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Flashcards in Bacteria Cards Deck (48):

Staph Aureus

Acute Bacterial Endocarditis, Osteomyelitis, Menigitis, Scaled Skin Syndrome, Toxic Shock Syndrome. Protein A--binds host IgA. Tx: Penicllin unless resistant--then vanco ; Pathogen Characteristics: G+ Cocci in clusters; Catalase +, Coagulatse +, BHI Agar.


Staph Epi

Infection on medical devices. Endocarditis. Tx Vancomyocin; Pathogen Characteristics: G+ Cocci, catalse +, Coagulase -. Novobiotin Sensitive. Adheison Polysaccaride


Staph Saprophyticus

UTIs/Cystitis (particularly in sexually active 20 yo women). Tx: TMP-SMX; Pathogen Characteristics: G+ cluster, catalase +, coagulase -. Novobiotin Resistant.


Strep Pyrogenes

Pharyngitis, impetigo, cellulitis. Scarlet fever (caused by pyrogenic exotoxin) can lead to Rhuemtaic fever (acute=regurg, chronic=mitral stenosis; valves damaged by T2 hypersensitivty from Molecular Mimicry, then colonized by streph viridans or enteroccoci).

Post strep glomerulonephritis=BM electron dense immunodeposits and Low C3 Levels + Hematuria, periorbital edema, and hypertension. Tx: Penicillin; Pathogen Characteristics: G+ Cocci, catalse negative, Beta hemol (thus GROUP A strep), bacitracin senstivie. M PROTEIN=antiphagocytic cell wall surrounded by capsule

Splenectomy leaves susceptible (SHiN SKis)


Strep Aglactiae

"yell agalctiae cuz her cooch hurts when she's giving birth" Colonized maternal birth canal, neonatal meningitis, neonatal pneumo, neonatla sepsis. Tx: Penicillin G (works for lots of STI types), prophylaxis amp for preggers.; Pathogen Characteristics: G+ cocci catalase negative Beta hemol, Bacitracin resistan


Enterococcous Faecalis/Faecium

UTIs, billiary tract infections, Subacute Bacterial Endocartidits. NB: Faecium tends to have VRE*** (cium rhymes with V; calis does not). Txampicillin.; Pathogen Characteristics: G+cocci, catalase Negative, Grows in 40% bile (Group D) and 6.5NaCL**


Streph Bovis

Subactue bacterial endocaritdits. If in blood=screen for Colonic carcinoma/inflammaotry bowel disease. Tx: Pencillin; Pathogen Characteristics: G+ cocci, catalse negative, 40% bile, SUSCEPTIBLE to 6.5 NaCL


Strep Pneumo

Lobar pneumonia, otitis media, menigntis. Capsule and IgA protease. Major cause of community pneuom; bacterial endocartisis, osteomyelitis and septic arthritis. Tx: Penicllin/Cephalosporin; Pathogen Characteristics: G+ cocci, catalase negative ALPHA hemol. Bile esculin negative and optochin susceptible (this bacteria is weak)

SHiNS SKI bacteria (S. pneumo, HiB, N. meningitidis, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Group B Strep).


Strep Viridans/Mutans

Dental Caries, brain/abdomin abscess, SUBACUTE BACTERIAL ENDO (Viridans=Vegitations. Tx: Penicllin G.; Pathogen Characteristics: G+ cocci, alpha hemol, optochin resistant, quellung reaction.


Bacillus Cereus

Fried rice reheating: Food poisoning; Heat stabile endo=vomit, heat labile=diarrhea. Tx: Rehydration.; Pathogen Characteristics: G+ bacteria, bacilli, spore forming, aerobic motile (swimming in your cereal bowl)

Stable on the G-round--Guanlyl Cyclase, Labile in the A-ir=AC


Bacillus Anthracis

BLACK ESCHAR: Malignant pustules, dysentery, woolsorter's disease (inhalation). DD w/ Ricketsia pox and mucor/rhisopus (fungi=both have 90 degree branching hyphae). Tx: early parenteral penicllin G; Pathogen Characteristics: G+, bacilli spore forming, aerobic (vs botulism=anareobe) NONMOTILE


Clostridium Tetani

"Tetani racket"= terminal spores; Spastic paralysis, lockjaw, risus sardonicus. Via inhibition of Gaba-ergic neurons. Tx: DTaP; Pathogen Characteristics: G+ bacilli, spore-forming, obligate anaerobe (what clostrid tells you), motile


