Blood and Hemostasis Flashcards Preview

A. White- Histology > Blood and Hemostasis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood and Hemostasis Deck (87):
1

Identify this cell type

Q image thumb

Monocyte

2

Where does normal RBC destruction take place?

Spleen

3

Characterize the blood protein albumin

  • made in the liver
  • exerts major osmotic pressure on blood vessel walls

4

Identify this cell type

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Neutrophil

5

What is the normal pH range for blood?

7.35-7.45

6

________ represent less than 1% of total leukocytes, so they may be difficult to find?

Basophils

7

Of the eosinophil granular proteins, which one is responsible for neutralizing heparin and in conjuction with MBP, causes the fragmentation of parasites ?

Eosinophil cationic protein (ECP)

8

Name the 3 categories of the major proteins present in blood?

  1. Fibrinogens
  2. Albumins
  3. Globulins (immunoglobins)

9

Spectrin is a member of what family of actin binding proteins?

Calponin

10

What is hemostasis?

Hemostasis is the elimination of bleeding

11

Endothelial cells release _________ which decreases platelet aggregation?

prostacyclin

12

What is plasma?

Blood minus the formed elements

13

These neutrophil granules are also called specific?

Secondary granules

14

Identify this cell type

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Basophil

15

_________ binds spectrin-actin junctions and the transmembrane protein glycophorin?

Protein 4.1

16

Name some problems caused by erythroblastosis fetalis?

  • Hemolytic anemia- causes hypoxic anemia to the heart and liver leading to generalized edema (hydrops fetalis)
  • Jaundice which causes damage to the CNS
  • Hyperbilirubinemia

17

About what percentage of erythrocyte proteins are integral membrane proteins?

50%

18

Identify this cell type

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Neutrophil

19

What is a hematoma?

The accumulation of blood in the tissues (clot).

20

List 3 of the 5 characteristics regarding monocytes

  • 15-20 um (from textbook)
  • largest leukocyte
  • eccentrically located, kidney-shaped nucleus
  • granular cytoplasm due to small lysosomes
  • precursor to macrophages and osteoclasts

21

In this condition RBCs are spherical of different diameter and many of them lack the central pale area seen in normal RBCS. What is this condition?

Spherocytosis

22

The weak staining properties of these neutrophil granules are responsible for the cytoplasmic light-clored appearnce?

Secondary (specific) granules

23

Identify this cell type

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Lymphocyte

24

Identify this cell type

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Basophil

25

The ________ cystoskeleton is the primary determinant of RBC shape?

cortical

26

Name 2 of the 3 characteristics relating to basophils.

  1. 7-9 um
  2. Lobulated nucleus (bilobed)
  3. Large, membrane-bound basophilic granules
    1. can produce leukotrienes
    2. contain vasoactive substances

27

Name 3 of 5 characteristics regarding eosinophils

  1. 9-10 um
  2. bilobed nucleus
  3. contain specific granules
    1. eosinophil peroxidase
    2. Major basic protein (MBP)
    3. eosinophil catioinc protein
  4. respond in allergic diseases and parasitic infection
  5. phagocitize antibody-antigen complexes and parasites

28

Identify this cell type

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Eosinophil

29

Summarize the  selectin phase of leukocyte extravasation.

  • Sialyl Lewis-X- antigens are oligosaccharide ligands for P-selectin binding found on leukocyte membranes
  • P-selectins appears on the cell surface when endothelial cells are activated by inflammatory signaling
  • oligosaccharide ligands (sialyl lewis-X antigens) bind to carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) on the P-selectins
  • binding of ligands to the P-selectins causes leukocytes to roll along the endothelium

30

What are the majority of the cells in this picture?

Q image thumb

Normal erythrocytes

31

What is the normal range of values for a hematocrit?

42%-47%

32

What Is erythroblastosis fetalis?

An antibody-induced hemolytic disease in the newborn that is caused by blood group incompatibility between mother and fetus

33

What is the function of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in leuckocyte extravasation?

