Background And History 1 Flashcards Preview

A. White- Histology > Background And History 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Background And History 1 Deck (17):

What is histology?

> the study of the microscopic anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals


What is histopathology?

> the science or study dealing with the cytological and histological structure of abnormal and diseased tissues


What are the four main types of tissues?

> epithelial tissue
> connective tissue
> muscle tissue
> nervous tissue


Type of tissue: ducts of glands?

> epithelial


Type of tissue: skin?

> epithelial and connective tissue


Type of tissue: lining of blood and lymphatic vessels?

> epithelial tissue


Type of tissue: fat?

> connective tissue


Type of tissue: red and white blood cells ?

> connective tissue


Type of tissue: kidney tubules?

> epithelial tissue


Type of tissue: cartilage?

> connective tissue


Type of tissue: tendons and ligaments?

> connective tissue


1906 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was shared by what two histologists, and for what?

> Santiago Ramon Y Cajal
>>> the correct interpretation of neural structure of the brain

> Camillo Golgi
>>> invented staining technique used to visualize neural structure of the brain


What is humoral pathology?

> a concept that states that diseases are due to an imbalance of the four fluid humors
>>> blood
>>> phlegm
>>> yellow bile
>>> black bile


In 1761 _______ ________ _________ showed that disease are not due to humoral imbalances but to lesions in organs

> Giovanni Battista Morgani


Summarize findings/contributions of Marie Francois Xavier Bichat

> father or modern histology

> main contribution was the perception that the diverse body organs contain particular tissues or membranes; he described 21 such membranes

> did not use a microscope, but described 21 different membranes (tissues) that combine in different ways to form the organs of the body

> saw life in two parts: organic (vegetative) life and the animal life
>>> organic life was the life of the heart, intestines, and other organs

>>> organic life was regulated by a collection of small, independent, thoracic brains (ganglionic nervous system)

>>> animal life was composed of symmetrical organs such as eyes, ears, and limbs

>>> animal life included habit and memory and was ruled by wit and intellect

> introduced notion of tissues as distinct entities and maintained that diseases attacked tissues rather than whole organs or the entire body


Summarize findings/ contributions of Rudolph Carl Virchow

> pioneered the concept of pathological processes through the application of the cell theory
>>> Ominis cellulae e cellulae

>>> the cell theory in the time of Virchow stated that all forms of life are composed of cells and that all cells are derived from existing cells

>>> Virchow realized early on that the part of the cell theory that require all cells to be derived from existing cells (Ominis cellulae e cellulae) could give insight into pathological processes


Describe the contributions of Kolliker, Schleiden, and Schwann to the modern field of microscopy

> 1839: Matthiew Schleiden; botanist; recognized that the cell is the essential unit of the living organism; erroneously developed the idea that cells arise by budding from the nucleus (free cell formation theory)

> 1839: Theodore Scwhann; zoologist; compared animal cells to plant cells; observed cartilage and types of eggs; distinguished five classes of tissues

> NOTE that Schleiden and Schwann are usually credited with the discovery that all living organisms are composed of cells

> 1852: Albert Kolliker applied Schwann's theory to the embryonic development of animals and wrote the first textbook on histology; he also produced a model textbook for embryology