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1

Which of the following characteristics apply to bright field microscopy?

1. Visible light source 2. Electron stream 3. Focusing by glass lenses 4. Focusing by magnets
5. 200 nm resolution
6. 0.5 nm resolution 7. 10 nm resolution 8. Used for viewing Gram stains 9. Used for diagnosing syphilis 10. Rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis
11. Dark-field stop 12. Annular diaphragm 13. Phase-shifting element 14. Exciter filter 15. Barrier filter
16. Prisms split and recombine light 17. 3-D view

The following apply to bright field microscopy:
1. visible light source
3. focusing by glass lenses
5. 200 nm resolution
8. used for viewing gram stains

2

which of the following characteristics apply to dark field microscopy?

1. Visible light source 2. Electron stream 3. Focusing by glass lenses 4. Focusing by magnets
5. 200 nm resolution
6. 0.5 nm resolution 7. 10 nm resolution 8. Used for viewing Gram stains 9. Used for diagnosing syphilis 10. Rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis
11. Dark-field stop 12. Annular diaphragm 13. Phase-shifting element 14. Exciter filter 15. Barrier filter
16. Prisms split and recombine light 17. 3-D view

The following apply to dark field microscopy
1. visible light source
3. focusing by glass lenses
5. 200 nm resolution
9. used for diagnosing syphilis
11. dark field stop

3

Which of the following characteristics apply to phase contrast microscopy?

1. Visible light source 2. Electron stream 3. Focusing by glass lenses 4. Focusing by magnets
5. 200 nm resolution
6. 0.5 nm resolution 7. 10 nm resolution 8. Used for viewing Gram stains 9. Used for diagnosing syphilis 10. Rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis
11. Dark-field stop 12. Annular diaphragm 13. Phase-shifting element 14. Exciter filter 15. Barrier filter
16. Prisms split and recombine light 17. 3-D view

the following apply to phase contrast microscopy:
1. visible light source
3. focusing by glass lenses
5. 200 nm resolution
12. annular diaphragm
13. phase shifting element

4

which of the following characteristics apply to differential interference contrast microscopy?

1. Visible light source 2. Electron stream 3. Focusing by glass lenses 4. Focusing by magnets
5. 200 nm resolution
6. 0.5 nm resolution 7. 10 nm resolution 8. Used for viewing Gram stains 9. Used for diagnosing syphilis 10. Rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis
11. Dark-field stop 12. Annular diaphragm 13. Phase-shifting element 14. Exciter filter 15. Barrier filter
16. Prisms split and recombine light 17. 3-D view

The following apply to differential interference contrast microscopy:
1. visible light source
3. focusing by glass lenses
5. 200 nm resolution
16. prisms split and recombine light
17. 3-D view

5

Which of the following characteristics apply to scanning electron microscopy?

1. Visible light source 2. Electron stream 3. Focusing by glass lenses 4. Focusing by magnets
5. 200 nm resolution
6. 0.5 nm resolution 7. 10 nm resolution 8. Used for viewing Gram stains 9. Used for diagnosing syphilis 10. Rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis
11. Dark-field stop 12. Annular diaphragm 13. Phase-shifting element 14. Exciter filter 15. Barrier filter
16. Prisms split and recombine light 17. 3-D view

The following apply to scanning electron microscopy:
2. electron stream
4. focusing by magnets
7. 10nm resolution
17. 3-D view

6

Do bright field microscopes use an electron stream?

no

7

do bright field microscopes focus by magnets?

no

8

Do bright field microscopes use a visible light source?

yes

9

Do bright field microscopes focus using glass lenses?

yes

10

do bright field microscopes have a 200 nm resolution?

yes

11

do bright field microscopes have a .5 nm resolution?

no

12

Are bright field microscopes used for viewing gram stains?

yes

13

Do bright field microscopes allow for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis?

no

14

Do bright field microscopes have a phase shifting element?

no

15

Do dark field microscopes use a visible light source?

yes

16

Do dark field microscopes use an electron stream?

no

17

do dark field microscopes focus using glass lenses?

yes

18

Do dark field microscopes focus by magnets?

no

19

Do dark field microscopes use a 200 nm, .5 nm, or 10 nm resolution?

