cult of personality within North Korea and for a poor human rights record, whereby most aspects of sociopolitical and economic life were controlled by his government

Kim Jong-il

182

  • The president of Venezuela from 1999 until his death in 2013
  • A divisive figure, he worked to implement socialist reforms in Venezuela as part of his Bolivarian Revolution

Hugo Chávez

183

Byzantine Emperor of the 6th century who sought and partly realized the recovery of the western territories of the lost Western Roman Empire

Justinian The Great

184

Chinese philosopher of the 6th century B.C. and founder of Confucianism, a code of ethics that still governs Chinese culture and stresses ancestor worship, family relationships, learning, and loyalty

Confucius

185

  • Princess of Wales, member of the British Royal Family, and first wife of Charles, Prince of Wales, heir apparent to Queen Elizabeth II
  • One of the most famous women in the world in the late 20th century, she was well known for her grace, beauty, and charity work
  • She died in 1997 in a car accident in Paris

Princess Diana

186

Albanian-born Roman Catholic nun of the 20th century who won the Nobel Peace Price in 1979 for her humanitarian work, namely in Calcutta

Mother Teresa

187

  • Ancient Greek philosopher who was the teacher of Plato and is known for the Socratic method of teaching, which proceeds by question and answer instead of by lecture
  • Seen as one of the founders of Western philosophy, particularly as it relates to ethics and logic
  • He was condemned to death by the citizens of Athens, who found him guilty of denying the existence of the gods and of corrupting the minds of the Athenian youth

Socrates

188

  • Ancient Greek philosopher and founder of the Academy in Athens, the Western world's first institution of higher learning
  • One of the most important figures in Western science and philosophy, he was a student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle
  • He is known for his philosophical dialogues, which include the Republic and the Symposium

Plato

189

  • Ancient Greek philosopher who was a student of Plato and served as tutor to Alexander the Great
  • One of the most important figures in Western philosophy, he wrote on many subjects and his writings and philosophy continue to be studied today
  • His most important surviving treatises include Metaphysics, Politics, Poetics, and Physics

Aristotle

190

  • 16th-century German religious leader and founder of Protestantism
  • A priest of the Roman Catholic Church, he began the Reformation by attacking the Church for allowing the sale of indulgences
  • Believing that the Church was also opposed to the Bible on the question of justification by grace through faith and the doctrine of transubstantiation, he called for the formation of a new body of Christians

Martin Luther

191

  • Italian philosopher and priest of the 13th century and a saint of the Roman Catholic Church
  • A proponent of natural theology, he reconciled reason and faith by arguing that philosophy could be compatible with Christianity

Thomas Aquinas

192

  • Portuguese explorer of the 15th and 16th centuries and one of the most famous explorers of the Age of Discovery
  • The first European to reach India by sea, he helped to establish Portugal's colonial empire in Asia

Vasco da Gama

193

  • Emperor of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century who oversaw his empire at its political, economic, and military height
  • He restructured the Ottoman legal system and was a great patron of culture, his reign coinciding with the Ottoman Empire's golden age of artistic development

Suleiman the Magnificent

194

  • French Protestant religious reformer from the 16th century and the founder of Calvinism
  • His most famous doctrine was that of predestination

John Calvin

195

  • :German-born Jewish girl who has become remembered as one of the most prominent victims of the Holocaust
  • Her diary, published after her death and the conclusion of World War II as The Diary of a Young Girl, documents her experiences hiding from Nazis during the German occupation of the Netherlands
  • She and her family were discovered in 1944, and she died in 1945 after being sent to a concentration camp

Anne Frank

196

  • A family of politicians and patrons of the arts, based in Florence during the Renaissance
  • One of them, Lorenzo, is best known as a patron of many of the great artists of the period

de Medici Family

197

  • Colombian drug lord of the 20th century who headed the Medellín drug cartel and gained considerable wealth, political power, and popularity in Colombia
  • He was killed in 1993

