What does the autonomic nervous system control?
What are some examples of things that the autonomic nervous system controls?
Secretion from glands
Focusing of the eye
What are the 2 nervous systems?
What are the 3 sections of the autonomic nervous system?
Enteric nervous system
What does the enteric nervous system do?
Controls the gut
What does a diagram showing the differences between the autonomic and somatic nervous systems look like?
What is a ganglia?
Neuron cell body in the PNS, outside of the CNS
What is the fibre called between the spinal cord and the ganglia?
What is the fibre called between the ganglia and the target cell?
What is the myelination of the pre-ganglia fibre like?
What is the myelination of the post ganglia fibre like?
What are properties of the somatic nervous system?
Specialised neuromuscular junction
Always activates target
What are properties of the autonomic nervous system (contrasting of the somatic)?
Low specialised junction
Metabotropic receptors (G protein)
May excite or inhibit target
What is the sympathetic division associated with?
Fight or flight
What is the parasympathetic system associated with?
Rest and digest
Where does the sympathetic nervous system leave the spinal cord from?
Thoracic (T1-12) and lumbar (L1-2) regions
In the sympathetic system where does the ganglia lie between the spinal cord and the target cell?
Close to the spinal cord
What are paravertebral ganglia?
Lie close to the spinal cord
Why are pregangliotic regions known as white ramum?
Due to myelination
What are postgangliatic fibres also known as?
What leads to mass activation within the autonomic nervous system?
Covergence and divergence
What does a diagram showing the sympathetic division look like?
What are the neurotransmitters of the autonomic nervous system?
What kind of receptors does noradrenaline act on?
What are the adrenergic receptors that noradrenaline act on called?
Alpha and beta receptors
What kind of receptors does acetylcholine act on?
What are the cholinergic receptors that acetylcholine act on called?
Muscurinic and nicotinic
What kind of receptors does the autonomic nervous system use?
G protein coupled
What do preganglionic fibres release in the sympathetic nervous system and what does it act on?
Acetylcholine acting on a nicotine cholinergic receptor
What do post ganglionic fibres release in the sympathetic nervous system and what do they act on?
Noradrenaline which acts on alpha or beta adrenergic receptors
What post ganglionic cells have no axons?
What acts on the adrenal medulla?
Sympathetic nervous system
What does the adrenal medulla do?
Releases adrenaline and noradrenaline (4:1) in the blood which then binds to the same receptors via the blood
Where does the parasympathetic nervous system exit the spinal cord?
Cranial (III, VII, IX, X) and sacral (S2-4) regions
Where do ganglia lie in the parasympathetic nervous system?
Close to the target
What do preganglionic fibres in the parasympathetic system release and what do they act on?
Acetylcholine which acts on nicotinic cholinergic receptors
What do postganglionic fibres in the parasympathetic system release and what do they act on?
Acetylcholine which acts on muscarinic cholinergic receptors
What does a diagram showing the parasympathetic nervous system look like?
What are examples of postganglionic fibres not following the rules?
Sympathetic cholinergic fibres innervate sweat glands
Some release non adrenergic and non cholinergic transmitters such as peptides or NO