Renal Histology II Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Renal Histology II Deck (32):
1

What type of epithelium is found in the thick segments of the loop of Henle?

low cuboidal

2

What type of epithelium is found in the thin segments of the loop of Henle?

simple squamous epithelium.

3

The apical surface of cells at the thick ascending limb lack what structures?

brush borders

4

What is the ascending limb of the loop of Henle impermeable to?

water

5

The descending limb of the loop of Henle is permeable to what?

water, sodium and chloride ions.

6

The ascending thin limb is impermeable to wat?

water.

7

What is the major function of the loop of Henle?

to establish the counter-current exchange system which creates osmotic conditions necessary to pull water out of the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct in the presence of ADH.

8

As ADH is released, what does the distal convoluted tubule become permeable to?

water

9

What type of epithelium is found at the distal convoluted tubule?

simple cuboidal

10

How do the cells of the distal and proximal convoluted tubules differ?

The cells in the distal convoluted tubule are smaller.

11

What are two major specialized cells types associated with the collecting duct?

Principal Cells

Intercalated cells.

12

What do principal cells reabsorb and secrete?

They reabsorb sodium ions and water.

They secrete potassium.

13

What do intercalated cells secrete?

Hydrogen or bicarbonate ion.

14

What comprise the excretory passages of the kidney?

renal pelvis, ureter and urinary bladder.

15

What are the layers found in the excretory passages?

mucosa

Submucosa

Muscularis

Adentitia

16

The mucosa of the excretory passages is composed of what type of epithelium?

transitional epithelium

17

The muscularis is composed of what type of tissues?

smooth muscle.

18

What kind of epithelium is found in the prostatic urethra?

transitional epithelium

19

What kind of epithelium is found in the membranous urethra?

pseudostratified columnar

20

True or false: the prostatic urethra is highly vascularized.

True

21

The membranous urethra eventually becomes what?

the external sphincter

22

The cavernous urethra is composed of what type of epithelium?

stratified squamous epithelium

23

What gland is found in the male urethra?

Glands of littre

24

What are the lucanae or Morgagni?

Invaginations o fmucous membrane containing single or groups of intraepithelial mucous cells.

25

What type of epithelium is found in the female urethra?

stratified or pseudostratified columnar

26

Angiotensinogen is converted into angiotensin I by what?

renin

27

The loop of Henle is between what two tubules?

proximal and distal convoluted tubules.

28

What converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II?

ACE (angiotensin converting factor from pulmonary and renal endothelium)

29

What does angiotensin II stimulate?

The secretion of aldosterone from adrenal cortex.

30

What cells do aldosterone act upon?

principal cells of the collecting ducts

thick ascending limbs of Henle

31

What is the function of angiotensin II?

To increase the reabsorption of sodium ion and water, which increases blood pressure.

32

THe release of angiotensin II induces the release of what hormone?

ADH