Pablo Escobar

198

  • John Lackland, King of England in the 13th century most famous for having been pressured in 1215 into signing the Magna Carta, considered to have laid the groundwork for the constitution of the UK
  • He is depicted in the Robin Hood legends as a villain

King John of England

199

  • 13th-century Mongol emperor and founder of the Yuan Dynasty in China, who reigned over present-day Mongolia, Korea, and China
  • Marco Polo claimed to have become a member of the emperor's court during his travels to Asia

Kublai Khan

200

  • Polish statesman and activist who founded Solidarity, an influential independent trade union, and later became President of Poland in 1990
  • A recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1983, he oversaw Poland's transition into a post-communist state

Lech Walesa

201

Christina, Queen of Sweden

  • Queen of Sweden in the 17th century known for her unconventional artistic and intellectual tastes
  • In 1654 she abdicated her throne and converted to Catholicism, and later moved to Rome, where she became a patron of the arts

202

Charles XII of Sweden

  • 17th and 18th-century king of Sweden who led the Swedish army in the Great Northern War
  • Although he earned victories early on, he eventually lost his life in 1718, leading to the temporary end of absolute monarchy in Sweden, but more importantly, to the end of the Swedish Empire

203

Gustavus Adolphus

King of Sweden in the early 17th century, responsible for leading Sweden during the Thirty Years War and for establishing it as a European power and empire

204

José de San Martín

  • 19th-century Argentine general who played a major role in the successful South American struggle for independence from Spain
  • He was directly involved in the liberation of both Chile and Peru, and is seen along with Simón Bolívar as one of the liberators of Spanish South America

205

Bernardo O'Higgins

  • 19th-century Chilean independence leader of Spanish and Irish descent who is regarded as one of Chile's founding fathers
  • Along with José de San Martín, he helped free Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence

206

The 14th Dalai Lama

  • The current Dalai Lama, the head monk in the Gelug branch of Tibetan Buddhism
  • Holding the position since he was 15 in 1950, he won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989 and is known as a charismatic speaker who advocates for Tibetans and who emphasizes the importance of compassion and its relationship to happiness

207

Kim Il-sung

  • 20th-century communist founder and leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, or North Korea, from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994
  • In 1950, he invaded South Korea, beginning the Korean War, which, after American and UN intervention, ended three years later
  • His reign is often seen as having been an autocracy, and like his son and successor Kim Jong-il, he established in North Korea a great cult of personality

208

Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini

  • Iranian religious and revolutionary leader of the 20th century who imposed rule by Islamic law and became Iran's dictator in 1979 following the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
  • He wished to rid Iran of foreign influences, and supported the Iranian militants who took American hostages during the Iran hostage crisis from 1979-81
  • He died in 1989

209

T.E. Lawrence

  • English soldier of the 20th century, known as Lawrence of Arabia
  • Led a rebellion of Arabs against the Turks in World War I, later depicting the experience in his book Seven Pillars of Wisdom
  • A film detailing his experiences in the war, Lawrence of Arabia, came out in 1962

210

Muhammad Ali of Egypt

  • 18th and 19th-century Ottoman military leader who became the head of Sudan and Egypt
  • Considered the founder of modern Egypt, he made many economic and military reforms and established a dynasty that would last until the Egyptian Revolution of 1952

211

Anwar Sadat

  • Egyptian revolutionary and statesman of the 20th century who contributed to the overthrow of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952
  • Succeeded Gamal Abdel Nasser as President of Egypt in 1970, and negotiated the Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty, which was unpopular to many Arabs and led ultimately to his assassination in 1981

212

Enver Pasha

20th-century Ottoman military officer who fought in the Balkan Wars and World War I and was a leader of the Young Turk revolution

213

Haile Selassie I

  • Ethiopia's leader (as regent and then emperor) from 1916 to 1974, and one of the most significant figures in African history
  • He was revered as a messiah of the Rastafari movement, and he was a promoter of collective security at the international level

