Autonomic Physiology 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Autonomic Physiology 1 Deck (39):
1

What does the autonomic nervous system control?

Involuntary movement

2

What are some examples of things that the autonomic nervous system controls?

Smooth muscle

Secretion from glands

Focusing of the eye

3

What are the 2 nervous systems?

Somatic

Autonomic

4

What are the 3 sections of the autonomic nervous system?

Sympathetic division

Parasympathetic division

Enteric nervous system

5

What does the enteric nervous system do?

Controls the gut

6

What does a diagram showing the differences between the autonomic and somatic nervous systems look like?

7

What is a ganglia?

Neuron cell body in the PNS, outside of the CNS

8

What is the fibre called between the spinal cord and the ganglia?

Pre-ganglia fibre

9

What is the fibre called between the ganglia and the target cell?

Post-ganglia fibre

10

What is the myelination of the pre-ganglia fibre like?

Small unmyelinated

11

What is the myelination of the post ganglia fibre like?

Unmyelinated

12

What are properties of the somatic nervous system?

Specialised neuromuscular junction

Ionotropic receptors

Always activates target

13

What are properties of the autonomic nervous system (contrasting of the somatic)?

Low specialised junction

Metabotropic receptors (G protein)

May excite or inhibit target

14

What is the sympathetic division associated with?

Fight or flight

15

What is the parasympathetic system associated with?

Rest and digest

16

Where does the sympathetic nervous system leave the spinal cord from?

Thoracic (T1-12) and lumbar (L1-2) regions

17

In the sympathetic system where does the ganglia lie between the spinal cord and the target cell?

Close to the spinal cord

18

What are paravertebral ganglia?

Lie close to the spinal cord

19

Why are pregangliotic regions known as white ramum?

Due to myelination

20

What are postgangliatic fibres also known as?

Grey ramus

21

What leads to mass activation within the autonomic nervous system?

Covergence and divergence

22

What does a diagram showing the sympathetic division look like?

23

What are the neurotransmitters of the autonomic nervous system?

Acetylcholine

Noradrenaline

24

What kind of receptors does noradrenaline act on?

Adrenergic receptors

25

What are the adrenergic receptors that noradrenaline act on called?

Alpha and beta receptors

26

What kind of receptors does acetylcholine act on?

Cholinergic receptors

27

What are the cholinergic receptors that acetylcholine act on called?

Muscurinic and nicotinic

 

28

What kind of receptors does the autonomic nervous system use?

G protein coupled

29

What do preganglionic fibres release in the sympathetic nervous system and what does it act on?

Acetylcholine acting on a nicotine cholinergic receptor

30

What do post ganglionic fibres release in the sympathetic nervous system and what do they act on?

Noradrenaline which acts on alpha or beta adrenergic receptors

31

What post ganglionic cells have no axons?

Adrenal medulla

32

What acts on the adrenal medulla?

Sympathetic nervous system

33

What does the adrenal medulla do?

Releases adrenaline and noradrenaline (4:1) in the blood which then binds to the same receptors via the blood

34

Where does the parasympathetic nervous system exit the spinal cord?

Cranial (III, VII, IX, X) and sacral (S2-4) regions

35

Where do ganglia lie in the parasympathetic nervous system?

Close to the target

36

What do preganglionic fibres in the parasympathetic system release and what do they act on?

Acetylcholine which acts on nicotinic cholinergic receptors

37

What do postganglionic fibres in the parasympathetic system release and what do they act on?

Acetylcholine which acts on muscarinic cholinergic receptors

38

What does a diagram showing the parasympathetic nervous system look like?

39

What are examples of postganglionic fibres not following the rules?

Sympathetic cholinergic fibres innervate sweat glands

Some release non adrenergic and non cholinergic transmitters such as peptides or NO