200 nm resolution

20

Are dark field microscopes used to diagnose syphilis?

yes

21

Do dark field microscopes use a dark field stop?

yes

22

Do dark field microscopes use an annular diaphragm?

no

23

Do phase contrast microscopes use a visible light source?

yes

24

Do phase contrast microscopes focus using glass lenses?

yes

25

Do phase contrast microscopes have a 200 or 10 nm resolution?

200 nm resolution

26

Are phase contrast microscopes used for viewing gram stains?

no

27

Are phase contrast microscopes used for diagnosing syphilis?

no

28

Do phase contrast microscopes have an annular diaphragm?

yes

29

Do phase contrast microscopes have a phase shifting element?

yes

30

Do differential interference contrast microscopes use a visible light source?

yes

31

Do differential interference contrast microscopes use an electron stream?

no

32

Do differential interference contrast microscopes focus using glass lenses?

yes

33

Do differential interference contrast microscopes focus using magnets?

no

34

Do differential interference contrast microscopes have a 200 or 0.5 nm resolution?

200 nm resolution

35

Are differential interference contrast microscopes used for diagnosing syphilis?

no

36

Do differential interference contrast microscopes have an annular diaphragm?

no

37

Do differential interference contrast microscopes use prisms to split and recombine light?

yes

38

Do differential interference contrast microscopes have a 3D view?

yes

39

Do scanning electron microscopes use a visible light source?

no

40

Do scanning electron microscopes use an electron stream?

yes

41

Do scanning electron microscopes focus using glass lenses?

no

42

Do scanning electron microscopes use magnets to focus?

yes

43

Do scanning electron microscopes have a 0.5, 10, or 200 nm resolution?

10 nm resolution

44

Are scanning electron microscopes used for diagnosing syphilis?

no

45

Do scanning electron microscopes have an annular diaphragm?

no

46

Do scanning electron microscopes use prisms to split and recombine light?

no

47

Do scanning electron microscopes have a 3D view?

yes

48

Living organisms are classified into groups for purposes of identification and/or to show relationships. Classification schemes which are based on common origins are termed _________

Both natural and phylogenetic are correct

49

The classification scheme proposed by R. H. Whittaker in 1969 places living organisms into five Kingdoms based upon cell type, multi cellularity, and mode of nutrition. This scheme is thus considered ___________

artificial

50

The classification scheme proposed by Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology is based upon cell wall chemistry, and is thus considered _____________

artificial

51

What does phylogenetic mean?

Relating to or based on evolutionary development or history; based on natural evolutionary relationships

52

What shape is staph?

(for example coccus, bacillus, diplococcus, etc)

coccus

53

What shape is tetanus?

(for example coccus, bacillus, diplococcus, etc)

bacillus

54

What shape is gonorrhea?

(for example coccus, bacillus, diplococcus, etc)

diplococcus

55

What shape is Corynebacterium?

(for example coccus, bacillus, diplococcus, etc)

palisaide (picket fence)

56

What shape is Lyme disease?

(for example coccus, bacillus, diplococcus, etc)

spirochete

57

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
a. Staph - coccus
b. tetanus- bacillus
c. gonorrhea- diplococcus
d. Corynebacterium- spirochete
e. lyme disease- spirochete

d. Corynebacterium- spirochete

58

Which of the following best describes a slime layer?
a. extracellular
b. extracellular, nonliving, outermost layer, very distinct
c. nonliving
d. extracellular, nonliving, outermost layer, very irregular
e. nonliving, outermost layer, very irregular

d. extracellular, nonliving, outermost layer, very irregular

59

When examining a colony of bacteria, it is easy to tell which have capsules since by looking at the colony you can see ________

the colony has a mucoid texture

60

Which of the following characteristics best describes a cell wall?
a. extracellular, small part of cell
b. extracellular, nonliving, big part of cell
c. nonliving, small part of cell
d. extracellular, living, big part of cell
e. nonliving, integral part of cell, big part of cell

e. nonliving, integral part of cell, big part of cell

61

When examining a colony of bacteria, it is easy to tell which have capsules since by looking at the colony you can see
a. a clear area around the purple stained organism
b. a blue are around the purple stained organism
c. the colony has a mucoid texture
d. the colony has a shiny surface
e. a black area around the organism which is clear

c. the colony has a mucoid texture

62

Is the cell wall extracellular?

