T/F: The only gland birds have is the uropygial gland
What happens to the feather growth if a follicle is damaged?
Leads to lack of new growth
What is a common site for adenocarcinomas in birds?
What are some "life-style" causes of poor feathering?
Trauma from environment Cagemate trauma Growth interruption Poor preening
What feather presentations are common in juvenile birds?
Unpreened feathers, stress bars and trauma
What are stress bars?
Interruption in growth from a stressful event
What kind of behavior is preening?
A flock behavior
Poor preening seen in hand raised babies, over zealous mates, stressful environment
What is the number 1 cause of trauma in a bird?
Broken blood feather
What is a common cause of poor integument in birds?
What is beta carotene and what foods are high in this?
Mangoes, papaya (think tropical fruits for tropical birds)
What is the name of this mite found in birds?
Chicken mite or "red mite"
What is the cause of this problem seen in the image and what is the tx of choice?
Scaley face and leg mite- Knemidocoptes
What is a way for an owner to figure out if they have a Dermanyssus gallinae problem with their bird?
Place a white towel over cage at night and all the mites will be stuck in the towel fibers in the morning
What is a common feather problem seen in birds that is suspected to be caused by captivity/boredem
Pulling feathers out
In small birds there is a correlation in feather plucking and what intestinal dz?
Giardia infections --> make sure you fecal test feather plucking birds
What is displayed in the picture below and how does the bird get it?
Commonly from overheated baby formula in hand raised babies
Owners typically notice this 2 weeks after the bird has gotten burned when food starts seeping through the hole
What is observed in the picture and what can be used to dx this dz?
This is Psittacine beak and feather dz (feather dystrophy in young- ACTIVELY GROWING FEATHERS)
PCR blood test=IMPORTANT
Doesn't show up until later- 11 months (if positive test- can be a transient viremia-wait 90 days an recheck)
HARD TO GET RID OF
What are two medicaitons that can be used for pain in avian?
Torbugesic and Meloxicam
What medication can be used for neurogenic pain?
What drug is a antipsychotic used in avian?
What causes dominant aggression in "domestic birds" towards other humans?
Exaggerated hormonal behaviors
What are some common examples of reproductive tract disease in avian?
Excessive egg laying
Egg binding and dystocia
Egg yolk peritonitis
Hypocalcemia (caused by overlaying)
Oviductal and cloacal prolapse
Tumors in males/females
T/F: You can sex all birds based off of its vibrant color pattern
FALSE- very few can be sexed by color
You blood/feather sexing tests (DNA test)
How many eggs does a chicken vs. cockatiel routinely lay?
Chicken: 1 per 24 hours
Cockatiel: 1 per 36-40 hours
Define egg binding
Prolonged transit through oviduct
What type of birds frequently have egg binding?
Small birds (cockatiels, lovebirds, budgies, finches, and canaries)
What are some associating factors to egg binding?
Associated w/ over-laying
Poor dietary calcium
Oversized or poorly shelled eggs, uterine inertia, poor musculature
What side of the bird are eggs located and how long does it take to shell an egg?
takes 12 hours
The full amount of circulating calcium is withdrawn by the uterus every ____ minutes
Pearl mutation is linked with which sex?
Female sex-linked color
Dx the image
What problem can result from a bird pushing too hard to get an egg out?
What can be used to dx egg binding and dystocia?
US- you can see normal egg layers- egg shell, white, albumin and yolk
What should be tried first when tx egg binding?
MEDICAL MANAGEMENT FIRST!
Calcium, fluids, heat and pain meds
Meloxicam and torbugesic
Smaller birds get hypoglycemic so supplement w/ dextrose
What is the procedure where egg contents are sucked out to collapse egg to help a bird pass an egg during egg binding?
What is the sx procedure of choice for egg binding?
What is the drug that is used to prevent more egg laying?
Male bird presented to you with pain, lameness and leg chewing with bilaterally swollen legs....what do you suspect as the dx?
Testes in front of kidney where sciatic nerve passes before going down leg and can compress the nerve leading to swelling
What is the drug used for birds with testicular hyperplasia?
Leuprolide Acetate- GnRH agonist
2.5-3 wk. duration
What is circled in the following image?
Testes- MALE BIRD
Don't confuse with egg