To attract more neutrophils out of the blood

34

What types of cells are these?

Q image thumb

Sickled-Erythrocytes

35

What are the most common leukocytes?

Neutrophil

36

Summarize the integrin phase of luekocyte extravasation.

  • integrin receptors are activated on the leukocyte membrane
    • these receptors bind with ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 on endothelial cells
  • integrins ß1 and ß2 are activated on the leukocyte membrane 
    • These bind to VCAM and ICAM on endothelial cell membranes
  • integrins interacting with endothelial ligands promote the transendothelial migration of leukocytes

37

A very thin rim of cytoplasm is characteristic of which type of leukocytes?

Lymphocytes

38

In heparanized and centrifuged blood there are three layers, what are they?

  1. Supernatant (plasma)
  2. Buffy coat (leukocytes)
  3. Precipitate (sedimented red blood cells)

39

What links the spectrin-actin network and the plasma membrane by binding spectrin and a transmembrane protein (band 3)?

Ankyrin

40

What is a hematocrit?

The percentage of the blood volume that is red blood cells (erythrocytes)

41

Of the eosinophil granular poteins, which one is responsible for disrupting parasitic membranes and causes basophils to release histamine?

Major basic protein (MBP)

42

The leukocyte homing mechanims is activated by various ________ released by ________ cells, ________, and damaged tissue cells?

cytokines, mast, platelets

43

These cells are referred to as polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs)?

Neutrophils

44

________ are small cytoplasmic discoid fragments derived from megakaryocytes?

Platelets

45

Blood is about _____ of the body's total weight?

8%

46

These neutrophil granules are also called azurphillic?

Primary granules

47

These lymphocytes are the precursors to activated T cells?

T lymphocytes

48

Which neutrophil granules contain elastase, defensins and myeloperoxidase?

Primary (azurophilic) granules

49

Identify the circled cell

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Monocyte

50

What are Rh negative mothers given after delivery of an Rh+ baby? Why?

  • Anti-D globulin.
  • Anti-D antibodies mask the antigenic sites on the fetal RBCs that may have leaked into maternal circulation during childbirth. This prevents long-lasting sensitization of Rh antigens

51

Within the Rh system, what is the major cause of Rh incompatibilty for erythroblastosis fetalis?

D antigen

52

Characterize the blood protein Fibrinogen

  • Made in the liver
  • Function in blod clotting
  • Target for thrombin

53

These cells are the largest of the leukocytes?

Monocytes

54

What do the leukotrienes produced by the basophils do?

  • increases vascular permeability
  • causes slow contraction of smooth muscles

55

Why does inital exposure to th Rh antigen during the frist pregnanct not cause erythroblastosis fetalis?

The initial exposure to to the Rh antigen during the first pregnancy does not cause erythroblastosis fetalis because immunoglobulin M (IgM) is produced.

IgMs cannot cross the placenta because of their large size

56

List 2 of the 3 characteristics regarding lymphocytes

  1. Large round, sometimes slightly indented nucleus that fills most of the cell
  2. Variation in size
    1. small- 6-8 um
    2. medium- 10-12 um
    3. large-up to 18 um
  3. Two types
    1. B lymphocytes
    2. T lymphocytes

57

There are 5 steps in the hemostatic sequence in small vessels, what are they?

  1. constriction of smooth muscles around vessels
  2. constriction of vessels
  3. slowing of blood
  4. formation of platelet plug
  5. blood clotting

58

What is serum?

Plasma without the blood-clotting proteins

59

Platelets release ________ which increase platelet aggreation?

thromboxane

60

These cells destroy bacterial walls by releasing lysozyme and lactoferrin?

Neutrophils

61

What is the function of NO in leukocyte extravasation?

Increses vascular permeability making it easier for leukocytes (neutrophils) to leave the blood.

62

The ends of the spectrin tetramers associate with the short ________ _________, resulting in the __________ network?

actin filaments, spectrin-actin

63

Identify this cell type

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Neutrophil

64

_________ is a tetramer of two polypeptide chains , Alpha and beta.

Spectrin

65

Why are do RBCs have a bi-concave shape?

