Bone and Cartilage Flashcards Preview

A. White- Histology > Bone and Cartilage > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bone and Cartilage Deck (106):
1

What are the 3 types of bone?

  1. woven  bone - occurs during bone development and repair
  2. compact bone- aka lamellar bone
  3. spongy bone- aka trabecular or cancellous bone

2

A non-functional osteoclasts becomes functional after it does what?

uncouples from the osteoblast

3

What are the 2 major components of the matrix of the bone?

Osteoid = organic component

hydroxyapatite = inorganic component (makes up 35 to 65 percent of matrix)

4

What is G?

Q image thumb

Volkmann canal

5

These cells are stems which are described as bone lining cells in the adult?

Osteoprogenitor cells

6

When does the differentiation of a monocyte into a macrophage take place?

When the M-CSF released by the osteblast binds to the M-CSF receptor on the monocyte.

- Macrophage expresses RANK at this point

7

What is C?

Q image thumb

Lacuna

8

What is appositional growth?

It is the growth of something through the process of adding mass to the outside layers (wider).

9

How are the major types of cartilage Classified?

They are classified based on the composition of their matrix. More specifically, the predominant types of fibers within the matrix.

10

Identify this tissue

Q image thumb

Compact bone

11

Pockets within the matrix where the chondroblasts and chondrocytes are found.

Lacunae (aka "Little lake")

12

These cells are dervied from the monocyte lineage, which, in turn, are derived from monocyte precursors in bone marrow?

Osteoclast

13

PTH has 2 main functions, what are they?

  1. stimulate the differentiation of monocyte precursors to form osteoclasts
  2. stimulates the formation of the ruffled borders on osteoclasts

14

These cells give rise to osteoblasts and bone lining cells?

Osteoprogenitor cells

15

What process couples together the osteoblast and the macrophage?

The binding of RANK to RANKL

16

True or False, hyaline cartilage is surrounded by perichondrium.

True

17

List the components of hyaline cartilage

matrix

chondrocytes

lacuna 

chondrogenic perichondrium

fibrous perichondrium

18

Bone tissue is based on what type of system?

A canalicular system

19

This matrix surrounds each chondrocyte.

Territorial matrix

20

The inter-territorial matrix is _____ in glycosoaminoglycan content and ____ in collagen content?

Low, High

21

There are 6 listed functions of cartilage, name 4 of them.

1. compressible

2. resists distortion

3. absorbs shocks in joints

4. reduces friction in movable joints

5. necessary for endochondral bone growth

6. involved in bone fracture repair

22

In regards to cartilage formation, chondrocytes ______ cartilage matrix?

Maintain

23

Are chondrocytes in hyaline cartilage usually found in groups or by themselves?

In groups, this is the result from cell division

24

True or False: Bone is not highly vascularized?

False; bone is highly vascularized and is found in close proximity to capillaries

25

List 4 of the 6 locations where hyaline cartilage is found.

external auditory meatus

larynx

tracheal cartilages

bronchial cartilages

fetal long bones

articular ends of bones

26

What is D?

Q image thumb

Chondrocytes

27

What is A?

Q image thumb

Fibrous perichondrium (source of fibroblasts)

28

Calcitonin acts to _____ bone resorption

Reduce

29

Define interstitial growth.

growth in length; growth by chondrocytes which are later replaced by bone

30

Identify this tissue

Q image thumb

Hyaline cartilage

31

This type of bone is present during bone development and repair.

Woven bone

32

List 4 of the 6 characteristics of fibrocartilage

  • increased collagen in the matrix
  • reduced cellularity compared to hyaline cartilage
  • not surrounded be perichondrium
  • opaque appearance from fibrous texture
  • Type I collagen
  • Single sparse chondrocytes

33

How are osteocytes connected to each other and to the Haversian canal?

Canaliculi

34

Identify this tissue

Q image thumb

Hyaline cartilage

35

Identify this tissue

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Elastic cartilage

36

Lamellar bone is another word for which type of bone?

Compact bone

37

Identify this tissue

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Developing mebrane bone (fetus)

38

In regards to cartilage formation, chondroblasts lay down cartilage _____ and become ______?

matrix, chondrocytes

39

Identify this tissue

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Compact bone

40

What are the growth patterns of hyaline cartilage?

Appositional and interstitial

41

What is characteristic of trabecular bone?

It has a 3-D lattice of branching, bony spicules intertwined to form trabeculae surrounding the bone marrow spaces in the long bones and flat bones.

42

Which layer of the perichondrium contains fibroblasts?

Outer fibrous layer.

43

In the absence of PTH osteoblasts will secrete what?

Osteoprotegerin

44

In an adult, where would you find osteoprogenitor cells?

  1. inner portion of the periosteum
  2. the endosteum
  3. lining the vascular canals of compact bone

45

What is B?

Q image thumb

Chondrogenic Perichondrium ( source of chondroblasts and osteoprogenitor cells)

46

These cells are derived from osteoblasts and are trapped by the matrix they secrete?

Osteocytes

47

What is F?

Q image thumb

Haversian canal

48

This matrix surrounds the territorial matrix?

Inter-territorial matrix

49

Identify this tissue

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Cancellous bone

50

What do osteoblasts release in the presence of high PTH?

Osteoclast diffentiation factors

51

This region of the matrix is somewhat "older: when compared to the other matrix that has been laid down

Inter-territorial matrix

52

Identify this tissue

Q image thumb

Fibrocartilage

53

Increase in bone length occurs through ______ grotwh of a ________ model

Appositional, hyaline cartilage

54

This type of bone lacks visible cavities and forms a dense plate on the outside of long bones or flat bones?