no

63

Is the cell wall a small part of the cell?

no

64

Is the cell wall non living?

yes

65

Is the cell wall a big part of the cell?

yes

66

Is the cell wall living?

no

67

All of the following statements regarding cell walls are true EXCEPT
a. lysine is found in cell walls of Gram-positive but not Gram-negative bacteria
b. teichoic acids are found in cell walls of Gram-positive but not Gram-negative bacteria
c. periplasmic spaces are always found in Gram-negative but not all Gram-positive cells
d. murein is present in higher concentration in Gram-negative cells
e. porins are found in Gram-negative but not Gram-positive cells

d. murein is present in higher concentration in Gram-negative cells

68

All of the following statements regarding cell membranes are true EXCEPT
a. they are the first living part of the cell
b. they are composed of phospholipoproteins
c. the fatty acids are the hydrophilic portions of the phospholipids
d. the proteins include enzymes that function in semipermeability
e. the phospholipids form a bilayer with the hydrophobic portion inside the bilayer

c. the fatty acids are the hydrophilic portions of the phospholipids

69

Is lysine found in the cell walls of G+ or G- bacteria? Or is it found in all bacteria regardless of gram staining?

G+

70

Are teichoic acids found in cell walls of G+ or G- bacteria? Or is it found in all bacteria regardless of gram staining?

G+

71

T or F:
periplasmic spaces are always found in Gram-negative but not all Gram-positive cells

True

72

Is murein present in a higher concentration in G- cells?

no

73

Are porins found in G+ or G- bacteria? Or is it found in all bacteria regardless of gram staining?

G-

74

What is the first living part of the cell?

the cell membrane

75

What is the cell membrane composed of?

phospho-lipo-proteins

76

In the cell membrane, are the fatty acids the hydrophillic portion of the phospholipid?

no

77

T or F:
In the cell membrane, the proteins include enzymes that function in semipermeability

true

78

Is the hydrophobic portion of the cell membrane inside or outside the bilayer?

it is inside the bilayer

79

What structure is important i adherence of bacteria to surfaces?

fimbriae

80

Which bacterial structures are resistant to adverse conditions but are common in the genera bacillus and clostridium?

endospores

81

In lab you want to culture a mushroom you found growing wild attached to a rotting log in the woods. You want to duplicate the mushroom's natural medium. You would thus try to make your own medium that is ______________ (multiple descriptors may be used)

inanimate
complex
non synthetic

82

Your friend is sick. You determine that the infection is caused by a hypotroph. You must grow the organism to prove it is causing the disease state. You choose a medium that is ______________ (multiple descriptors may be used)

animate
complex

83

These bacterial structures are resistant to adverse conditions but are common in the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
a. capsules
b. endospore
c. pili
d. plasmids
e. fimbriae

b. endospore

84

In lab you want to culture a mushroom you found growing wild attached to a rotting log in the woods. You want to duplicate the mushroom's natural medium. You would thus try to make your own medium that is
a. inanimate, synthetic
b. inanimate, complex
c. inanimate, nonsynthetic
d. animate, sterile
e. both b and c are correct

e. both b and c are correct:

inanimate, complex
inanimate, nonsynthetic

85

Your friend is sick. You determine that the infection is caused by a hypotroph. You must grow the organism to prove it is causing the disease state. You choose a medium that is
a. inanimate, synthetic
b. inanimate, complex
c. animate, complex
d. animate, synthetic
e. both c and d are correct

c. animate, complex

86

You prepare a medium for an unusual plant you isolated from a pond in your back yard. This medium contains 20 grams of sucrose, 2 grams of potassium nitrate, and 3 grams of the dried mud you found at the bottom of the pond. This medium is considered
a. inanimate, synthetic
b. inanimate, nonsynthetic
c. animate, complex
d. animate, synthetic
e. both c and d are correct

b. inanimate, nonsynthetic

87

You have a Strep sore throat. You use a medium containing 5% sheep blood to grow out the organism for antibiotic testing. The medium containing the sheep's blood is considered
a. inanimate, synthetic
b. inanimate, complex
c. an isolation medium
d. a differentiation medium
e. b, c and d are correct

E. b, c and d are correct:

inanimate, complex
an isolation medium
a differentiation medium

88

describe the medium you would use to grow out a hypotroph

animate, complex

89

what causes the color change on mannitol salt agar?