Clostridium botulinum

Terminal Spore, Food poisoning + Floppy baby syndrome. Heat LABILE (why you need to reheat; "Labile in the air" AC activator) toxin. Give respiratory support. Tx: Antitoxin; Pathogen Characteristics: G+ bacilli spore forming obligate anaerobe, motile


Clostridium Difficile

Pseuodmembrane colitis (PMC), diarrhea. Toxin A causes Altered fluid secreiton (water diarrhea) and toxin B=cytotoxin to GI epithelial cells=psuedomembrnanous colitis (thus inflam diarrhea). SUCH A BAD NOSOCOMIAL INFECTION BECAUSE ITS A SPORE FORMER.  Tx: Oral Metronidzaole or oral vancomycin; Pathogen Characteristics: G+ Bacilli, spore forming, obligate anaerobe, motile


Clostridium Perfringes

Gas gangrene (myonecrosis with creptius<--from gas). Cellulits, food posoning. Tx with Hyperbaric O2 to kill anareobe. Tx: Hyperbaric O2; Pathogen Characteristics: G+ baceria, bacilli, spore-formiing obligate anaerobe, non-motile**


Listeria Monocytogenes

Meningitis, and sepsis in neonates, immunocomprimised, pregnancy. HAS ENDOTOXIN despite being G+, actin filament rocket, uncooked lunch meats. Tx: Ampicillin w/ Gentimacin; Pathogen Characteristics: G+ bacteria bacilli nonspore forming, motile


Corynebacterium Diphtheriae

Pseuodmembrane airway obstction, myocaridtis (+arrhtymias), polyneuritis (palsys). DTaP. AB exotoxin (B=Delivery into cell; A=binds eEF2 to stop translation). Thick grey exudate can lead to suffocation. Tx DTaP and antitoxin; Pathogen Characteristics: G+ bacili, non spore forming, non-motile (doesn't need to be cuz it will make you cough and that spreads it). Chinese characters.

Dipetheria toxin comes from a PROPHAGE****.  Test using ELEK test (little protrusions come out at sides=preciptations of antibodies)


Actinomyces Israelii

Ascesses in mouth and sinus (URI stuff), YELLOW SULFUR GRANULES (israelis want it to be uranium). Tx: Penicillin G; Pathogen Characteristics: G+ beaded filaments, non acid fast (nocardia is acid fast) abligate anaerobe. "Actin don't need no Acid"


Nocardia Asteroides

Pneumoia, brain/kidney abscesses. Tx: TMP-SMX; Pathogen Characteristics: G+ bacteria, beaded filaments, acit fast obligate AEROBE


Neisseria Meningitis

Mengitis, PETECHIAL RASH (fulminant=Waterhouse-Friderichsen Syndrome (hemorrage of adrenals---which are "brain-like"=DIC, shock, hypoadrenalism)), IgA protease; Soldiers in army basess, close quarters. Tx: Peniillin G ceftriaxone; rifampin for lose contact as prophylaxis; Pathogen Characteristics: G- Diplococci, Maltoase and Glucose oxidizer (MeniGitis)


Neisseria Gonorrhoeae

Endooxin, Adhesion proteins, Opa proteins, phase variation pili, IgA proease, biofilm. Ceftriaxone (+ DOXYCYCLINE/Azithryomycin for chlamydia co-infection); Pathogen Characteristics: G- Diplococci, Xodiase +, Glu+ (GG: Gluc Gonorr), NOT GROW WELL IN BLOOD, Biofilm


Enterobacteria (general features)

Fecal Oral Transmission, G-. Grwos on hayer martin media.; Pathogen Characteristics: G- rods, Flagella, LPS, Capsule, Exotoxins, Catalase +, ANAEROBIC, Oxidase -, Ferments Glucose


Moraxella Catarrhalis

Otitis Media, sinusistis, pneumonia, capsule, antigen variation, Second most common cause of bacterial pneumo in COPD (1st=H.Flu). Tx: TMP-SMX; Pathogen Characteristics: G-, Diplococci, Oxidase +


Klebsiella Pneumoniae

Currant Jelly sputum, pneumonia, nosocomial UTI, ETOH Pneumo**; 4A's: Aspiration Pneumon, Abcess, Alcohol, diAbetics. Tx: 3rd gen cef's; Pathogen Characteristics: G-, bacilli, lactose fermenter, fast-fermenter


