Where is the heart situated?
What is Waardenburg syndrome?
color-linked congenital deafness in blaze/panda ferrets
If a ferret from Marshall Farms is seen with two tattoos in the ear- what does this represent?
That the ferret is neutered and vaccinated
What is the normal HR of a ferret and what is the characteristic of the R wave on EKG?
R wave -- TALL
What is a common arrhythmia seen in ferrets?
What are some special features of the ferret GI tract?
Short GI transit
Simple gut flora
What kind of diet does the ferret need?
Why should you avoid 'grain free diets' in ferrets?
cysteine stone formation due to changes in pH of urine
What is induced from scruffing a ferret?
What is ferretone?
Sweet snack that can be used to distract the patient while trying to get blood samples etc
What are the three chemical restraint methods used?
What is a good drug used for urinary/IV catheters and has long lasting sedation?
What are the reversal agents for midazolam and dexdormitor?
What are two vaccines that ferrets require?
This ferret presented as shown below post vaccination-based off of the clinical findings, what are you suspicious of?
Canine Distemper Virus
Be careful when vaccinating for DV in ferrets- if you use the wrong vaccine you can induce CDV infection as shown in the picture. The ferret DV is modified through chickens- the CDV vaccine is modified using minx (closely related to ferrets) which is basically infecting them with distemper virus.
Which rabies vaccine is labeled for use in ferrets?
How fast post vaccination are reactions seen and what can be used to treat/prevent reactions?
20-30 minutes post vaccine patient will go into anaphylaxis shock (GI/CV)
Tx: Dexmethasone SP, epinephrine, and IV fluid therapy
Prevent: pre-medicate with diphenhydramine
What are the sites of venipuncture in ferrets?
Cephalic vein (use insulin syringe)
Cranial vena cava
What are the two venipuncture sites in ferrets that can be used to obtain large amounts of blood from?
Cranial vena cava
What is the pH of the urine?
What is a common crystal seen in ferrets due to the acidic pH of the urine?
magnesium-ammonium phosphate crystals
What can be seen in neutered males with untreated Adrenal dz?
What is the bottom arrow pointing to?
Enlarged cystic prostate
What can make male catheterization difficult
Small urethra and crooked os penis
What is the technique for IV catheter application?
What are four uses of IO catheters?
Bone marrow aspiration
Why are multiple transfusion okay to do in ferrets without cross matching?
There are no blood groups so no reactions to worry about
What is the max % you can take in terms of blood transfusion of the body weight?
10%- try to never take this much unless NEEDED
Typically stay around 7-8%
What are the pain medications used in ferrets?
How can you initiate a yawn reflex and what does this allow you to examine in terms of dental exam?
Scruff the ferret
Examine the palate to see ulcers/fistulas
Where does helicobacter mustelae colonize?
Pylorus and duodenum
What are CS of gastric ulceration?
melena, bruxism, ptyalism, anorexia, inappetence, chronic weight loss
What stain can be used to help dx gastric ulceration?
Silver stains (Warthin-starry)
What drugs are used in the "triple therapy" for GI ulceration
Amoxycillin + Metronidazole + Bismuth Subsalicylate (pepto)
What GI foregin bodies are commonly found in old vs. young ferrets?
Old: trichobezoars (hairball)
Young: rubber pieces
What type of diarrhea is seen in ferrets with epizootic catarrhal enteritis?
Mucousy green slime diarrhea
What is the cause of epizootic catarrhal enteritis?
Transmissible dz (3-4 days)
What do we worry about in terms of age in young vs. old ferrets with epizootic catarrhal enteritis?
What GI problem looks similar to corona virus but typically only presented in older ferrets?
Inflammatory bowel disease (chronic malabsorption syndrome)
What type of diarrhea is seen in ferrets with inflammatory bowel disease?
Bird seed tan diarrhea
Chronic inflammation of the GI tract can lead to what in ferrets?
What drugs are used to treat inflammatory bowel disease?
Prednisone or azathiaprine (immune-suppressive agents)
What is an endocrine dz that you can expect every ferret to eventually get?
What are some CS of hyperadrenocorticism?
Hair loss, pruritis, swollen vulva, prostatomegaly, stronger smell, return of sexual behavior
T/F: Hyperadrenocorticism is a hormone producing tumor
Hormone producing tumor --> hyperplasia --> adenoma --> adenocarcinoma
What is the medical and sx treatment of hyperadrenocorticism?
If you see this- what does it indicate?
Bone marrow suppression --> END -STAGE DZ
What is the name of the implant that can be used for medical management of hyperadrenocorticism?
Deslorein 4.7 mg implant- can last 12-24 months
about 10% are adrenocarcinomas- these won't respond to leuprolide
What is the tumor in the pancreas that causes over stimulation of the beta cells?
Pancreatic beta cell carcinoma
T/F: Insulinoma is an acute dz in ferrets
This is a slow progressive dz
What are some CS seen with insulinoma patients?
Episodic weakness, drooling, inappetence
Difficult to arouse (look stoned)
Weak in rear end
Coma and seizures near end stage
T/F: Insulinoma is considered an OLD ferret dz
What is the method of dx for insulinoma patients?
Fasting blood glucose < 60
What are the medical and sx therapy options?
Medical: prednisone (first line therapy) and diazoxide (insulin blocker)
Sx: Nodulectomy or Partial Pancreatectomy
What are the four common tumor types in ferrets?
Mast Cell tumors
Dx this condition and common characteristics
Mast Cell Tumors
Weird bumps on skin that they scratch at causing bleeding and regrowth again
What is the most common intestinal tumor in ferrets?
What are the tx options for lymphosarcoma?
Chemotherapy COP protocol--> Cyclophosphamide + Vincristine + Prednisolone
What are the three common heart diseases seen in ferrets?
Heartworm (occult)- Advantage Multi Labeled for them