Bacteriology 1 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bacteriology 1 2 Deck (12):

Compare prokaryote to eukaryote

No nucleus vs nucleus. Circular DNA (supercoiled) vs linear chromosomes. No membrane bound organelles vs yes and other membranes. 70S vs 80S ribosomes. Peptidoglycan cell wall vs not.


Bacterial structures to know

Nucleoid, ribosomes, plasma membrane, cell wall, capsule, pili, flagella


Function of pilus

Pili bring bacteria together for exchange plasmids, but plasmids are not transferred through the pili rather through a pore.



Glycocalyx and slime layer (Sugary coating), or glycocalyx and capsule (sticky and protects from immune system)


Why do we need to know the structures?

Targets for antibiotics esp b/c they are different from ours


How can we differentiate b/w bacteria types?

Microscopic and colony features (shape, grouping, mobility, gram stain), Metabolism and oxygen requirements, Growth Environment (differential media etc), Virulence factors


How do bacteria cause disease? Steps

Pathogenic organism, reservoir, acquisition, adhesion, local multiplication, invasion, evade immune system, damage


Review on classification of organisms

Kingdom (apparently 6), Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species


6 kingdoms

Eubacteria (normal bacteria), archaebacteria, protista, fungi, plantae, animalia


How to name bacteria

Genus and species


Stain options

Gram stain (no good for mycobacteria): fix, crystal violet, iodine, decolourize, counterstain. Acid fast stain (for mycobacteria - show red): heat/phenol, dye, rinse with acid alcohol (hence acid fast)


Gram positive vs gram negative

Positive: purple-blue; Thick peptidoglycan; Teichoic acids and lipoteichoic acids; No outer membrane. Negative: red; Thin peptidoglycan; Space surrounding the peptidoglycan layer; Outer membrane (protection, porins); Lipopolysaccharides in the outer membrane