Compact bone

55

What is C?

Q image thumb

Lacuna

56

These structures run perpendicular to the Haversian canals and connect the Haversian canals to each other and to the surface of the bone.

Volkmann's canals

57

Name the 3 of the 4 components of the cartilage matrix

1. collagen type i (type II in fibrocartilage)

2. hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid)

3. Chondroitin sulfate (most abundant) , keratin sulfate, heparin sulfate

4. Glycosoaminoglycans

58

What are the layers of the perichondrium?

- Outer fibrous layer

- Inner chondrogenic layer

59

Chondrocytes are cells of the cartilage that do what?

Chondrocytes are cartilage-maintenance cells; they remove/clear away cartilage

60

What is A?

Q image thumb

Fibrous periosteum

61

Identify this tissue

Q image thumb

Compact bone

62

What is B?

Q image thumb

Osetogenic periosteum

63

Identify this tissue

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Hyaline cartilage

64

Chondroblasts are cells of the cartilage that do what?

Chondroblasts are cartilage-forming cells; they build cartilage.

65

Identify this tissue

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Compact bone

66

What is the primary regulator of bone turnover?

PTH

67

There are ____ types of cartilage, What are they?

There are three types.

-Hyaline

-elastic

-fibrocartilage.

68

Name the cells of the cartilage that are responsible for forming and destroying cartilage.

Chondroblasts and chondrocytes.

69

The territorial matrix is ______ in gylcosoaminoglycan content and ______ in collagen content?

High, Low

70

The skeletal system in all _____ begins as cartilage.

Vertebrates.

71

When does the macrophage become a multinucleated immature osteoclast?

After it binds to the osteoblast via RANK and RANKL interactions

72

List 2 of the 3 points characterizing isogenous groups.

1. groups of 2-8 chondrocytes occupying the same lacunae

2. They are a result of mitotic division

3. cells will become separated as the begin to lay down the matrix of their own

73

Where is the inter-territorial matrix located?

The matrix between the lacunae.

74

Which type of collagen fibers does hyaline cartilage contain?

type II

75

Identify this tissue

Q image thumb

Elastic cartilage

76

Name a couple of places where you find fibrocartilage.

  • intervertebral discs
  • pubic symphysis
  • insertion of some tendons and ligaments
  • closely associated with dense connective tissue or hyaline cartilage

77

Osteoprogentior cells are derived from the ______ of the _______ _______ and possess mitotic potential?

Mesenchyme, embyronic somite (sclerotome)

78

What is E?

Q image thumb

Canaliculus

79

Identify this tissue

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Developing membrane bone (fetus)

80

A macrophage expresses _______ after it is differentiated from a monocyte by the binding of M-CSF to the monocyte M-CSF recptor?

RANK

81

True or False: bone is formed by osteocytes, which become osteoblasts?

False; bone is formed by osteoblasts, which become osteocytes

82

Identify this tissue

Q image thumb

Hyaline cartilage

83

This matrix is the "newest" matrix the has been laid down and is much more labile than the other type of matrix.

Territorial matrix

84

Identify this tissue

Q image thumb

Elastic cartilage

85

What is another name for spongy bone?

Trabecular or cancellous bone

86

Identify this tissue

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Hyaline cartilage

87

Identiy this tissue

Q image thumb

Fibrocartilage

88

What is D?

Q image thumb

Lamellae

89

True or False: Cartilage can not form all of the skeletal system in vertebrates?

False; Cartilage can form part or all of the skeletal system in vertebrates.

90

Cartilage is avascular, what does this mean and what 2 characteristics does this attribute to cartilage?

Avascular = no blood vessels within its substance. Because of this cartilage is (1) slow to heal. Also, (2) nutrients and oxygen are derived from the blood vessels that surround the cartilage and must diffuse through the matrix to the cells.

91

What is the function of Osteoprotegerin and how does it work?

It inhibits the maturation of osteoclasts. It works because it binds to RANKL with greater affinity than RANK (macrophage) and because PTH blocks the synthesis of osteoprotegerin (no M-CSF secretion or RANKL formation from osteoblast)

92

When PTH binds the receptors on the osteoblast, this stimulates the osteblast to release what?

  1. M-CSF
  2. RANKL

93

Identify this tissue

Q image thumb

Cancellous bone

94

Too much PTH can lead to this

Osteitis fibrosa- eroded bone and fibrosis of the resulting spaces

95

What are some characteristics of hyaline cartilage?

It is translucent, bluish gray to white in color, and it is solid yet flexible in rigidity.

96

In a Haversian sytem, where would you find osteocytes?

Osteocytes are found between the lamellae located in lacunae

97

True or False: Type II collagen is the primary fiber type found in fibrocartilage?

False; type I collagen are the primary fiber type found in fibrocartilage

98

The chondrocyte is involved in the production of _____ and _____ in the matrix? They also secrete ______?

collagen, proteoglycans. chondronectin

99

Which layer of the perichondrium gives rise to chondroblasts, which becomes chondrocytes?

Inner chondrogenic layer

100

What is the most common type of cartilage?

Hyaline cartilage

101

Collagen fibers in the extracellular matrix of cartilage are predominantly which type?

Type II (type I in fibrocartilage)

102

What is E?

Matrix

103

Name the components of the extracellular matrix of cartilage.

Collagen fibers and an amorphous ground substance.

104

How is bone tissue classified?

Bone tissue is based on the arrangement of the matrix

105

At _____ PTH levels, bone formation by osteblasts is stimulated.

LOW

106

What cycle oocurs at adult remodeling sites and during development?

The activation resorption reversal formation (ARF) cycle