Ferrets- Final Exam Material Flashcards Preview

RUSVM Special Species- Summer '18 > Ferrets- Final Exam Material > Flashcards

Flashcards in Ferrets- Final Exam Material Deck (59):
1

Where is the heart situated?

Caudally located

 

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2

What is Waardenburg syndrome?

color-linked congenital deafness in blaze/panda ferrets

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3

If a ferret from Marshall Farms is seen with two tattoos in the ear- what does this represent?

That the ferret is neutered and vaccinated

4

What is the normal HR of a ferret and what is the characteristic of the R wave on EKG?

180-230 BPM

R wave -- TALL

5

What is a common arrhythmia seen in ferrets?

AV block

6

What are some special features of the ferret GI tract?

STRICT CARNIVORE

Short GI transit

No cecum

Simple gut flora

7

What kind of diet does the ferret need?

High protein

High fat

Low fiber

8

Why should you avoid 'grain free diets' in ferrets?

cysteine stone formation due to changes in pH of urine

9

What is induced from scruffing a ferret?

Yawn reflex

10

What is ferretone?

Sweet snack that can be used to distract the patient while trying to get blood samples etc

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11

What are the three chemical restraint methods used?

ISO

SEVO

Injectables 

12

What is a good drug used for urinary/IV catheters and has long lasting sedation?

Torbugesic

13

What are the reversal agents for midazolam and dexdormitor?

Midazolam: flumazenil

Dedxormitor: atipamezole

14

What are two vaccines that ferrets require?

Rabies

Distemper

15

This ferret presented as shown below post vaccination-based off of the clinical findings, what are you suspicious of?

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Canine Distemper Virus

 

Be careful when vaccinating for DV in ferrets- if you use the wrong vaccine you can induce CDV infection as shown in the picture. The ferret DV is modified through chickens- the CDV vaccine is modified using minx (closely related to ferrets) which is basically infecting them with distemper virus.

16

Which rabies vaccine is labeled for use in ferrets?

Imrab 3

17

How fast post vaccination are reactions seen and what can be used to treat/prevent reactions?

20-30 minutes post vaccine patient will go into anaphylaxis shock (GI/CV)

Tx: Dexmethasone SP, epinephrine, and IV fluid therapy

Prevent: pre-medicate with diphenhydramine

18

What are the sites of venipuncture in ferrets?

Cephalic vein (use insulin syringe)

Lateral saphenous 

Cranial vena cava

Jugular

19

What are the two venipuncture sites in ferrets that can be used to obtain large amounts of blood from?

Jugular

Cranial vena cava

20

What is the pH of the urine?

5.5-6.5

21

What is a common crystal seen in ferrets due to the acidic pH of the urine?

magnesium-ammonium phosphate crystals

22

What can be seen in neutered males with untreated Adrenal dz?

Prostomegaly 

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23

What is the bottom arrow pointing to?

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Enlarged cystic prostate

24

What can make male catheterization difficult

Small urethra and crooked os penis

25

What is the technique for IV catheter application?

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26

What are four uses of IO catheters?

Blood transfusion

Dextrose administration

Shock fluids

Bone marrow aspiration

 

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27

Why are multiple transfusion okay to do in ferrets without cross matching?

There are no blood groups so no reactions to worry about

28

What is the max % you can take in terms of blood transfusion of the body weight?

10%- try to never take this much unless NEEDED

 

Typically stay around 7-8%

29

What are the pain medications used in ferrets?

Carprofen

Meloxicam

Buprenorphine

Torbugesic

Tramadol

30

How can you initiate a yawn reflex and what does this allow you to examine in terms of dental exam?

Scruff the ferret

Examine the palate to see ulcers/fistulas

 

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31

Where does helicobacter mustelae colonize?

Pylorus and duodenum

32

What are CS of gastric ulceration?

melena, bruxism, ptyalism, anorexia, inappetence, chronic weight loss

33

What stain can be used to help dx gastric ulceration?

Silver stains (Warthin-starry)

34

What drugs are used in the "triple therapy" for GI ulceration

Amoxycillin + Metronidazole + Bismuth Subsalicylate (pepto)

35

What GI foregin bodies are commonly found in old vs. young ferrets?

Old: trichobezoars (hairball)

Young: rubber pieces

36

What type of diarrhea is seen in ferrets with epizootic catarrhal enteritis?

Mucousy green slime diarrhea

37

What is the cause of epizootic catarrhal enteritis?

Corona virus

Transmissible dz (3-4 days)

38

What do we worry about in terms of age in young vs. old ferrets with epizootic catarrhal enteritis?

Young: carriers

Old: susceptible 

39

What GI problem looks similar to corona virus but typically only presented in older ferrets?

Inflammatory bowel disease (chronic malabsorption syndrome)

40

What type of diarrhea is seen in ferrets with inflammatory bowel disease?

Bird seed tan diarrhea

41

Chronic inflammation of the GI tract can lead to what in ferrets?

MALT (lymphoma)

42

What drugs are used to treat inflammatory bowel disease?

Prednisone or azathiaprine (immune-suppressive agents)

43

What is an endocrine dz that you can expect every ferret to eventually get?

Hyperadrenocorticism 

44

What are some CS of hyperadrenocorticism?

Hair loss, pruritis, swollen vulva, prostatomegaly, stronger smell, return of sexual behavior

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45

T/F: Hyperadrenocorticism is a hormone producing tumor

TRUE

Hormone producing tumor --> hyperplasia --> adenoma --> adenocarcinoma

46

What is the medical and sx treatment of hyperadrenocorticism?

Medical: Leuprolide

Sx: adrenalectomy 

47

If you see this- what does it indicate?

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Bone marrow suppression --> END -STAGE DZ

Petechial hemorrhages

48

What is the name of the implant that can be used for medical management of hyperadrenocorticism?

Deslorein 4.7 mg implant- can last 12-24 months

 

about 10% are adrenocarcinomas- these won't respond to leuprolide

49

What is the tumor in the pancreas that causes over stimulation of the beta cells?

Insulinoma

Pancreatic beta cell carcinoma

50

T/F: Insulinoma is an acute dz in ferrets

FALSE

This is a slow progressive dz

51

What are some CS seen with insulinoma patients?

Episodic weakness, drooling, inappetence

Difficult to arouse (look stoned)

Weak in rear end

Coma and seizures near end stage

52

T/F: Insulinoma is considered an OLD ferret dz

TRUE

53

What is the method of dx for insulinoma patients?

Fasting blood glucose < 60

54

What are the medical and sx therapy options?

Medical: prednisone (first line therapy) and diazoxide (insulin blocker)

 

Sx: Nodulectomy or Partial Pancreatectomy

55

What are the four common tumor types in ferrets?

Adrenal tumors

Insulinomas

Lymphosarcoma

Mast Cell tumors

56

Dx this condition and common characteristics

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Mast Cell Tumors

Weird bumps on skin that they scratch at causing bleeding and regrowth again

Benign tumors

Good prognosis

57

What is the most common intestinal tumor in ferrets?

Lymphosarcoma

58

What are the tx options for lymphosarcoma?

Sx debulking

Chemotherapy COP protocol--> Cyclophosphamide + Vincristine + Prednisolone

59

What are the three common heart diseases seen in ferrets?

DCM

HCM

Heartworm (occult)- Advantage Multi Labeled for them

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