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Flashcards in Typical Pneumonia Deck (13):

Pneumonia defn

Inflammatory condition affecting the alveoli


What agents can cause pneumonia?

Viruses, bacteria (Strep pneumonia, H influenzae, and less typical ones), fungi (endemic), and [parasites]


What can S pneumoniae cause?

Most common cause of pneumonia, also causes otitis media, sinusitis, bacteremia and meningitis


Description of S pneumoniae bacteria?

Gram positive cocci in pairs or short chains. Capsule is huge! 95 types - immunity issue. IgA protease; Adhesins; Extracellular products (Pneumolysin, hyaluronidase, Dnases).


Carriers of S pneumoniae

Many people have it naturally in nasopharynx.


Common symptoms of S pneumoniae in lungs

High resp rate, lower O2 sats, fever, chest pain, rusty sputum


What should you do with someone who presents with what looks like a chest infection?

O2, IV fluids, CBC, chest Xray, Sputum and blood cultures, and antibiotics


How does S. pneumoniae cause crackles and X ray findings?

binds with adhesins; Capsule is antiphagocytic, prevents opsonization. Causes inflammatory response, fluid increases in lung: great place for growth and move around


After S pneumoniae binding and fluid coming into lung, what happens?

Damage endothelium - RBC enter alveoli (cause rusty sputum); 4. WBC and fibrin accumulate, normally air filled areas become “consolidated”; can spread from lungs to lymph and eventually blood; if not filtered by spleen (key for capsules) it can cause other infections


What other infections can S pneumonia cause if it reaches the blood and is not filtered by spleen?

infections in other areas like meninges, joints and heart valves


Acute Bacterial Otitis Media

Often after viral infection, S pneumoniae or Hi B are common. Bulging, non mobile ear drum, Yellow/gray drum, Fever, ear pain


Resistance issues with S pneumoniae?

Resistance with ß lactams, TMPSMX, macrolides, tetracyclines, quinolones. Can overcome penicillin resistance with higher dose


S pneumonia vaccines

Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (23 capsule types, short lived). Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (13 capsule types, induce memory, produce IgG)