Osteogenesis and joints Flashcards Preview

A. White- Histology > Osteogenesis and joints > Flashcards

Flashcards in Osteogenesis and joints Deck (49):
1

Symphyses belong to which category of joints?

Cartilaginous joints

 

2

This type of synovial joint is triaxial and includes the glenohumeral and femoroacetabular joints?

Ball-and-socket-joint

3

A suture is an example of which type of joint?

Fibrous joint

4

Joints allowing movement in two planes are termed what?

biaxial

5

Name the types of monaxial synovial joints and provide an example of each.

  • Hinge joints
    • humeroulnar joint
    • knee joint
  • Pivot joints
    • alantoaxial joint
    • radioulnar joint

6

Name the two types of cartilaginous joints. How are they different? Give an example of each.

  1. Symphysis- joined by fibrocartilage
    1. intervertebral discs
    2. the pubic symphysis
  2. Sychondrosis- joined by hyaline cartilage
    1. epiphyseal plates
    2. first sternocostal joint

7

Amphiarthroses is another name for which types of joints?

Cartilaginous joints

8

A condyloid joint is an example of which type of joint?

Synovial (biaxial)

9

Synarthroses is another name for which types of joints?

Fibrous joints

10

Joints allowing movent in three planes are termed what?

triaxial

11

A saddle joint can also be referred to as what other name?

A sellaris joint

12

Ball-and-socket joints belong to which class of joints?

Synovial (triaxial)

13

What are the functions of ligaments in regards to synovial joints?

  • stabilize the capsule and the joint
  • control and restrict direction and range of motion

14

Name the 3 types of Fibrous joints. Give an example of each.

  1. Suture
    1. joints between the bones of the calvaria (skull)
  2. Gomphosis-"peg-in-the-socket" joint
    1.  teeth in the dental-aveolar joint
  3. Syndesmosis- bones are joined by interosseus fibrous membrane
    1. fibrous membrane between tibia and fibula

15

A hinge joint is which type of joint?

synovial (monoaxial)

16

What are 2 of the 3 characteristics regarding the synovial membrane of a synovial joint?

  1. It is highly vasuclarized (fenestrated capillaries)
  2. contians 1-3 layers of synovial cells
  3. no basal lamina

17

How are the types of synovial joints classified?

Based on the degrees of freedom of movement

18

Which layer of the synovial capsule is innervated?

The outer fibrous layer

19

What is the definition of a joint?

A joint is where two bones come together

20

A sellaris joint is another name for which type of joint?

A saddle joint

21

What are 2 of the 3 characteristics of regarding the joint capsule of a synovial joint?

  1. contains vascularized dense connective tissue
  2. lined by the synovial membrane
  3. attached to the edges of articular cartilage

22

Which layer of the Synovial capsule is vascularized?

Inner synovial layer (synovial membrane)

23

Diarthroses is another name for which type of joint?

Synovial joints

24

Which type of synovial cells are "fibroblast-like"?

Type B synovial cells

25

Synchondroses are belong to which category of joints?

Cartilaginous joints

26

What is endochondral ossification?

A process by which skeletal cartilage templates are replaced by bone.

27

What is characteristic of fibrous joints?

  • they permit little or no movement
  • bones are joined by collagenous and/ or elastic fibrous connective tissue

28

What is characteristic of Synovial joints?

  • movable joints exemplified by a connective capsule surrounding a fluid filled joint space
  • often reinforced by thickenings of the outer part of the capsule (ligaments)

29

A syndesmosis is an example of which type of joint?

Fibrous joint

30

Joints allowing movement in one plane only are termed what?

monaxial

31

A synovial joint is composed of these 5 things.

  1. Cavity
  2. Capsule
  3. Ligaments
  4. Synovial fluid
  5. Articular cartilage

32

 A pivot joint is which type of joint?

Synovial (monoaxial)

33

There 2 types of synovial cells, what are they?

  1. Type A - macropage-like
  2. Type B- fibroblast-like

 

 

34

A saddle (sellaris) joint is which type of joint?

Synovial (biaxial)

35

Which type of synovial cells are " macrophage-like"?

Type A synovial cells

36

What is characteristic of cartilaginous joints?

  • bones are joined by hyaline or fibrocartilage
  • enable slight movement

 

37

There are three different classifications of joints, what are they?

  1. Cartilaginous joint (amphiarthroses)
  2. Fibrous joints (syanrthroses)
  3. Synovial joints (diarthroses)

38

A gomphosis is an example of which type of joint?

Fibrous joint

39

Name the types of biaxial joints and give and example of each.

  • Condyloid joints
    • metacarpophalangeal joint
    • atlantooccipital joint
  • Saddle joint
    • first carpometacarpal joint

40

What are 2 of the 3 characteristics of regarding articular cartilage of a synovial joint?

  1. hyaline cartilage
  2. lacks perichondrium
  3. not lined by the synovial membrane

41

What is the main difference between intramembranous ossification and endochondral ossification?

  • During intramembranous ossification a messenchymal template isused for the process
  • During endochondral ossification a cartilage template is used for the process

42

What are the 4 major zones established during endochondral ossification?

  1. Reserve zone
  2. proliferative zone
  3. hypertrophic zone
  4. vascular invasion zone

43

Characterization of the reserve zone

Composed of primative hyaline cartilage and is responsible for the growth in length of the bone as the erosion and bone deposition advance into this zone

44

Characterization of the proliferative zone

Characterized by the active mitotic activity of chondrocytes aligning as cellular stacks parallel to the long axis of the cartilage template

45

Characterization of the hypertrophic zone

Characterized by chondrocyte apoptosis and calcification of the territorial matrix surrounding the coulumns of previously proliferated chondrocytes

46

Characterization of the vascular invasion zone

Site where blood vessels penetrate the fragmented transverse septa and carry with them migrating preosteoblasts and osteoclast-like resoptive chondroclasts

- angiogenic process stimulated by VEGF and produced by hypertrophic condrocytes

 

47

During endochondral ossification what are the responsibilities of the hypertrophic chondrocytes?

  1. form calcified matrix
  2. synthesize type X collagen
  3. secrete vascular endothelial GF
  4. signal perichondral cells to become osteoblasts

48

What is the first major step for intramembranous ossification?

Aggregation of messenchymal cells

49

during intramembranous ossification, the aggregation of messenchymal cells is controlled by what?

Signals from Wnt, Hedgehog, FGF, TGF-ß