Lecture 8 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 8 Deck (57):
1

Define animate media

Alive/complex media

2

What does complex mean?

Alive

3

T or F- Things don't need to be cellular to be alive

False

4

Define hypotrophs

Obligate parasites that need to grow on living organisms

5

T or F- Animate media cannot grow obligate parasites

False, it can grow obligate parasites

6

What are Cell or Tissue medias?

A medium within a medium; you need to grow out cell or tissue samples to then grow out the organism you really want. Commonly uses skin cells, liver cells, or kidney cells

7

How do you make mediums within mediums?

start with a liquid medium to grow cells until they become a monolayer and then grow your viruses/hypotrophic organisms

8

What are cytopathic effects? (CPE)

Damage to the cell caused by viruses

9

Name 3 types of cytopathic effects?

1. Giant cells
2. Plaquing
3. Inclusion Bodies

10

What is inclusion bodies an example of?

Cytopathic Effects

11

T or F- Damage to the cell caused by bacteria are cytopathic effects

False, it is damage caused by viruses

12

What is giant cells?

An effect that causes several different cells to fuse together to make a huge multinucleated cell

13

T or F- Giant cells have a single nucleolus

False, they have multiple

14

What viruses can cause giant cells?

Herpes simplex

15

Does herpes simplex cause giant cells?

Yes

16

Does AIDS cause giant cells?

No

17

Does Hepatitis B cause giant cells?

No

18

T or F- Bacteria can cause giant cells

False, giant cells is a type of cytopathic effect, which is defined by being caused by a virus

19

Define inclusion bodies

Added features that can be either intracytoplasmic or intrenuclear

20

Where can inclusion bodies be?

Intracytoplasmic or intranuclear

21

Name an intracytoplasmic inclusion, and what causes it

Negri bodies, caused by rabies

22

T or F- Rabies causes intranuclear cytopathic effects

False, rabies causes intracytoplasmic effects

23

What can cause intranuclear inclusion bodies?

Cytomegalo virus (CMV), which is an asymptomatic herpes virus. It can also call giant cells

24

T or F- Rabies can cause giant cells

False

25

What is plaquing techniques

An example of cytopathic effects wherein the virus causes dark rings around teh cell, called plaques. This enumerates the virus

26

What do viruses do to enumerate themselves?

Plaquing

27

What virus is capable of plaquing?

Polio, which ends up making the cell lysis

28

Define lysis

Cell disintegration

29

T or F- Rabies causes lysis

False, rabies create intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies called Negri bodies

30

Name the types of animate media

1. Cell or tissue culture
2. Embryonated Eggs
3. Intact animal or plant recombination

31

What are embryonated eggs used for?

It is used to make a flu vaccine, as well as to grow chlamydae and rickettsiae

32

Is the egg a sterile medium?

No, the egg is not a sterile medium

33

T or F- The vaccines prefer specific area of the egg to be grown in

True, every vaccine grows best in a certain area

34

What virus is grown in rabbits?

Treponema pallidum, which causes syphilis

35

What virus is grown in monkeys?

Hepatitis B, and it is a very expensive process and now replaced with recombinant technology

36

Mycobacterium laprae is grown in what animal?

Armadillos and chimps

37

What are the requirements of a culture medium?

1. Moisture
2. Food in a utilizable form
3. pH
4. Sterility
5. Injurious chemicals
6. Tonicity
7. Temperature
8. Gas

38

What is the ideal moisture in a culture medium?

75-95% water beause most bacteria are absorptive heterotrophs

39

What kind of food do you need for an autotroph

The correct inorganic materials

40

What food do you need for a heterotroph

The correct organic materials (amino acids, carbohydrates)

41

What is the best pH to grow organisms?

6.5-7.2

42

T or F- pH is constant in a medium

False, pH can change as the organism digests food, and can only be stopped by a buffer

43

What buffers an prevent pH change?

Peptone or caseline hydrolysate

44

How do you sterilize a medium?

Autoclave it at 121.5*C

45

What is a mixed culture?

A culture with 2+ bacteria

46

What is a pure culture?

A culture with only 1 bacteria

47

You are trying to grow nematodes and infuse the medium with e.coli. Is this a pure or mixed culture?

It is a mixed culture because the e.coli are alive

48

What are some injurious chemicals?

1. Agar, which comes from red algae because it can have addition chemicals/proprieties if not cleaned correctly
2. Water, which is capable of breaking town machines
3. Soda glass, which has too much sodium

49

T or F- Water is an injurious chemical because it ha too much sodium

False, soda glass has too much sodium

50

T or F- Agar needs to be cleaned properly before being used in a medium

True, since agar comes from red algae, it can contain extra properties if not cleaned

51

T or F- Agar comes from green algae

False, it comes from red algae

52

What are the three tonicities?

1. Hypertonic
2. Hypotonic
3. Isotonic

53

T or F- You want you medium to be slightly hypotonic

True, this allows the bacteria to have water go into it, making it slightly turgid

54

T or F- Isotonic solutions are the best for bacteria

False, isotonic solutions will leave your bacteria looking flaccid

55

T or F- Bacteria will only be flaccid in a hypertonic solution

False, it will also look flaccid in an isotonic solution

56

Explain what happens to a bacteria in a hypertonic solution

Water leaves the bacteria and goes into the environment, leaving the bacteria looking flaccid

57

T or F- all organisms are culturable

False, lots of organisms are unculturable