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Flashcards in Foundations in Immunology 1 Deck (65):
1

What are pathogens?

Any microorganism that causes harm

2

What are examples of pathogens?

Virus

Protozoa

Bacteria

Fungi

Parasite

3

What is self tolerence?

The bodies immune defences not attacking tissue that carry a self marker

4

What is the first form of immunological defence?

Physical barriers

5

What are examples of physical barriers?

Skin

Mucosal barrier (reproductory, respiratory, digestive tract)

6

What produces mucus?

Goblet cells

7

What does mucus do?

Prevents the attachment of pathogens

8

What does mucus contain?

Antimicrobial enzymes that destroy pathogens

9

What are examples of the enzyme contained in mucus that destroys pathogens?

Growth inhibitors

Enzyme inhibitors

Lysine

10

What does mucus contain other than enzymes?

Immunoglobins (Ab) which help to destroy pathogens

11

What are the two components of the immune system?

Innate immune system

Adaptive immune system

12

What are some properties of the innate immune system?

Exists from birth

Non specific

First to respond

Same response every time, no immunological memory

13

What are some properties of the adaptive immune system?

Highly specific

Immunological memory

Antibody production

14

When is the adaptive immune system called?

When the innate immune system cannot deal with the threat on its own

15

What is the cellular and chemical barrier of the innate immune system?

Skin

Mucosal epithelia

Antimicrobial chemicals

16

What is the blood protein of the innate immune system?

Compliment

17

What cells are involved in the innate immune system?

Phagocytes (macrophages, neutrophils)

Natural killer cells

18

What are the cellular and chemical barriers of the adaptive immune system?

Lymphocytes

Antobodies secretion

19

What is the blood protein of the adaptive immune system?

Antibodies

20

What cells are involved in the adaptive immune system?

Lymphocytes

21

How does the innate and adaptive immune system work together?

  1. Dendritic cells mature and carries microbial antigen to local lymph node (innate)
  2. Becoming an antigen presenting cell (innate)
  3. Activates T cells to respond (adaptive)
  4. T cells go to the site of infection (adaptive)

22

What does the innate immune system cause an influx of at the site of infection?

Macrophages which perform phagocytosis

23

What is the process of phagocytosis?

  1. Engulfs bacterium
  2. Forming a phagosome
  3. Fuses with a lysosome which contains enzymes that kill the bacteria
  4. Discharge of waste material

24

Where do immune cells develop?

Bone marow

25

What are the 4 effector T cells?

Th1 

Th2

Th12

Tfh

26

What does Th1 target?

Marcrophages

27

What does Th2 target?

Eosinophils

28

What does Th12 target?

Neutrophils

29

What does Tfh target?

B cells

30

What do effector T cells do to their targets?

Activate their targets

31

What is the relationship between manocytes and macrophages?

Manocytes are in the blood, once they enter connective tissue they differentiate into macrophages

32

What do macrophases do?

Give of chemical messanges which:

Restrict blood flow away from the site

Cause swelling to allow more immune cells to help

Produce cytokines to alert other cells and induce travel to the site

33

What do neutrophiles do?

Only perform phagocytosis, being activated when they enter the tissue

34

How long do neutrophils survive for in the blood and in the tissue?

6 hours in the blood

5 days in the tissue

35

What happens at the end of a neutrophils life?

They undergo apoptosis

36

What do eosinophiles do?

Combat pathogens with granules of enzymes

37

What kind of infection do eosinophiles usually combat?

Parasitic

38

What kind of immune cells controls the mechanisms associated with asthma and allergies?

Eosinophile

39

Where are eusinophiles found?

Thymus

Lower GI tract

Spleen

Ovary

Uteris

Lymph node

40

Where are eusinophiles not found?

Lungs

Skin

Esophagus

41

What do mast cells do?

Contain granules which have active chemicals that it dumps into the parasit and kills it

42

What could mast cells cause to the host?

An allergic reaction

43

What is the function of barophil?

Unknown, but they are found in parasitic infection

They contains granules of histamine

44

What are the two ways natural killer cells can kill?

Make hole in target and secrete enzymes into pore inducing suicide

Interact with Fas on the target cells creating a suicide signal

45

Where are natural killer cells found?

In the spleen and the bloodstream

46

What can natural killer cells kill?

Tumour cells

Virus infected cells

Bacteria

Parasites

Fungi

47

How do natural killer cells decide to kill or not?

By binding to inhibitory (MHC1) receptor or activating receptor

48

What inhibitory receptor tells natural killer cells not to kill?

MHC 1

49

Can natural killer cells kill viruses?

No, they replicate to quickly for natural killer cells to keep up

50

What are some non-specific humoral factors within body fluids with protective functions?

Growth inhibitors

Enzyme inhibitors

Lysins

Compliment protein

51

What does the compliment system bridge the gap between?

The innate and adaptive immune systems

52

How many proteins is the compliment system composed of?

Over 20

53

What are the 3 activation pathways of the compliment system?

Classical

Alternative

Lectin

54

Which of the 3 compliment mechanisms are innate and adaptive?

Alternative and lectin are effecter mechanisms of the innate system and classical is of the adaptive immune system

55

What is the process of the compliment system?

  1. Binding of compliment protein to microbial cells or antibody
  2. Formation of C3 complex
  3. Cleavage of C3
  4. Formation of C5 convertase

56

What is the central event in the compliment pathway?

Proteolysis of protein C3 which is the most abundent compliment protein

57

What are the safeguards in place to stop the compliment system from attacking our own cells?

Protein on surface of cells Decay Accerleration Factor (DAF) accerlerates the breakdown of C3bBb

C3b clipped to an inactive form by protein in the blood

58

What are functions of the compliment system?

Induce lysis of microbes (MAC)

Promotes phagocystosis of microbes (opsonisation)

Stimulates inflammation (activates amst cells and neutrophils)

Stimulates attraction of B cells and antibody production

59

What are cytokines?

Chemical messengers used by cells to communicate with other cells

60

What are the different kinds of cytokine actions?

Autocine (on self)

Paracrine (nearby cells)

Endocrine (distant cells)

61

When does the inflammatory response happen?

When tissues are injured

62

Why does the inflammatory response happen?

Damaged cells release chemicals that cause blood veseels to leak into tissues 

63

What are the classifications of the inflammatory response?

Acute inflammation

Chronic inflammation

64

What is acute inflammation?

Initial response to harmful stimuli

65

What is chronic inflammation?

Progressive shift in type of cells at site of inflammation, simutanous destruction and healing of tissue