To increase surface area for the exchange of nutrients and wastes.

66

List 3 of the 4 characteristics of erythrocytes.

  1. Usually a higher count in males than in females
  2. Numbers increase by erythropoietin
  3. They are devoid of granules
  4. Major contents:
    1. lipids
    2. ATP
    3. Carbonic anhydras
    4. Hemoglobin

67

List 5 of the 8 characteristics regarding platelets

  1. derived from megakaryocytes
  2. 2 um
  3. 200,000- 400,000 per microliter of blood
  4. enhance aggregation by releasing factors; also promotes clot formation, retraction, dissolution
  5. repair damage to endothelium platelet plug
  6. adhesion of platelets involves integrins
  7. platelets release thromboxane which increases platelet aggregation
  8. endothelial cells release prostacyclin which decreases platelet aggregation

68

These two leukocytes are considered to be agranular?

Lymphocytes and monocytes

69

The most effective mechanisms for hemostasis occurs where?

In small vessels such as capillaries, arterioles, and venules

70

Identify this cell type

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Eosinophil

71

True or False: B lymphocytes are produced in the bone marrow andT lymphocytes are produced in the thymus?

False; Both Blymphocytes and T lymphocytes are produced in the bone marrow. However, T lymphocyes complete their maturation in the thymus.

72

Compare and contrast the compostion of blood in females and males.

Females:

  • 4-5 Liters
  • 38-48% formed elements
  • 42% hematocrit

Males:

  • 5-6 Liters
  • 44-54% formed elements
  • 47% hematocrit

73

List 4 characteristics relating to neutrophils

  1. 12-15 um
  2. 3-5 nuclear lobes with connecting strands
  3. Active amoebid phagocytes
  4. Small, numerous specific granules
  5. Larger, less numerous azurophillic granules
  6. Remain in circulation for 10-12 hours
  7. Live for 1-2 days after leaving circulation
  8. Secrete a class of enzymes capable of destroying certain bacteria by formation of free radicals (superoxide) as well as the release of lysozyme and lactoferrin, which destroy bactrial walls

74

The major structural protein of an erythrocyte is ______?

spectrin

75

Spherocytosis is an autosomal ________ condition involving a deficiency in _________?

dominant, spectrin

76

Which neutrophil granules contain lysozyme, lactoferrin, gelatinase, and other proteases?

Secondary (specific) granules

77

Produced by the kidney, ______ stimulates an increase of RBC production?

erythropoietin

78

Of the eosinophil granular proteins, which one is responsible for binding to microorganisms and facilitating their death by macrophages?

eosinophil peroxidase (EP)

79

These leukocytes are precursors to macrophages and osteoclasts?

Monocytes

80

What are some common clinical features of elliptocytosis and spherocytosis?

  • anemia
  • jaundice (from increased bilirubin production)
  • splenomegaly (enlargement of the spleen)

81

What cells secrete a class of enzymes capable of destroying certain bacteria by the formation of free radicals?

Neutrophils

82

Name the 3 vasoactive substances contained within the basophilic granules.

  1. serotonin
  2. heparin (anticoagulant)
  3. kallikrein (attracts eosinophils)

83

the hemolytic process in erythroblastosis fetalis causes _________ and _________?

hemolytic anemia, jaundice

84

When and why would erythroblastosi fetalis occur?

It would occur during subsequent exposure to D antigen during the second or third pregnancy.

This occurs because the mother has produced antibodies against antigen D present in the Rh system of fetal red blood cells during a previous pregnancy.

85

These lymphocytes are precursors to antibod-secreting plasma cells?

B lymphocytes

86

The nucleus of these leukocytes, which is typically bilobed, is often obscured by the specific granules?

Basophils

87

There are two phases involving cellular adhesion molcecules in leukocyte extravasation, what are they?

  1. selectin phase
  2. integrin phase