214

Desmond Tutu

  • South African Anglican bishop most famous for his human rights activism and opposition to apartheid
  • A recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984, he has campaigned over the years to fight against illness, poverty, racism, and sexism
  • He was the first black South African Archbishop of Cape Town

215

Jan Smuts

  • South African and British Commonwealth statesman and military leader who served twice as South Africa's Prime Minister
  • He is most known for playing an instrumental role in the establishment of the League of Nations, and later called for the creation of the UN
  • He served in both World Wars, and was also the only person to sign the peace treaties ending both of the wars

216

Guru Nanak

15th and 16th-century religious leader and Sikh Guru who founded the religion of Sikhism

217

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

  • 20th-century political figure who was the Shah of Persia and the last King of Iran
  • The Shah was a secular Muslim who promoted modernization and recognized Israel, and he was overthrown in 1979 in the Iranian Revolution
  • He died in 1980 while in exile in Egypt, having been granted asylum by President Anwar Sadat

218

Gamal Abdel Nasser

  • Egyptian colonel and statesman who overthrew the monarchy of Egypt and Sudan in the Revolution of 1952
  • He was the second President of Egypt from 1956 until his death in 1970, and promoted socialist reform and modernization
  • The Suez Crisis occurred during his administration, and its end, along with his strong emphasis of pan-Arab nationalism, made him a hero in the Arab world

219

Joseph Goebbels

  • German political leader of the 20th century most noted for being Adolf Hitler's close confidant and Propaganda Minister of the Nazi government
  • He committed suicide when Germany's defeat became imminent

220

Idi Amin

  • Ugandan military leader and statesman who seized power from President Milton Obote in a 1971 coup
  • He then served as Uganda's president until 1979, when the Uganda-Tanzania War resulted in his eventual flight to Saudi Arabia, where he died in 2003
  • His rule was marked by repression and human rights abuse, and his regime has been accused of being responsible for the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people

221

  • Queen of Sweden in the 17th century known for her unconventional artistic and intellectual tastes
  • In 1654 she abdicated her throne and converted to Catholicism, and later moved to Rome, where she became a patron of the arts

Christina, Queen of Sweden

222

  • 17th and 18th-century king of Sweden who led the Swedish army in the Great Northern War
  • Although he earned victories early on, he eventually lost his life in 1718, leading to the temporary end of absolute monarchy in Sweden, but more importantly, to the end of the Swedish Empire

Charles XII of Sweden

223

King of Sweden in the early 17th century, responsible for leading Sweden during the Thirty Years War and for establishing it as a European power and empire

Gustavus Adolphus

224

  • 19th-century Argentine general who played a major role in the successful South American struggle for independence from Spain
  • He was directly involved in the liberation of both Chile and Peru, and is seen along with Simón Bolívar as one of the liberators of Spanish South America

José de San Martín

225

  • 19th-century Chilean independence leader of Spanish and Irish descent who is regarded as one of Chile's founding fathers
  • Along with José de San Martín, he helped free Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence

Bernardo O'Higgins

226

  • The current Dalai Lama, the head monk in the Gelug branch of Tibetan Buddhism
  • Holding the position since he was 15 in 1950, he won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989 and is known as a charismatic speaker who advocates for Tibetans and who emphasizes the importance of compassion and its relationship to happiness

The 14th Dalai Lama

227

  • 20th-century communist founder and leader of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, or North Korea, from its establishment in 1948 until his death in 1994
  • In 1950, he invaded South Korea, beginning the Korean War, which, after American and UN intervention, ended three years later
  • His reign is often seen as having been an autocracy, and like his son and successor Kim Jong-il, he established in North Korea a great cult of personality

Kim Il-sung

228

  • Iranian religious and revolutionary leader of the 20th century who imposed rule by Islamic law and became Iran's dictator in 1979 following the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
  • He wished to rid Iran of foreign influences, and supported the Iranian militants who took American hostages during the Iran hostage crisis from 1979-81
  • He died in 1989

Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini

229

  • English soldier of the 20th century, known as Lawrence of Arabia
  • Led a rebellion of Arabs against the Turks in World War I, later depicting the experience in his book Seven Pillars of Wisdom
  • A film detailing his experiences in the war, Lawrence of Arabia, came out in 1962

T.E. Lawrence

230

  • 18th and 19th-century Ottoman military leader who became the head of Sudan and Egypt
  • Considered the founder of modern Egypt, he made many economic and military reforms and established a dynasty that would last until the Egyptian Revolution of 1952

Muhammad Ali of Egypt

231

  • Egyptian revolutionary and statesman of the 20th century who contributed to the overthrow of the Muhammad Ali Dynasty in the Egyptian Revolution of 1952
  • Succeeded Gamal Abdel Nasser as President of Egypt in 1970, and negotiated the Egypt-Israel Peace Treaty, which was unpopular to many Arabs and led ultimately to his assassination in 1981

Anwar Sadat

232

20th-century Ottoman military officer who fought in the Balkan Wars and World War I and was a leader of the Young Turk revolution

Enver Pasha

233

  • Ethiopia's leader (as regent and then emperor) from 1916 to 1974, and one of the most significant figures in African history
  • He was revered as a messiah of the Rastafari movement, and he was a promoter of collective security at the international level

Haile Selassie I

234

  • South African Anglican bishop most famous for his human rights activism and opposition to apartheid
  • A recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984, he has campaigned over the years to fight against illness, poverty, racism, and sexism
  • He was the first black South African Archbishop of Cape Town

Desmond Tutu

235

  • South African and British Commonwealth statesman and military leader who served twice as South Africa's Prime Minister
  • He is most known for playing an instrumental role in the establishment of the League of Nations, and later called for the creation of the UN
  • He served in both World Wars, and was also the only person to sign the peace treaties ending both of the wars

Jan Smuts

236

15th and 16th-century religious leader and Sikh Guru who founded the religion of Sikhism

Guru Nanak

237

  • 20th-century political figure who was the Shah of Persia and the last King of Iran
  • The Shah was a secular Muslim who promoted modernization and recognized Israel, and he was overthrown in 1979 in the Iranian Revolution
  • He died in 1980 while in exile in Egypt, having been granted asylum by President Anwar Sadat

Mohammad Reza Pahlavi

238

  • Egyptian colonel and statesman who overthrew the monarchy of Egypt and Sudan in the Revolution of 1952
  • He was the second President of Egypt from 1956 until his death in 1970, and promoted socialist reform and modernization
  • The Suez Crisis occurred during his administration, and its end, along with his strong emphasis of pan-Arab nationalism, made him a hero in the Arab world

Gamal Abdel Nasser

239

  • German political leader of the 20th century most noted for being Adolf Hitler's close confidant and Propaganda Minister of the Nazi government
  • He committed suicide when Germany's defeat became imminent

Joseph Goebbels

240

  • Ugandan military leader and statesman who seized power from President Milton Obote in a 1971 coup
  • He then served as Uganda's president until 1979, when the Uganda-Tanzania War resulted in his eventual flight to Saudi Arabia, where he died in 2003
  • His rule was marked by repression and human rights abuse, and his regime has been accused of being responsible for the deaths of hundreds of thousands of people

Idi Amin

241

Ban Ki-moon

South Korean diplomat and the current (and 8th) Secretary-General of the United Nations, having succeeded Kofi Annan in 2007

242

Ashoka

  • Indian emperor of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent
  • After the destructive Kalinga War, he converted to Buddhism and contributed to the expansion of Buddhism as a world religion

243

Ramesses the Great

Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th century B.C. who is often considered the most powerful pharaoh of the Egyptian Empire

244

Buddha

  • Siddhartha Gautama, a prince born in the 6th Century B.C.E. in what is now Nepal, and the founder of Buddhism
  • He is said to have achieved enlightenment under the Bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya, India, still a major pilgrimage site for Buddhists today

