Immunology 1 2 - basics and AB Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Immunology 1 2 - basics and AB Deck (19):
1

List non-specific host defences

Skin, mucous membranes, temp, low ph (stomach), chemicals (lysozyme, interferon, complement) phagocytes, inflammation

2

B cell - briefly

covered in antibodies. Become plasma cell when activated, also creates memory B cell

3

Th cells

CD4 cells and T cell receptor

4

Tc cells

CD8 cells and T cell receptor. Kills infected cells (ie virally infected). There are effector Tc and memory Tc.

5

Humoral response

aka Antibody response. B cell becomes plasma cell and produces Ab. Th cell helps plasma cell proliferation via cytokines

6

Cell-mediated response

Th cells (MHCII) activated by antigen presenting cell, produce cytokines which help B and Tc cells. Tc cells bind MHCI and kill infected cell

7

Path of bacteria upon entry through breakage in skin (normal)

Local infection. Complement, phagocytes, cytokines, macrophages, etc. Dendritic cells take it to lymph, interact with T and B cells, produce adaptive immunity

8

Clonal expansion

When a B cell is activated by antigen interaction, it will proliferate to produce many daughter plasma cells and memory B cells.

9

MCHI and MCHII subclasses

MCHI has A, B, C. MCHII has DP, DQ, DR. Just bind different groups of peptides. Inherit from mom and dad, so you have 12 technically.

10

Generation of AB diversity

random combos of heavy and light chain. Random combo of V,D, and V,D,J regions. Changes in the spice sites b/w regions. Somatic mutations in development. Different C regions for different classes.

11

Structure of antibody

Fc receptor for bonding complement. Light chain has constant region, Heavy has one in the arms and then 2 or more in the stem. Hyper-variable regions in both heavy and light - the three segments on each are not close sequentially but come together in space

12

IgM

First to be made. Pentamer, connected by S-S and J chain. 4 constant regions.Can also exist as monomer as a cell surface receptor (on B cells)

13

IgG

Most abundant in blood. 4 subtypes (1-4). 3 constant regions.

14

IgA

Released in secretions as a dimer or trimer (connected by J piece)

15

IgE

4 constant regions. Reacts in allergies, stimulate histamine release. Not common

16

IgD

Enigma. Not common

17

Types of determinants

Conformational (3D structure, undenatured). Linear (some only bindable when denatured, some are either) Neoantigenic (determinant only exists when part of antigen is cleaved or phosphorylated)

18

AB complexes types

AB excess: small complexes, not much agglutination. Large complexes: equal AB and antigen, lots of agglutination. Antigen excess: small complexes again b/c AB is saturated

19

Where do many immune complexes fall out of solution? Problems?

Many in glomeruli (slow and convoluted) and skin (cooler) and joints. Can result in inflammation reaction in vessels.