Escherichia Coli

Pili, Capsule, Secretory Diarrhea, Dysentery, UTI, Pneumo, neonatal mengitis, spetic shock, HUS***, ; Pathogen Characteristics: G- Bacilli, lactose fermenter, fasterfermenter, INDOLE +



Enterotoxigenic, traveller's diarrhea: Watery. Stabile toxin (like Y. enterocolictica; turns on GC-->cGMP-->decreased absorption of water) and labile toxin (like cholera, DP ribosylates Gs-->AC-->cAMP-->Cl- secretion); Pathogen Characteristics:



Enteropathogenic: Adherance to apical surface (T3SS injects-->BB to pedestal cup bacterium), Malabsorption. Chronic watery diarhea in infants; Pathogen Characteristics:



Adhesive Pili bind enteroctyes in clumps; Pathogen Characteristics:



INFLAMMATORY DIARRHEA: Enterohemorrhagic (EHEC), cattle fecal contamination (poorly cooked hamburgers); SHIGA-LIKE TOXIN: Dysentery, HUS, Hemorrhagic colitis; Pathogen Characteristics:



Inflammatory Diarrhea, Enteroinvasive, Shiga toxin, dysentery NO HUS, bloddy diarrhea, stool leukocytes, fever. Tx: Rehydration, Pencillin, 3rd gen cefalosporins.; Pathogen Characteristics:


Salmonella Typhi

Typhoid Fever (enteric fever),flagella, penetrating diarrhea, can colonize gallbladder and reinfect colon, osteomyelitis in SICKLE CELL PATIENTS. Tx: Cefriaxone, cipro, or ampicillin.; Pathogen Characteristics: G- bacili, lactose non-fermenter, oxidase -, produces H2S


can be carrier as organism can be latent in gallbladder and appendix


Salmonella Enteritidis

Gastroenteritis, Amphibians and uncooked chicken, inflammatory diarrhea, Fecal-oral transmission. Tx: Fluid and electrolytes. ; Pathogen Characteristics: G- bacili, lactose non-fermenter, oxidase -, produces H2S




Shigella Dysenteriae

Blood diarrhea (dysentery), hemorrhagic mucosa on endoscopy, shiga toxin inactivates 60s ribo. Fluoroquinolones for sever cases. Highly infectious. HUS***. Most common and least virulent is Shigella Sonnei. Tx: Rehydration (flouroquinolones for severe); Pathogen Characteristics: G- bacilli, lactose non-fermenter, oxidase -, non motile


Proteus Mirabilis

Persistent UTIs, dysuria, high pH from Urease causing staghorn colliculi (triple phosphate stones/struvite crystals). Nursing homes w/ indwelling catheters. Tx: TMP-SMX or Ampicillin; Pathogen Characteristics: G- bacilli lacose non-fermenter oxidase -, UREASE +


Vibrio Cholerae

Flagellum, comma shaped, Severe Secretory Diarrhea (rice water) causing dehydration cholera toxin AB5 (A=riboslyates Gs-->AC-->cAMP-->CL- secretion from crypt cells via CTFR; B allow for entry), Tx with Glucose+NA solution turning on Na/Glucco-transporters. Tx: Rehydration and tetracycline.; Pathogen Characteristics: G- bacilli, lactose non-fermenters, oxidase +, glucose fermenter


Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

"BE-PSEUDO" Pneumonia (CF pnts), UTI (hospital pnts), BURN WOUNDS, septicemia, Endocarditis (IV Drugs), Osteomyleitis (Diabetics, IV drug users), malignant external Otitis (Diabetics),


Hot tub folliculitis. Immunocomp think Pseudomonas. Blue green colonies (from pyocyanin pigment with sweet/fruity odor) (Associated Cholera and psuedomonas together).

