Essential Pharmacology 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Essential Pharmacology 1 Deck (25):
1

What is a receptor?

Responds to stimuli and generates a response

2

How does the same receptor compare in different cells?

The same receptor may produce different responses in different cells

3

How do receptor sub types compare in the same cell?

May provide different responses

4

How to receptors allow specificity?

By only binding to certain substrate

5

What things could a receptor alter as part of the response?

Membrane permeability

Metabolism

Secretory activity

Rate of proliferation or differentiation

Contractile activity

6

What is the process of a receptor binding to a substrate and producing a response known as?

Signal transduction, or cell signalling

7

What is signal transduction (cell signalling)?

Transmission of a molecular signal from a cells exterior to its interior

8

What are the 3 main examples of receptors?

Intercellular receptor

Plasma membrane receptor

G protein coupled receptor

9

What must lipids that bind to intracellular receptors be and why?

Lipophillic as they need to pass through the cell membrane

10

What are two common intracellular receptor substances?

Steroid hormones

Nitric acid

11

What happens when steroid hormones bind to intracellular receptors?

Binds to receptor

Often transcription factor, altering rate

12

What does nitric acid do when it binds to an intracellular receptor?

Binds to soluble guonylyl cyclose

Generates cGMP as a second messenger which regulates cell activity

13

What kind of receptor do molecules that cannot penetrate the cell membrane need to combine to?

Plasma membrane receptors

14

What are the 4 types of plasma membrane receptors?

Ionotopic receptor (also acts as an ion channel)

Receptors that function as an enzyme

Receptors that directly alter enzyme activity, which is another protein

G protein coupled receptors

15

How many transmembrane spanning segments do G proteins have?

7

16

What happens when a substrate binds to a G protein?

  1. Part of it dissociates and interacts with other proteins (channel or enzyme)
  2. Causes the release of a second messenger within the cell

17

What kind of things can G proteins do?

Form active transport

Channels

Protein synthesis

Enzymes

Secretion

18

What are some examples of proteins coupled to G proteins?

Adrenylyl cyclase

Phospholipase C

Ion channels

19

What does adrenylyl cyclase do?

Regulates cAMP (second messenger)

Regulates PKA

20

What does phopholipase C do?

Produces diacylglycerol and inositol triphosphate

Activates PKC and releases Ca2+ from internal stores

21

What do ion channels attatched to G proteins do?

Evoke slow IPSPs or slow EPSPs

22

What often acts as a second messenger?

Ca2+

23

Where are some sources of Ca2+?

Internal sources via IP3+ or Ca2+ stimulated releases from endoplasmic reticulum

Outside the cell by using voltage or ligand gated Ca2+ channels

Inhibition of Ca2+ transport out of the cell

24

What are some effects of Ca2+?

Directly effects proteins (like PKC)

Binds to calmodulin which activates protein target

Works via some other Ca2+ binding protein

25

What is pharmacology?

Study of drug action