Staphylococci ferment the mannitol to produce acid and turn the phenol red yellow

90

What organism is best used on mannitol salt agar?

Staphylococci aureus

91

What type of medium is mannitol salt agar?

differential

92

On Mannitol Salt agar, Staphylococci ferment the mannitol to produce acid and turn the phenol red yellow. This specific reaction allows us to classify this medium as
a. selective
b. differential
c. an isolation medium
d. both an isolation and a differentiation medium
e. none of the above are correct

b. differential

93

Is Eosin Methylene Agar a selective medium?

yes

94

is Eosin Methylene Agar a differential medium?

yes

95

is Eosin Methylene Agar an isolation medium?

yes

96

in Eosin Methylene Agar do the dyes inhibit G- bacteria?

no

97

. Which of the following statements are TRUE concerning liquefiable solid media?
a. agar is used to make the media solid
b. agar, once solidified, is remelted by heating to 500C.
c. agar solidifies at about 500C.
d. an example is media containing 5% sheep blood.
e. only a, b and c are correct

a. agar is used to make the media solid

98

This term is used to identify bacteria that grow optimally at temperatures between 45 to 800C.

thermophiles

99

These bacteria grow best in the absence of oxygen but are not necessarily killed in the presence of it

anaerobe

100

agar once solidified is remelted by heating to this temperture

100 degrees C

101

Does agar solidify at about 500 degrees C?

no

102

Is media containing 5% sheep blood an example of liquifiable solid media?

no

103

Do aerobes grow best in the absence of oxygen but are not necessarily killed in the presence of it?

no, but anaerobes do

104

Which of the following correctly describes total volume as a means of enumeration?
a. it is a cultural, direct method which counts only living cells.
b. it is a cultural, direct method which counts both living and dead cells.
c. it is a noncultural, direct method which counts only dead cells
d. it is a noncultural, direct method which counts only living cells
e. it is a noncultural, indirect method

e. it is a noncultural, indirect method

105

When Serratia marcescens colonies turn from pink at 250 C to white at 350 C, and then revert back to pink again at 250 C, this is known as a
a. morphological, phenotypic change
b. cultural, genotypic change
c. morphological, genotypic change
d. cultural, phenotypic change
e. Physiological, genotypic change

d. cultural, phenotypic change

106

Is total volume as a means of enumeration a cultural or noncultural method?

non cultural

107

is total volume as a means of enumeration a direct or indirect method?

indirect

108

What bacteria changes the color of its colonies depending on the temperature?

Serratia marcescens

109

Is the color change of a colony at a certain temperature a phenotypic or genotypic change?

phenotypic

110

What is bacterial transformation?

When a bacterium picks up pieces of bacterial DNA from the surrounding medium

111

With bacteria, this mating type contains a bacterial genome plus a fertility that is integrated into the genome

Hfr

112

This process is not considered genetic recombination but actually a phenotypic variation since bacterial DNA is not causing the change in characteristic

lysogenic conversion

113

. When a bacterium picks up pieces of bacterial DNA from the surrounding medium.
a. transformation
b. transduction
c. conjugation
d. sexual reproduction
e. phenotypic variation

a. transformation

114

With bacteria, this mating type contains a bacterial genome plus a fertility that is integrated into the genome.
a. F-
b. F+
c. Hfr
d. both a and b are correct
e. both b and c are correct

c. Hfr

115

This process is not considered genetic recombination but actually a phenotypic variation since bacterial DNA is not causing the change in characteristic
a. transformation
b. transduction
c. conjugation
d. lysogenic conversion
e. sexual reproduction

lysogenic conversion

116

Staphylococci and /streptococci are classified according to Bergey into
this division _______________

