Flashcards in Lecture 6 Deck (110):
Is the cell wall living or non living?
is the cell wall extracellular?
Is the cell wall an integral part of the cell
is the cell wall the same thing as the glycocalyx?
how much of the dry weight of a cell is its cell wall?
what is plasmoptysis?
bursting of the cell
what are the general properties of the cell wall?
not extra cellular
is 20-40% of the dry weight of the bacteria
What sort of osmotic conditions do bacteria live in?
low osmotic conditions
Does water flow into or out of the cell?
into the cell
Use the terms hypertonic, isotonic, and/or hyoptonic to describe a cell and its ideal environment
The cell is slightly hypertonic to its environment
the environment is slightly hypotonic to the cell
you have 2 samples. sample A is hypertonic to sample b
which has a lower solute concentration?
sample b does
does the cell wall shrink during plasmolysis?
does the cell membrane shrink during plasmolysis?
What shape would bacteria be without a cell wall?
what are the functions of the cell wall?
provides an anchor for flagella
acts as a sieve
what is a sieve?
a filter, semipermiable membrane
does the cell wall allow things to pass through it?
yes but it is selective and won't let everything through
what is murein?
a peptido glycan
the backbone of the cell wall
What does NAM stand for?
What does NAG stand for?
Is NAM found in all organisms?
Is NAG found in all organisms?
How are NAM and NAG attached?
What is attached by peptide inter-bridges?
Name three magic bullets
What is a principle component of chiton?
How are NAM molecules connected?
peptide inter bridges
How do cephalosporins work?
targets the murien in the cell walls by breaking the peptide inter-bridges which ultimately destroys the cell wall
What color is a G+ organism after staining and counter staining?
What color is a G- organism after staining and counter staining?
What is the most supported theory as to why G+ and G- bacteria are different?
a permeation phenomenon based on the cell wall thickness
Do G+ or G- bacteria have teichoic acid?
Do G+ or G- bacteria have O-polysaccharied?
Do G+ or G- bacteria have lysine?
Do G+ or G- bacteria have Diaminopimelic acid?
Do G+ or G- bacteria have an outer 2nd membrane?
Do G+ or G- bacteria have porins?
Do G+ or G- bacteria have more murien in their wall?
G+ has more
what percent murein is a G+ cell wall?
what percent murein is a G- cell wall?
Do G+ or G- bacteria have a thicker layer of murein in their wall?
G+ has a thicker layer
What thickness of murein does a G- bacteria have?
What thickness of its murein layer does G+ have?
Do yeast stain G+ or G-?
Do fungi have chitin?
Do fungi have murein?
Do all bacteria have an outer membrane?
no, only G- have an outer membrane
What is the outer membrane made of?
What happens when G- bacteria die?
their outer membrane breaks down into an endotoxin
What happens during gram negative shock?
you go into shock, your blood pressure drops and you get a fever
Does the outer membrane let everything into the cell?
no, it is selectively permiable
What does the outer membrane use to let things through it?
What does the outer membrane protect against?
What does bile do?
it emulsifies lipids
How does Smith describe the peptidoglycan layer's position in the cell?
"It is between the cell membrane and the outer membrane"
Where in the cell is the periplasmic space?
it is between the outer most wall/membrane and the innermost membrane, it may be divided up into pieces if the peptidoglycan layer is present
What does the alcohol do to G- bacteria when gram staining?
it poles holes in the outer membrane
What is the first living part of the cell?
the cell membrane
What is the living part of the cell called?
Is the cell membrane impermeable, selectively permeable, or differentially permeable?
What is the protoplast?
the living part of the cell
What does differentially permeable mean?
it regulates what is transferred through the cell, not just based on size like selectively permeable
Do bacteria have cholesterol in their cell membrane?
what makes up the bacteria's cell wall?
What are the purposes of the bacterial cell membrane?
Respiration and regulation
What is the chemical make up of a phospholipid?
2 fatty acids
1 organic group
What is the chemical make up of glycerol?
a 3 carbon alcohol, 3 alcohol groups
At what carbon is the phosphate group
it is at the third carbon
What is the fluid mosaic model?
the phospholipid molecules and the proteins in the membrane can move
what does amphipathic mean?
a molecule which has both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions
Do bacteria have cholesterol or ergosterol?
In what organisms can you find ergosterol?
In what organisms can you find cholesterol?
Is a phospholipid amphipathic?
Which part of the phopholipid is hydrophillic?
the phosphate head
Which part of the phospholipid is hydrophobic?
the lipid tail
What is a sterol?
a steroid linked to an alcohol group
Do bacteria have a nucleus?
Do bacteria have a nucleoid?
how many chromosomes do bacteria have?
What are plasmids?
additional DNA that are sometimes found in bacteria
Do bacteria have extrachromosomal DNA?
Do humans have extrachromosomal DNA?
yes, in our rhibosomes
what do plasmids generally code for?
What is the organelle of locomotion?
Does the flagella affect virulence? how so?
yes, it makes it easier for them to invade the body
What is the main way that organisms become drug resistant?
What stain do you use to stain for flagella?
Describe a bacterial flagella
a single microfillament that rotates to move and is very long
Describe a eukaryotic flagella
In eukaryotes fillaments are in a 9+2 arrangement (9 pairs on the outside, 2 in the center of the microtubules)
Which are longer flagella or fimbriae?
What is the purpose of fimbriae?
used for attachment to the host cell
Name two organisms which have fimbriae?
What is opthalmia neonaterum?
newborns are blinded by passing through their mother's gonorrhea infested vagina during birth
How are fimbriae and virulence related?
Organisms that lack fimbriae are less pathogenic
What is the plural of pulus?
What is conjugation?
sharing/exchange of DNA from the nucleoid or the plasmids using a pilus
does conjugation lead to genetic recombination?
What does the pilus do?
it attaches conjugating bacteria
What causes q fever?
What do endospores do?
they allow for a species to outlive harsh conditions
Are endospores a form of reproduction?
what is the endospore formed in?
it is formed inside the vegetative cell
What is the difference between sterilization and disinfection?
Disinfection kills everything but endospores
Sterilization kills endospores as well as everything else
name 4 organisms that form endospores
what shape is sporosarcinae?
what disease does sporosarcinae cause?
it causes no disease
where is coxiella brybati found?
What diseases have endospores?