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Flashcards in Introduction to Blood Deck (69):
1

How much blood does the average 70kg man have?

5L of blood

2

How is the 5L of blood in the average 70kg man distributed?

1L in the lungs

3L in the systematic venous circulation

1L in the heart and anterior circulation

3

Do men or woman have more blood?

Men have more due to woman losing some each month during menstration

4

What percentage of a womans body weight is blood?

7.8%

5

What are some of the functions of blood?

Carriage of physiologically active compounds

Clotting

Defence

Cariage of gas

Thermoregulation

Maintanence of ECF pH

6

How much blood do new born babies have?

350ml

7

What is blood composed of?

Plamsa

Red blood cells

White blood cells

Platelets

8

How much water is plasma made of?

95% water

9

What percentage of our body weight is plasma?

4%

10

What does plasma do?

Circulates biologically active molecules

11

What are the 3 categories of plasma proteins?

Albumin

Globulin (subdevided into alpha, beta and gamma globulins)

Fibrinogen and other clotting factors

12

What is albumin?

A transport protein that binds to drugs, steroid hormones and lipids

13

What are alpha and beta globulins?

Transport proteins that transfer lipids and fat soluble vitamins

14

What are gamma globulins?

Antibodies

15

What is the advantage of using transport proteins?

Stabalised form of transport, water soluble molecules are excreted readily whereas plasma proteins are too big for the kidney to filter out

16

What kind of pressure to plasma proteins create?

Plasma proteins create oncotic pressure

17

Why do plasma proteins create oncotic pressure?

Due to not crossing the cappilary wall

18

What does the oncotic pressure do?

Creates a force that pulls water from interstitual space, taking Na+ and glucose with it

19

What does the interstitual fluid act as?

A resevoir that maintains the plasma volume

20

What does the net movement between cappilary and interstitual space depend on?

Cappilary hydrostatic pressure (CHP) favours movement out of the cappilary

Plasma protein concentration favours movement into the cappilary

21

What is hypoproteinaemia?

Abnormally low levels of circulatory plasma proteins

22

What are some causes of hypoproteinaemia?

Prolonged starvation

Liver disease

Intestinal disease

Nephrosis (kidney disease)

23

What is haematopoises?

Production of all types of blood cells

24

What is a diagram of haematoposis?

25

Do all diseases effect all kinds of blood cells?

Some diseases only effect myeloid cells and some only effect lymphoid cells

26

What is another name for red blood cells?

Erythrocytes

27

What is the lifespan of red blood cells?

120 days

28

What is the structure of red blood cells like?

Biconcave and highly flexible

29

Do RBC have one or zero nucleus?

No nucleus

30

What are red blood cells densily packed with?

Haemoglobin to carry oxygen

31

What are the two appearences of haemoglobin due to changing colour depending on the amount of oxygen?

Oxyhaemoglobin (arterior)

Deoxyhaemoglobin (venous)

32

What are myeloid cells?

All cells in the blood that are not lymphocytes

33

What is erythropoiesis?

Red blood cell formation

34

What is erythopoiesis controlled and accerlerated by?

Erythroprotein

35

When is the secretion of erythoprotein enhanced?

During hypoxia (oxygen delivery to the kidneys is reduced)

36

What could cause hypoxia?

Haemorrhage

Anaemia

Cardiac dysfunction

Lung disease

37

What kind of a loop is the production of red blood cells?

Negative feedback

38

What is erythroprotein secreted by?

85% peritubular capillary cells

15% hepatocytes

39

What are leukocytes?

White blood cells

40

What are some properties of leukocytes?

Nucleated

Involved in defence against pathogens

Larger than RBCs

Less in quantity than RBCs

41

What are the different kinds of white blood cells?

Granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils)

Argranulocytes (monocytes or lymphocytes)

42

What are the different kinds of granulocytes?

Neutrophils

Eosinophils

Basophils

43

What are the different kinds of argranulocytes?

Monocytes

Lymphocytes

44

What are the different kinds of lymphocytes?

B cells

T cells (killer and helper)

45

What is leukopoises?

White blood cell formation

46

What is leikopoises controlled by?

A cocktail of cytokines (proteins/peptides released from one cell type to be used on another)

47

What is a cytokine?

A protein/peptide released from one cell type to be used on another

48

What are cytokines released from?

Endothelial cells

Fibroblasts

Mature white blood cells

49

What do cytokines stimulate?

Mitosis

Maturation of leukocyte

50

What does differential stimulation of leukocytes respond to?

The type of infection:

Bacterial generates neutrophils

Viral generates lymphocytes

51

What does a bacterial infection stimulate the differentiation of?

Neutrophils

52

What does a viral infection stimulate the differentiation of?

Lymphocytes

53

What are platelets?

Membrane bound cell fragements from megakaryocytes

54

What is the life span of platelets?

10 days

55

Do platelets have 1 or 0 nuclei?

Rarely nucleated

56

What is the formation of platelets governed by?

Thrombopoietin

57

What do platelets do?

Adhere to damaged cells vessel walls to mediate the blood clotting

58

What is haematocrit?

Haematocrit tells you how many RBCs you have as a percentage of your total blood volume

59

What is the normal range of RBCs of total blood volume?

40-54% in males

37-47% in females

60

What is the yellow in blood plasma?

Bilirutin

61

When is bilirutin produced and where is it metabolised?

Bilirutin is produced after red blood cells are broken down and it is metabolised in the liver

62

What is viscocity?

How thick a substance is compared to water

63

What is the viscocity of plasma?

1.8x thicker than water

64

What is the viscocity of white blood?

3-4x thicker than water

65

What does viscocity depend on?

Haematocrit

Temperature

Flow rate

66

How does the haematocrit effect viscocity?

50% increase in haematocrit increases viscocity by 100%

67

How does temperature effect the viscocity?

Increase in 1oC decreases viscocity by 2%

68

How does flow rate effect viscocity?

Decreased flow rate increases viscocity

69

What makes it harder for your heart to pump blood?

The blood being thicker