How much blood does the average 70kg man have?
5L of blood
How is the 5L of blood in the average 70kg man distributed?
1L in the lungs
3L in the systematic venous circulation
1L in the heart and anterior circulation
Do men or woman have more blood?
Men have more due to woman losing some each month during menstration
What percentage of a womans body weight is blood?
What are some of the functions of blood?
Carriage of physiologically active compounds
Cariage of gas
Maintanence of ECF pH
How much blood do new born babies have?
What is blood composed of?
Red blood cells
White blood cells
How much water is plasma made of?
What percentage of our body weight is plasma?
What does plasma do?
Circulates biologically active molecules
What are the 3 categories of plasma proteins?
Globulin (subdevided into alpha, beta and gamma globulins)
Fibrinogen and other clotting factors
What is albumin?
A transport protein that binds to drugs, steroid hormones and lipids
What are alpha and beta globulins?
Transport proteins that transfer lipids and fat soluble vitamins
What are gamma globulins?
What is the advantage of using transport proteins?
Stabalised form of transport, water soluble molecules are excreted readily whereas plasma proteins are too big for the kidney to filter out
What kind of pressure to plasma proteins create?
Plasma proteins create oncotic pressure
Why do plasma proteins create oncotic pressure?
Due to not crossing the cappilary wall
What does the oncotic pressure do?
Creates a force that pulls water from interstitual space, taking Na+ and glucose with it
What does the interstitual fluid act as?
A resevoir that maintains the plasma volume
What does the net movement between cappilary and interstitual space depend on?
Cappilary hydrostatic pressure (CHP) favours movement out of the cappilary
Plasma protein concentration favours movement into the cappilary
What is hypoproteinaemia?
Abnormally low levels of circulatory plasma proteins
What are some causes of hypoproteinaemia?
Nephrosis (kidney disease)
What is haematopoises?
Production of all types of blood cells
What is a diagram of haematoposis?
Do all diseases effect all kinds of blood cells?
Some diseases only effect myeloid cells and some only effect lymphoid cells
What is another name for red blood cells?
What is the lifespan of red blood cells?
What is the structure of red blood cells like?
Biconcave and highly flexible
Do RBC have one or zero nucleus?
What are red blood cells densily packed with?
Haemoglobin to carry oxygen
What are the two appearences of haemoglobin due to changing colour depending on the amount of oxygen?
What are myeloid cells?
All cells in the blood that are not lymphocytes
What is erythropoiesis?
Red blood cell formation
What is erythopoiesis controlled and accerlerated by?
When is the secretion of erythoprotein enhanced?
During hypoxia (oxygen delivery to the kidneys is reduced)
What could cause hypoxia?
What kind of a loop is the production of red blood cells?
What is erythroprotein secreted by?
85% peritubular capillary cells
What are leukocytes?
White blood cells
What are some properties of leukocytes?
Involved in defence against pathogens
Larger than RBCs
Less in quantity than RBCs
What are the different kinds of white blood cells?
Granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils)
Argranulocytes (monocytes or lymphocytes)
What are the different kinds of granulocytes?
What are the different kinds of argranulocytes?
What are the different kinds of lymphocytes?
T cells (killer and helper)
What is leukopoises?
White blood cell formation
What is leikopoises controlled by?
A cocktail of cytokines (proteins/peptides released from one cell type to be used on another)
What is a cytokine?
A protein/peptide released from one cell type to be used on another
What are cytokines released from?
Mature white blood cells
What do cytokines stimulate?
Maturation of leukocyte
What does differential stimulation of leukocytes respond to?
The type of infection:
Bacterial generates neutrophils
Viral generates lymphocytes
What does a bacterial infection stimulate the differentiation of?
What does a viral infection stimulate the differentiation of?
What are platelets?
Membrane bound cell fragements from megakaryocytes
What is the life span of platelets?
Do platelets have 1 or 0 nuclei?
What is the formation of platelets governed by?
What do platelets do?
Adhere to damaged cells vessel walls to mediate the blood clotting
What is haematocrit?
Haematocrit tells you how many RBCs you have as a percentage of your total blood volume
What is the normal range of RBCs of total blood volume?
40-54% in males
37-47% in females
What is the yellow in blood plasma?
When is bilirutin produced and where is it metabolised?
Bilirutin is produced after red blood cells are broken down and it is metabolised in the liver
What is viscocity?
How thick a substance is compared to water
What is the viscocity of plasma?
1.8x thicker than water
What is the viscocity of white blood?
3-4x thicker than water
What does viscocity depend on?
How does the haematocrit effect viscocity?
50% increase in haematocrit increases viscocity by 100%
How does temperature effect the viscocity?
Increase in 1oC decreases viscocity by 2%
How does flow rate effect viscocity?
Decreased flow rate increases viscocity
What makes it harder for your heart to pump blood?
The blood being thicker