Cystic Fibrosis (patient with respiratory infections, and steatorhea (panc insuff)).  Exotoxin A--ADP Ribolysalates E2F stopping protein synthesis

Tx Penicillin+Aminoglycosides. Or Flouroquinolones.; Pathogen Characteristics: G- bacilli lactose non-frementer, Oxidase +, glucose NON fermenter


Yersina Enterocolitica

Inflammatory Diarrhea (enterocolitis) in less than 5yo, Mesenteric adentitis (sxs mimicing appendicitis) and bloody diarrhea in older than five year olds, joint pain/arthritis and blood diarrhea in adults. Transmitted in raw milk or fecal oral. Lymphadenopathy likely. Tx: self limiting; Pathogen Characteristics: G- Bacilli, lactose non-fermenter, motile at cold temps


Yersina Pestis

Fever, dark black skin patches, enlarged PAINFUL lymph nodes in groin. Flea bite transmission from rodents. Capsular F1 prevents phagocytosis, ENDOTOXIN causes DIC=black death from cutaneous hemorrhage. Tx w/ Streptomycin or Tetracyclin.; Pathogen Characteristics: G- bacilli, lactose non-fermenter, bipolar staining


Helicobacter Pylori

Urease + (allowing it to take HCL into NH3+C02)-->Acute gastitis-->gastirc ulcer/carcinoma (gastric adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma). Dx with biopsy or CO2 breath test. Ulcers have punched out appearance with smooth borders. Tx: Amoxicillin + PPI; Pathogen Characteristics: G- bacilli, curved small growth on campy agar, UREASE +


Campylobacter Jejuni

1) Secretory (cholera like exotoxin) followed by 2) Bloodly (cytotoxin) diarrhea w/ pain so bad it mimics appendicits, fecal oral route or unpasterized milk. "Chicken Rectums". Linked to Gullian-Barre syndrome.; Pathogen Characteristics: G- Bacilli, curved small growth on campy agar, UREASE -


Bacteroides Fragilis

Antiphagocytic capsule, Penetrating diarrrhea, obligate anaerobe; Peritonitis, GI or pelvic abscesses (below diaphragm), ruptured intestinal mucosa, Abscesses. LACKS G- endotoxin (thus no DIC). Normal GI flora. Tx: Drain abscess with antibiotics; Pathogen Characteristics: G- Bacili strict anaerobe


Haemophilus Influenzae B

Neck rigidity, seizures, Needs Hemin (X) and NAD (V) to grow. EMOP=Epiglotitis, otitis media, pnemonia. Meningitits, septic arthrtis, cellulitis. IgA protease. Nonsplenic patients, HACEK organisms---infect heart vavles in aseptic endocarditis (non-IV drugs). Tx Ceftriaxone. ; Pathogen Characteristics: G- bacteria, pleomorphic coccobacilli. X and V factors required


Legionella Pneumophila

Pontiac Fever (acute flu like illness 2-5wks), Legionnaire's Disease (atypical pneumonia), inhabits water reservoirs, inhaled aerosols. Proliferates within phagosome of alveolar macrophages. ELDERLY SMOKERS. Interstitial Nephritis (high eosinophils). Biofilms. Tx w/ Erythromycin.; Pathogen Characteristics: G- Pleomorphic coccobacilli, charcoal yeast agar with iron and cysteine


Bordetalla Pertusis

Whooping cough, airborne transmission,filamentous hemagluttin, phase variation fimbrae, AB toxin--ADP riboslyation inactivating GI-->constituiously active AC-->cAMP-->inhibits bacterialcidal actions. Tracheal cytoxin. Tx DTaP and Erythromycin.; Pathogen Characteristics: G- pleomorphic Coccobacili, growth on bordet-gengou media



UNPASTURIZED; Undulating fever, livestock/goat cheese, caseating granulomas (again cheese) and abscess formation, osteomyleitis. bacteria phagocytosis and to Reticuloendothelial system. Tx Doxy and gentamicin.; Pathogen Characteristics: G- baceria pleomorophic coccobacilli aerobic


Francisella Tularensis

Aerosolized Rabbits, CAPSULE, Latex agglutination, ulcer with surrounding tender erythrema, lymphadenopathy, bacteria phagocytosis and to Reticuloendothelial system. Tx: streptomycin; Pathogen Characteristics: G- pelomorphic cococcbacilli, requires cyestine.


Pasteurella Multocida

Animal Bites, BLACK ESCHAR (DD w/ Anthrax) cellulits, osteomyleitis, local spread, septicemia. Suture wound is BAD--creates closed anaerobic environment. Tx Penicillin G; Pathogen Characteristics: G- Pleomorphic Coccobacilli, Oxidase +, Catalse +


Bartonella Henselae

"cat scratch disease", HIV causes worse symptoms, regional lymphadenopathy, fever, hepatosplenomegaly, bacillary angiomatosis (skin lesions), Tx: Azithromycin, Doxy; Pathogen Characteristics: G-, Cococ