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Flashcards in Lecture 11 Deck (62):
1

Define genetic recombination

Incorporation of new DNA into an organism, but not by sexual reproduction

2

In transformation, does the donor die?

Yes, the donor dies and breaks apart, as does it's DNA

3

What is incorporation of new DNA into an organism through a method that is not sexual reproduction called?

Genetic recombination

4

What happens during transformation?

A donor breaks apart, as does it's chromosomes, and gets its DNA incorporated into another bacteria, called the recipient

5

What are the two bacteria involved in transformation normally called?

The donor and the recipient

6

What does the donor do in transformation?

Have itself and its DNA break apart

7

What does the recipient do in transformation?

Incorporate the donor's genetic material into its genome

8

Define conjugation

Transfer of genetic material between two bacterial cells through a pilus

9

What is the sex pilus?

A tube formed by an F+ bacterial cell that connects two bacterial cells together

10

What are the mating types in conjugation?

It is based on the fertility factor, F+ and F-

11

How many mating types are there in conjugation?

Two, F+ and F-

12

Is an F+ cell capable of producing a sex pilus?

Yes, because it has the F factor

13

Is an F- cell capable of making a sex pilus?

No, because it doesn't have the F factor

14

Is the F factor part of a bacteria's DNA?

No, it is a plasmid

15

What is a mathod of gene exchange between bacterial cells that is most anaologus to sexual reproduction?

Conjugation, because of the inclusion of a sex pilus

16

Does conjugation have male and female mating types?

No, they have F+ and F- mating types

17

How is an F+ cell different from an F- cell?

1. Has an F factor
2. Can produce a sex pilus
3. Is more negative that an F- cell

18

How is an F- cell different from an F+ cell?

1. It does not have the F factor
2. Cannot produce a sex pilus
3. it is more positive than an F+ cell

19

How to F+ cells find F- cells?

An F+ cell is more negative than and F- cell and is attracted to each other like magnets

20

Does an F- cell have a genome?

Yes, it simply lacks the fertility factor plasmid

21

Is the F factor capable of replicating itself?

Yes, it makes a copy of itself during conjugation to send to the F- cell

22

Do cells break down during conjugation?

No, broken cells are involved in transformation

23

At the end of conjugation, how many F+ cells do you have?

2, the original and the newly make F+ cell

24

Do you have F- cells at the end of conjugation?

No, during conjugation F- cells become F+ after reviving the fertility factor

25

What is the F factor?

It is the fertility factor in bacterial cells that allows them to make a sex pilus and exchange DNA and plasmids

26

Can an F- cell exchange plasmids?

No, you need the F factor to produce the sex pilus required in sharing genetic material

27

What is a plasmid?

It is a genetic structure in the bacterial cell that can code for things and replicate independently from the chromosomes

28

Name 3 plasmids

1. Fertility factor
2. R (resistance) plasmids (RTF + R genes)
3. Beta-Lactamse

29

How often can genome recombination happen in conjugation?

Very rarely, 1/100,000

30

Can a cell have more than 1 plasmid?

Yes! It can have as many as it likes

31

What does HFR stand for?

High Frequency Recombination

32

Define High Frequency Recombination (HFR)

It is a bacterial cell that has incorporated its F factor into its genome and will pass part of the genome to pass through the sex pilus during recombination

33

How long does HFR take?

About 90-100 minutes

34

What is an episome?

A genome that has the fertility factor incorporated in it

35

What is it called when a fertility factor is incorporated into a genome?

An episome

36

When will you have the genome pass through the sex pilus?

during HFR (high frequency of recombination)

37

During HRF, does the episome pass through the sex pilus first?

No, it will pass through last, if at all

38

Does the genome break apart during HFR?

It does in the donor cell

39

How many F+ cells do you have after HFR?

One, the recipient cell doesn't get the F factor

40

How many F- cells do you have after HFR?

One, the recipient cell doesn't get the F factor

41

True or false: Only 1 plasmid can be exchanged during conjugation

False, many plasmids can be exchanged

42

True or False : Lots of plasmids can be exchanged during conjugation

True

43

What does RTF stand for?

Resistance Transfer Factors

44

What kind of gram cell is most likely to exchange resistance factors?

Gram -

45

Where does the exchange of resistance factors happen most frequently?

In hospitals

46

True or False: Gram - cells do not commonly exchange resistance factor

False

47

What is Beta-Lactamase?

An enzyme that can break down antibiotics such as penicillin or cephalosporine

48

What does cephalospoinase break down?

Cephalospoins

49

What breaks down cephalospoines?

Cephalospoinease

50

Name 3 bacteria that commonly exchange Beta-Lactamase

1. Cephalospoins
2. Staphylococci
3. Nisseria gonorrhea

51

How is Beta-Lactamase transferred?

Conjugation

52

What is transduction?

The process of transferring genetic material between cells through bacteriophages

53

What is a bacteriophage?

A virus with bacterial DNA

54

Define Lysogenic Conversion

A method of recombination, but that transfers viral DNA instead of bacterial DNA

55

Why is lysogentic conversion bad?

It makes bacteria very dangerous

56

Name some cells that have been affected by lysogentic conversion

1. Clostridium botulinum (a Type A poision)
2. Corynebacterium Diphteriae (has a toxin that damages the heart)
3. Streptococcus pyogenes (which can cause Scarlet Fever due to it producing an erythrogenic toxin)

57

How has Lysogenic conversion made Clostridium botulinum worse?

Its made it into a Type A poison, potent enough to kill all the humans with a cup of it

58

How has lysogenic conversion made Corynebacterium diphteriae worse?

Has allowed it to make a toxin that damages the heart

59

How has lysogenic conversion made streptococcus pyogenes worse?

Had given it the ability to make an erythrogenic toxin which causes scarlet fever

60

What cause Scarlet fever?

Streptococcus pyogenes

61

What is the difference between Transduction and Lysogenic conversion?

Transduction transfers bacterial DNA and lysogenic conversion transfers viral DNA

62

What are all 5 types of genetic recombination of DNA in bacteria cells?

Transformation, conjugation, HFR, transduction, lysogenic conversion