245

Jesus of Nazareth

  • A prophet of the first century and the central figure of Christianity
  • As a man he is said to have traveled throughout Palestine with the Twelve Apostles, healing the sick, performing miracles, and teaching the word of God
  • Although he had many followers, he also made enemies for his claims of being the Messiah
  • He was betrayed by Judas Iscariot and crucified by Roman authorities

246

Muhammad

  • The founding prophet of Islam, born in Mecca (a town in modern-day Saudi Arabia) around the year 570
  • It is believed that the Quran, the central text of Islam, was dictated to him by an angel sent from God

247

Tutankhamun

  • Believed to be the son of the pharaoh Akhenaten, an Egyptian pharaoh who ruled in the 14th century B.C.
  • Although his reign was brief and unimportant, the 1922 discovery of his intact tomb is one of the greatest archaeological finds in history
  • Known commonly as King Tut, his burial mask is a popular symbol of Ancient Egypt

248

Moses

  • Religious leader who is considered an important prophet in Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and various other religious faiths
  • An Israelite (Hebrew), he is said to have been born in Egypt
  • After fleeing from Egypt as a man, he was spoken to by God, who ordered him to return to Egypt and liberate the Hebrews
  • Following the Plagues of Egypt and the release of the Israelites, he led his people on the Exodus across the Red Sea
  • After receiving the Ten Commandments from God, he and his followers wandered the desert for 40 years before he died upon seeing the Promised Land

249

The Patriarchs

The founding fathers of the Israelites in the Old Testament, consisting of Isaac, Abraham, Jacob, and the sons of Jacob

250

Zoroaster

Prophet and founder of Zoroastrianism, an ancient religion founded some time before the 6th century B.C. and formerly one of the world's largest religions

251

Maimonides

  • Medieval Jewish philosopher of the 12th and 13th centuries
  • Born in modern-day Spain, he served as a rabbi and physician in Egypt and Morocco, and is considered one of the preeminent scholars of the Torah

252

Hatshepsut

Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 16th and 15th centuries B.C. who is arguably the most famous and successful of the female rulers of Egypt

253

Thutmose III

  • Successor to his stepmother, Hatshepsut, as pharaoh of Egypt in the 15th century B.C.
  • Under him the Egyptian Empire grew larger than it had ever been

254

Khufu

Egyptian pharaoh of the 26th century B.C., most famous for having allegedly built the Great Pyramid of Giza

255

Nefertiti

  • Chief consort and wife to the Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten in the 14th century B.C.
  • Her bust is one of the most famous surviving artifacts of Ancient Egypt

256

Akhenaten

  • Pharaoh of Egypt in the 14th century B.C., believed to be the father of King Tut
  • He is most famous for abandoning traditional Egyptian religion and worshipping one god only, Aten, a solar deity or sun disc
  • Traditional polytheism was restored, however, in the years following his death

257

Cyrus the Great

Emperor of the 6th century B.C. who founded the Achaemenid Persian Empire, an Iranian empire in Western Asia that would at one point be the largest empire the world had ever seen

258

Thales

  • Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher and mathematician of the 7th and 6th centuries B.C.
  • He is noted for having attempted to explain natural phenomena without referring to mythology
  • For this rejection of mythological explanations, as well as for his use of deductive reasoning, geometry, and hypotheses, he is credited with having laid the groundwork for the scientific revolution

259

Qin Shi Huang

  • Chinese ruler of the 3rd century B.C. who was the king of the State of Qin and later the first emperor of a unified China
  • He instituted many economic and social reforms, and is known for building large portions of the Great Wall of China, as well as his own enormous mausoleum, guarded by thousands of terracotta sculptures of soldiers

260

South Korean diplomat and the current (and 8th) Secretary-General of the United Nations, having succeeded Kofi Annan in 2007

Ban Ki-moon

261

  • Indian emperor of the 4th and 3rd centuries B.C. who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent
  • After the destructive Kalinga War, he converted to Buddhism and contributed to the expansion of Buddhism as a world religion

Ashoka

262

Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 13th century B.C. who is often considered the most powerful pharaoh of the Egyptian Empire

