Flashcards in Lecture 8 Deck (57):
Define animate media
What does complex mean?
T or F- Things don't need to be cellular to be alive
Obligate parasites that need to grow on living organisms
T or F- Animate media cannot grow obligate parasites
False, it can grow obligate parasites
What are Cell or Tissue medias?
A medium within a medium; you need to grow out cell or tissue samples to then grow out the organism you really want. Commonly uses skin cells, liver cells, or kidney cells
How do you make mediums within mediums?
start with a liquid medium to grow cells until they become a monolayer and then grow your viruses/hypotrophic organisms
What are cytopathic effects? (CPE)
Damage to the cell caused by viruses
Name 3 types of cytopathic effects?
1. Giant cells
3. Inclusion Bodies
What is inclusion bodies an example of?
T or F- Damage to the cell caused by bacteria are cytopathic effects
False, it is damage caused by viruses
What is giant cells?
An effect that causes several different cells to fuse together to make a huge multinucleated cell
T or F- Giant cells have a single nucleolus
False, they have multiple
What viruses can cause giant cells?
Does herpes simplex cause giant cells?
Does AIDS cause giant cells?
Does Hepatitis B cause giant cells?
T or F- Bacteria can cause giant cells
False, giant cells is a type of cytopathic effect, which is defined by being caused by a virus
Define inclusion bodies
Added features that can be either intracytoplasmic or intrenuclear
Where can inclusion bodies be?
Intracytoplasmic or intranuclear
Name an intracytoplasmic inclusion, and what causes it
Negri bodies, caused by rabies
T or F- Rabies causes intranuclear cytopathic effects
False, rabies causes intracytoplasmic effects
What can cause intranuclear inclusion bodies?
Cytomegalo virus (CMV), which is an asymptomatic herpes virus. It can also call giant cells
T or F- Rabies can cause giant cells
What is plaquing techniques
An example of cytopathic effects wherein the virus causes dark rings around teh cell, called plaques. This enumerates the virus
What do viruses do to enumerate themselves?
What virus is capable of plaquing?
Polio, which ends up making the cell lysis
T or F- Rabies causes lysis
False, rabies create intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies called Negri bodies
Name the types of animate media
1. Cell or tissue culture
2. Embryonated Eggs
3. Intact animal or plant recombination
What are embryonated eggs used for?
It is used to make a flu vaccine, as well as to grow chlamydae and rickettsiae
Is the egg a sterile medium?
No, the egg is not a sterile medium
T or F- The vaccines prefer specific area of the egg to be grown in
True, every vaccine grows best in a certain area
What virus is grown in rabbits?
Treponema pallidum, which causes syphilis
What virus is grown in monkeys?
Hepatitis B, and it is a very expensive process and now replaced with recombinant technology
Mycobacterium laprae is grown in what animal?
Armadillos and chimps
What are the requirements of a culture medium?
2. Food in a utilizable form
5. Injurious chemicals
What is the ideal moisture in a culture medium?
75-95% water beause most bacteria are absorptive heterotrophs
What kind of food do you need for an autotroph
The correct inorganic materials
What food do you need for a heterotroph
The correct organic materials (amino acids, carbohydrates)
What is the best pH to grow organisms?
T or F- pH is constant in a medium
False, pH can change as the organism digests food, and can only be stopped by a buffer
What buffers an prevent pH change?
Peptone or caseline hydrolysate
How do you sterilize a medium?
Autoclave it at 121.5*C
What is a mixed culture?
A culture with 2+ bacteria
What is a pure culture?
A culture with only 1 bacteria
You are trying to grow nematodes and infuse the medium with e.coli. Is this a pure or mixed culture?
It is a mixed culture because the e.coli are alive
What are some injurious chemicals?
1. Agar, which comes from red algae because it can have addition chemicals/proprieties if not cleaned correctly
2. Water, which is capable of breaking town machines
3. Soda glass, which has too much sodium
T or F- Water is an injurious chemical because it ha too much sodium
False, soda glass has too much sodium
T or F- Agar needs to be cleaned properly before being used in a medium
True, since agar comes from red algae, it can contain extra properties if not cleaned
T or F- Agar comes from green algae
False, it comes from red algae
What are the three tonicities?
T or F- You want you medium to be slightly hypotonic
True, this allows the bacteria to have water go into it, making it slightly turgid
T or F- Isotonic solutions are the best for bacteria
False, isotonic solutions will leave your bacteria looking flaccid
T or F- Bacteria will only be flaccid in a hypertonic solution
False, it will also look flaccid in an isotonic solution
Explain what happens to a bacteria in a hypertonic solution
Water leaves the bacteria and goes into the environment, leaving the bacteria looking flaccid