Flashcards in Immunology 1 2 - basics and AB Deck (19):
List non-specific host defences
Skin, mucous membranes, temp, low ph (stomach), chemicals (lysozyme, interferon, complement) phagocytes, inflammation
B cell - briefly
covered in antibodies. Become plasma cell when activated, also creates memory B cell
CD4 cells and T cell receptor
CD8 cells and T cell receptor. Kills infected cells (ie virally infected). There are effector Tc and memory Tc.
aka Antibody response. B cell becomes plasma cell and produces Ab. Th cell helps plasma cell proliferation via cytokines
Th cells (MHCII) activated by antigen presenting cell, produce cytokines which help B and Tc cells. Tc cells bind MHCI and kill infected cell
Path of bacteria upon entry through breakage in skin (normal)
Local infection. Complement, phagocytes, cytokines, macrophages, etc. Dendritic cells take it to lymph, interact with T and B cells, produce adaptive immunity
When a B cell is activated by antigen interaction, it will proliferate to produce many daughter plasma cells and memory B cells.
MCHI and MCHII subclasses
MCHI has A, B, C. MCHII has DP, DQ, DR. Just bind different groups of peptides. Inherit from mom and dad, so you have 12 technically.
Generation of AB diversity
random combos of heavy and light chain. Random combo of V,D, and V,D,J regions. Changes in the spice sites b/w regions. Somatic mutations in development. Different C regions for different classes.
Structure of antibody
Fc receptor for bonding complement. Light chain has constant region, Heavy has one in the arms and then 2 or more in the stem. Hyper-variable regions in both heavy and light - the three segments on each are not close sequentially but come together in space
First to be made. Pentamer, connected by S-S and J chain. 4 constant regions.Can also exist as monomer as a cell surface receptor (on B cells)
Most abundant in blood. 4 subtypes (1-4). 3 constant regions.
Released in secretions as a dimer or trimer (connected by J piece)
4 constant regions. Reacts in allergies, stimulate histamine release. Not common
Enigma. Not common
Types of determinants
Conformational (3D structure, undenatured). Linear (some only bindable when denatured, some are either) Neoantigenic (determinant only exists when part of antigen is cleaved or phosphorylated)
AB complexes types
AB excess: small complexes, not much agglutination. Large complexes: equal AB and antigen, lots of agglutination. Antigen excess: small complexes again b/c AB is saturated