Ramesses the Great

263

  • Siddhartha Gautama, a prince born in the 6th Century B.C.E. in what is now Nepal, and the founder of Buddhism
  • He is said to have achieved enlightenment under the Bodhi tree in Bodh Gaya, India, still a major pilgrimage site for Buddhists today

Buddha

264

  • A prophet of the first century and the central figure of Christianity
  • As a man he is said to have traveled throughout Palestine with the Twelve Apostles, healing the sick, performing miracles, and teaching the word of God
  • Although he had many followers, he also made enemies for his claims of being the Messiah
  • He was betrayed by Judas Iscariot and crucified by Roman authorities

Jesus of Nazareth

265

  • The founding prophet of Islam, born in Mecca (a town in modern-day Saudi Arabia) around the year 570
  • It is believed that the Quran, the central text of Islam, was dictated to him by an angel sent from God

Muhammad

266

  • Believed to be the son of the pharaoh Akhenaten, an Egyptian pharaoh who ruled in the 14th century B.C.
  • Although his reign was brief and unimportant, the 1922 discovery of his intact tomb is one of the greatest archaeological finds in history
  • Known commonly as King Tut, his burial mask is a popular symbol of Ancient Egypt

Tutankhamun

267

  • Religious leader who is considered an important prophet in Judaism, Christianity, Islam, and various other religious faiths
  • An Israelite (Hebrew), he is said to have been born in Egypt
  • After fleeing from Egypt as a man, he was spoken to by God, who ordered him to return to Egypt and liberate the Hebrews
  • Following the Plagues of Egypt and the release of the Israelites, he led his people on the Exodus across the Red Sea
  • After receiving the Ten Commandments from God, he and his followers wandered the desert for 40 years before he died upon seeing the Promised Land

Moses

268

The founding fathers of the Israelites in the Old Testament, consisting of Isaac, Abraham, Jacob, and the sons of Jacob

The Patriarchs

269

Prophet and founder of Zoroastrianism, an ancient religion founded some time before the 6th century B.C. and formerly one of the world's largest religions

Zoroaster

270

  • Medieval Jewish philosopher of the 12th and 13th centuries
  • Born in modern-day Spain, he served as a rabbi and physician in Egypt and Morocco, and is considered one of the preeminent scholars of the Torah

Maimonides

271

Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 16th and 15th centuries B.C. who is arguably the most famous and successful of the female rulers of Egypt

Hatshepsut

272

  • Successor to his stepmother, Hatshepsut, as pharaoh of Egypt in the 15th century B.C.
  • Under him the Egyptian Empire grew larger than it had ever been

Thutmose III

273

Egyptian pharaoh of the 26th century B.C., most famous for having allegedly built the Great Pyramid of Giza

Khufu

274

  • Chief consort and wife to the Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten in the 14th century B.C.
  • Her bust is one of the most famous surviving artifacts of Ancient Egypt

Nefertiti

275

  • Pharaoh of Egypt in the 14th century B.C., believed to be the father of King Tut
  • He is most famous for abandoning traditional Egyptian religion and worshipping one god only, Aten, a solar deity or sun disc
  • Traditional polytheism was restored, however, in the years following his death

Akhenaten

276

Emperor of the 6th century B.C. who founded the Achaemenid Persian Empire, an Iranian empire in Western Asia that would at one point be the largest empire the world had ever seen

Cyrus the Great

277

  • Pre-Socratic Greek philosopher and mathematician of the 7th and 6th centuries B.C.
  • He is noted for having attempted to explain natural phenomena without referring to mythology
  • For this rejection of mythological explanations, as well as for his use of deductive reasoning, geometry, and hypotheses, he is credited with having laid the groundwork for the scientific revolution

Thales

278

  • Chinese ruler of the 3rd century B.C. who was the king of the State of Qin and later the first emperor of a unified China
  • He instituted many economic and social reforms, and is known for building large portions of the Great Wall of China, as well as his own enormous mausoleum, guarded by thousands of terracotta sculptures of soldiers

Qin Shi Huang