Foundations in Immunology 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Foundations in Immunology 2 Deck (52):
1

What are functions of the lymphatic system?

Drainage of tissues

Absorption and transport of fatty acids and fat

Immunity

2

What is the lymphatic system?

Network of tubes that carry clear fluid called lymph

3

How does lymph move through the lymphatic system?

By contraction of skeletel muscles

4

What eventually happens to the fluid in the lymphatic system?

Enters the blood after entering the right lymphatic duct or thoracic duct

5

What happens to molecules in the interstitual space that are too big to pass through cappilary walls?

They pass into the lymphatic system which has more permeable walls

6

What are some lymph nodes?

Cervical

Axillary

Bronchial

Abdominal

Inguinal

7

What are the two kinds of lymph vessels?

Afferent

Efferent

8

What prevents backflow in lymph vessels?

Valves

9

What are the two lymphatic ducts?

Right lymphatic duct

Thoracic duct

10

What is the path that lymph being drained from interstitual space takes?

  1. Lymph
  2. Afferent vessel
  3. Lymph node
  4. Efferent vessel (filtered lymph)
  5. Lymphatic duct
  6. Venous system
  7. Blood

11

What are the 3 phases of immune defence?

  1. Recognition of danger
  2. Production of specific weapon
  3. Transport of weapon to the site

12

Where are white blood cells produced and recieve their early training?

Primary lymphoid organs

13

What are some primary lymphoid organs?

Bone marrow

Thymus

14

What happens to bone marrow as you get older?

You have less because long bones get filled with fat

15

What is the site of maturation of T cells?

Thymus

16

What kinds of cells are found in the thymus?

Macrophages

Dendritic cells

Numerous thyrocytes (T cell precurders)

17

What is a secondary lymphoid organ?

Site of lymphocyte activation by antigen

18

What are examples of secondary lymphoid organs?

Lymph nodes and lymphatic system

Spleen

Tonsil

Cutaneous immune system

Mucosal immune system

19

What is the spleen composed of?

Red pulp

White pulp (lymphocytes)

20

What are functions of the spleen?

Filter blood

APLs, B cells and T cells promote interactions for development of humoral immune response

21

What are functions of lymph nodes?

Filter and purify lymph

99% of antigens are removed here

In response to antigen detection T and B cells are stimulated and adaptive immune response initiated

Maintain and produce B cells and house T cells

22

What does the structure of a lymph node look like?

23

Where are payer's patches found and what do they do?

Small intestine, prevents the gorwth of pathogenic bacteria

24

What are payer's patches covered by?

A layer of M cells

25

What are M cells?

Transport antigens from the lumen of the intestine to the payer's patch, then carried to lymph then lymph node

26

What are tonsils involved in?

Defence from infection of the upper respitory tract

27

What is lymphoma?

Caner of the lymphatic system

28

What is one of the most common pathways for the spread of cancer?

Lymphatic system

29

What are T cells derived from?

Bone marrow

30

What are MHC1 and MHC2?

Proteins that express antigens on their surface (antigen presenting cells)

31

Where is MHC1 found?

On every cell

32

Where is MHC2 found?

On macrophages and dendritic cells

33

What are T cells responsible for?

Cell mediated immunity and assisting B cells

34

What do cell surface receptors in the T cell receptors (TCR) recognise?

Antibodies when bound to MHC

35

What are different T cells?

Helper of CD4+ T cells

Cytotoxic or CD8+ T cells

36

What do helper T cells do?

Stimulate B cells to produce antibodies

37

What do cytotoxic T cells do?

Work similar to natural killer cells, destroying the pathogen

38

What is the process of the origin of T cells?

  1. Immature in bone marrow and head to thymus
  2. Mature in thymus, where receptor markers are given to them
  3. Head to secondary lymphoid organ

39

What is T cell selection?

T cells must learn not to recognise out own self antigens, restricted to recognise antigen in association with out own MHC

40

What does T cell selection happen?

Thymus

41

What are the two types of T cell seleciton?

Positive selection

Negative selection

42

What happens during positive selection?

T cells are presented with self MHC on epithelial cells

If they do not recognise it they are destroyed by apoptosis

(tests immature)

43

What happens during negative selection?

T cells are presented with dendritic cells, if they recognise self antigens they are destroyed by apoptosis

(tests mature)

44

What does MHC1 do?

Presents virally induced peptides to killer T cells to triger cytotoxic response

45

What does MHC2 do?

Found on macrophages, B cells, T cells and presents exogenously produced antigen to helper T cells to activate macrophages and B cells

46

What do helper T cells do?

They cannot kill, they activate and direct other immune cells

47

What do cytotoxic T cells do?

Release perforin when exposed to infected cells

Creates a pore

Releases granzyme B that enters pores and enduces apoptosis

48

What do memory T cells arise from?

Memory T cells arise from both differentiated and partially differentiated T cells

49

What do memory T cells allow?

Potential for further differentiation on reexposure to antigen

50

What is the difference between Th1 and Th2 cells?

Th1 cells are a cellular response and produce memory cells

Th2 cells are a humoral response and result in antibodies

51

What can a Th1/Th2 imbalance be caused by?

Genetic factor

Environmental factor

52

What can an imbalance between Th1 and Th2 cells cause?

Asthma