Pulmonary Histology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pulmonary Histology Deck (55):
1

What type of epithelium is the respiratory epithelium?

pseudostratified ciliated columnar.

2

What are the three components of the respiratory mucosa?

respiratory epithelium

Lamina propria

Submucosa

3

What type of epithelium is the olfactory epithelium?

pseudostratified columnar epithelium

Does not contain goblet cells.

4

What is the function of sustentacular cells in the olfactory epithelium?

They provide support.

5

What is the function of basal cells in the olfactory epithelium?

They are stem cells that give rise to immature olfactory cells.

6

What types of cells are present in the olfactory epithelium?

sustentacular cells (support cells)

Basal cells (stem cells)

Olfactory cells (bipolar neurons)

7

Olfactory cells are what type of neuron?

bipolar neuron.

8

What are the function of olfactory cells?

They allow for the sense of smell. They do so via G-protein linked odor-specific receptors.

9

You are conducting an experiment on scent and knock out a gene in mice that prevents the proliferation of basal cells. How will the sense of smell be affected?

There will be no sense of smell because basal cells are responsible for replacing old olfactory cells.

10

What is the function of the olfactory glands of Bowman?

They secrete odorant binding proteins.

These proteins bind to odorant molecules in the nasal cavity.

11

If you wanted to prevent the generation of an action potential in the nose, the production of what protein should be inhibited?

odorant receptor protein.

The odorant receptor protein binds to the olfactory cell cilium, which activates adenyl cyclase.

12

The nasopharynx is made up of what three components?

Mucosa

Submucosa

Waldeyer's Ring

13

The mucosa consists of what type of epithelium?

respiratory epithelium

14

What comprises the submucosa?

loose connective tissue

mucosa associated lymphoid tissue.

15

What two surfaces comprise the epiglottis?

lingual surface

pharyngeal surface

16

The lingual surface is comprised of what type of epithelium?

stratified squamous epithelium

17

The pharyngeal surace is comprised of what type of epithelium?

pseudostratified ciliated epithelium.

18

What type of epithelium is in the false vocal cords (larynx)?

pseudostratified ciliated epithelium.

19

What epithelium is present in the true vocal cords (larynx)?

stratified squamous epithelium.

Lacks seromucous glands.

20

Excluding the true vocal cords, epiglottis and fase vocal cords, what type of epithelium is present in the larynx?

pseudostratified ciliated epithelium.

21

What type of cartilage is found in the larynx?

hyaline and elastic cartilage

22

What type of muscle is found in the larynx?

skeletal muscle (voluntary)

23

What type of epithelium is found in the trachea?

respiratory epithelium (pseudostratified ciliated columnar).

24

What are the three components of the trachea?

mucosa, submucosa and adventitia.

25

What comprises the "lung?"

The respiratory system components distal to the trachea.

Bronchial tree and the alveoli.

26

How many lobes are there?

5

(3 on the right, 2 on the left).

27

What does the trachea divide into?

Two primary bronchi - one to each lung

Each primary bronchi divides into 3 (right) or 2 (left) secondary bronchi.

28

What is another term for secondary bronchi?

segmental bronchi.

29

As the bronchi become smaller, there is a ____ in the height of epithelium, as well as _____.

decrease; cartilage and glands.

30

As the bronchi become smaller, what happens to the muscle and fiber content?

they both increase.

31

What is another term for primary bronchi?

extrapulmonary bronchi

32

What are the three components of the intrapulmonary bronchi?

mucosa, submucosa and adventitia.

The submucosa contains loose CT and glands.

The adventitia contains hyaline cartilage plates surrounded by dense FECT.

33

What are the two main characteristics of bronchioles?

They do not have glands or cartilage.

34

What type of muscle is found in the bronchioles?

smooth muscle tissue.

35

What is the transition of epithelium in the bronchioles?

From ciliated columnar with a few goblet cells to ciliated cuboidal with no goblet cells.

36

What are the smallest bronchioles called?

terminal bronchioles.

37

What epithelium is present in the respiratory bronchioles?

low columnar to low cuboidal epithelium.

38

What occurs at the respiratory bronchioles?

gas exchange. It is the first time in the respiratory tree that gas exchange occurs here.

39

What are the two regions of the alveoli?

Alveolar ducts and sacs.

40

What cells comprise the walls of the alveoli and septa?

Type I and Type II alveolar cells.

Type I covers the largest surface area.

Type II is cuboidal and serves as stem cells of type I and II cells.

41

What are the Pores of Kohn?

Openings between adjacent alveoli.

42

What cell types are found in the mucosa?

Ciliated columnar cells

Nonciliated columnar cells

Stem cells

Goblet cells

Neuroendocrine cells.

43

What is the function of neuroendocrine cells?

sensory reception.

The release of catecholamines.

44

Clara cells and type II alveolar cells secrete what?

A surfactant. It reduces the surface tension on alveolar surfaces.

Type II alveolar cells phagocytize old surfactant.

45

Which type of pneumocyte convers about 95% of the alveolar surface?

Type I

46

What type of pneumocyte can divide and replace type I pnuemocytes?

Type II

47

The basal lamina of which pneumocyte is sometimes fused with the basal lamina of nearby capillaries?

Type I

48

What type of pneumocyte produces phospholipid surfactants that coat alveolar wals?

Type II

49

What do clara cells secrete?

surface-active lipoproteins that prevent the collapse of terminal bronchioles during exhalation.

50

You are examining a microscopic slide of the bronchioles. You note that a particular type of cell is present as the ciliated columnar cells decrease. What type of cell have you found?

Clara cells.

51

What cells are considered to be macrophages in the bronchioles?

Dust cells.

52

You encounter a patient with congestive heart failure. In the patient, hemoglobin particles have leaked into the alveolar spaces. You expect what type of cell to phagocytize the hemoglobin?

Dust cells

53

What are the components of the blood-air barrier?

thin capillary endothelium

thin epithelium of pneumocyte

basal lamina produced by both cell types.

54

What is the function of the blood-air barrier?

To permit gas exchange but to not allow fluids or cells to enter the alveoli.

55

What kind of epithelium lines the nares?

stratified squamous epithelium. It is continuous with the epidermis.