Firmicutes

117

This organism (genus and species) avoids being phagocytized by
white blood cells since it possesses a capsule containing hyaluronic acid. _______________

Streptococcus pyogenes

118

True or False? The bacterial cell wall is a rigid structure that helps
prevent plasmolysis in environments with low osmotic pressures

False

119

The chemical in the peptidoglycan backbone that is unique to
prokaryotic cells is? _______________

n-acetyl muramaic acid

120

This structure is a hollow tube that forms a bridge between bacteria
during conjugation. _______________

Pili

121

When cells are infected with rabies virus, diagnostic evidence is
provided by examining the cells for the cytopathic effects known as? ________________

negri (inclusion) bodies

122

True or False? To quantify Hepatitis B viruses for vaccination, the
virus can be enumerated using a plaguing technique on tissue culture

False

123

To grow bacteria, the environment is usually
(hypotonic, isotonic, or hypertonic) compared to the inside of the
bacteria in tonicity? ________________

hypotonic

124

True or False? Use of a coulter counter provides and indirect method
for enumeration of both living and dead bacteria in a sample

False

125

Bacteria often vary in characteristics. If the variation is temporary,
it is described as being this kind of variation? ________________

Phenotypic

126

. True or False? A log phase culture of a bacillus which is normally
long would most likely exhibit cells which were almost spherical
in shape

False

127

Explain how the modifications used for phase contrast microscopy actually increase contrast compared to a bright field microscope

phase-shifting element focuses (speeds up or slows down) direct rays but not incident rays. See as difference in brightness

128

Candida albicans, a yeast, and Bacillus subtilis, a bacterium, both stain Gram-positively.
Is this due to similarities in chemistry or to some other phenomenon? Explain

not chemistry since different kingdoms and thus different cell wall chemistry. Due to permeation, since both yeasts and bacteria have thick cell walls

129

Escherichia coli can produce the enzyme -galactosidase in the presence of lactose. Is this a genotypic or phenotypic change. Explain

phenotypic since temporary. Doesn't produce enzyme if lactose is not present

130

You have a glass of milk which you feel is soured. So you want to count the bacteria in it. There are a total of 300 ml of milk. Your friend tells you that it was already estimated that the milk sample had a total of 60,000 bacteria in it, but he wants you to verify this count. Describe the exact procedure you would use to verify this count by using a colony count plating method

take 1 ml, spread on plate and count. since between 25-250 colonies can count.
60,000 bacteria/300 ml = 200 bacteria/ml

131

Define and describe importance :
transducing phage

a bacteriophage containing host DNA

132

Define and describe importance :
resistancy transfer factor

RTF are plasmids transferred during conjugation. Contain information for resistance to antibiotics.
e.g. drug resistance in Gram negative rods

133

Define and describe importance :
episome

episomes are plasmids integrated with the bacterial chromosome. e.g. fertility factors in Hfr mating types

134

Define and describe importance :
eukaryotic sexual reprduction

eukaryotic sexual reproduction involves alternation between meiosis and fertilization and
between diploid and haploid chromosome numbers

135

Define and describe importance :
resistance mutation

Resistance mutation is a genotypic variation. e.g. allowing antibiotic resistance. Rare. 1/billion
e.g. Staphylococcus becomes resistant to Penicillin

136

T or F:
DNA has a diameter of about 1 nm. This is well within the range of resolution of
the light microscope

False

137

T or F:
Increasing the numerical aperture increases the resolution of a microscope

True

138

T or F:
The process of discovering and recording the traits of organisms so that they may be placed in an overall taxonomic scheme is identification

True

139

T or F
The third step of the Gram stain partially dissolves the cell wall of Gram-negative organisms, allowing the primary dye to be easily removed

True

140

T or F
A spheroplast is what remains following exposure of a Gram-negative cell to penicillin

True

141

T or F
A mixed culture contains microbes of known identity and microbes of uncertain identity

False

142

T or F
In the lag phase is relatively flat period on the growth curve because the rate of cell death is the same as the rate of multiplication

False