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Flashcards in How Nerves Work 1 Deck (27):
1

What are the 3 sections of the nervous system?

Somatic (controls conscious actions)

Autonomic (controls unconcious action)

Enteric (controls the gut)

2

What are some of the components of the brain?

Meninges (membrane covering the brain and spinal cord)

Gyrus (ridge on cerebral cortex)

Sulous (shallow goove surrounding gyrus)

Cerebellum (regulates motor movement)

Forebrain (cerebrum and diencephalon)

Brainstem (controls basic functions)

Corpus collosum (allows communication between each hemisphere of the brain)

3

What are the 4 areas of the cerebrum?

Frontal lobe

Temporal lobe

Paricatal lobe

Occipital lobe

4

What are the two areas of the diencephalon and what do they do?

Thalamus (relay motor/sensory signals to the cerebrum)

Hypothalamus (controls lots of proces for autonomic system like relasing hormones and regulating temperature)

5

What is the purpose of the gyrus?

To fold the brain, increasing the surface area allowing more space for more neurones

6

How many hemispheres are in the brain and what sides of the body do they control?

Two

The left hemisphere controls the right side of the body and the right hemisphere controls the left side of the body

7

What does a diagram of a brain look like?

8

What is the spinal cord?

Bundle of nervous tissue that sends information to and form the brain

9

What is the spinal cord composed of?

31 pairs of spinal nerves and 12 cranial nerves

10

How are the spinal nerves split up?

8 cervical (neck, shoulders and arms)

12 tharacic (chest and abdoment)

5 lumbar (hips and legs)

5 sacral (genitial and gastrointestinal tract)

1 coccygeal

11

Explain the consistency of the thickness of the spinal cord?

It is thicker in some areas than others, thicker in regions where a lot of information connects

12

What is grey matter?

Where most cell bodies are

13

What is white matter?

Where lots of myelin is (axons)

14

Where is grey matter and white matter found?

Grey matter is found on the inside of the spinal cord and white matter on the outside

15

What route does sensory information travel through?

The dorsel route

16

What route does motor information travel through?

The vental route

17

What are ganglion?

Group of cell bodies in the peripherial nervous system (PNS)

18

Where does the brain send signals up and down the spinal cord?

The spinal tract

19

What are the two components of the nervous system?

Central nervous system (CNS, brain and spinal cord)

Peripherial nervous system (PNS, nerves and ganglia outside the brain and spinal cord)

20

What are nerves composed of?

Cell body, soma (contains nucleus, where proteins are made)

Dendrites (recieve information)

Initial segment, axon hillock (triggers action potential)

Axon (sends axon potential)

Axon presynaptic terminal (releases neurotransmitter)

21

What are the 3 types of neurones?

Afferent (sensory)

Inter

Efferent (motor)

22

What does the blood brain barrier do?

Stops the ion concentration in the blood affecting the ECF around the brain

23

How much of the CNS do glia cells comprise of?

90%

24

What are the three types of glia cells?

Astrocytes

Oligodendrocytes

Micraglia

25

What are the functions of astrocytes?

Maintains external environment for neurons

Surrounds blood vessels and produces the blood brian barrier

26

What is the function of oligodendrocytes?

Form myelin sheath in the CNS

27

What is the function of micraglia?

Phagocytic hoovers mopping up infection