Basic Bacteriology 2, Gram positive bacterial Structure and Peptidoglycan in Human Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Basic Bacteriology 2, Gram positive bacterial Structure and Peptidoglycan in Human Disease Deck (37)
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1

A microbe that is gram positive, beta hemolytic, cocci and sensitive to bacitracin is likely _. What is its main virulence factor?

Group A strep
Super antigen

2

Regarding case presentation 2, a fever that rises quickly to 104 and remains above 103 for 3 days and associated with significant chest pain is likely caused by what type of microbe?

Bacteria

3

Regarding case presentation 2, a violent cough that yields rusty sputum (i.e. blood tinged) is likely caused by _

Strep. pneumoniae

4

What is the microbe that causes whooping cough?

Bordetella pertusis

5

A gram positive diplococci, alpha hemolytic on blood agar plates, sensitive to optochin and make a large polysaccharide capsule is likely what organism?

Streptococcus pneumoniae

6

What is the main organism responsible for pneumonia? What might you observed on xray?

Streptococcus pneumoniae
A consolidated (pus filled) lobe of the lung (light gray lobe, vs black for air)

7

What make it possible for an individual to have recurrent infection with pneumonia over and over, even if an adequate immune response was mounted each time?

Streptococcus pneumoniae can have one of 85 different capsules, so immunity to one doesn't mean immunity to others

8

What is the drug used to treat the patient in case 2? The fever breaks on day 4, what is the likely cause?

Amoxacillin
That is when IgM peaks

9

Green cap meningitis is caused by _

Streptococcus pneumoniae

10

What is the major host defense against bacteria found in neutrophils? What is the color associated with this enzyme? Why?

Myeloperoxidase
Green
It contains iron, and green reflects the oxidation state of iron in damaged tissues

11

Gram positive bacteria is likely to have a haploid or diploid chromosome? What are 3 other sources of DNA found in gram positive bacteria?

Haploid
Episomes (Plasmids or bacteriophages)
Transposons
Pathogenicity islands

12

True or false, gram positive bacteria have a typical lipid bilayer

True, nothing strange here

13

What surrounds the typical bilayer of a gram positive bacteria? What are the building block (2)

Cross bridged peptidoglycan layer
N acetyl glucosamine and N acetyl muramic acid

14

What surrounds the peptidoglycan layer of gram positive bacteria? What is the purpose? (2) What is it usually made of?

Negatively charged capsule
- Repel host cells
- mimic host
Polysaccharides

15

_ has a capsule made of hyaluronic acid. This serves the dual purpose of being negatively charged and mimicing host. Why is this capsule not immunogenic?

Group A streptococci
Because people have a lot of hyaluronic acid in their group substance

16

Most gram positive bacteria have capsules made of polysaccharides. What is the exception? What is its capsule made of?

Bacillus anthracis
Poly D glutamic acid

17

What is an example provided of a microbe whose major virulence factor is its capsule? How does it accomplish this?

Streptococcus pneumoniae
The capsule repels host cells enough for it to grow and multiple

18

Arrange the following in order of closest to the microbes DNA to fartherst
- peptidoglycan layer
- lipid bilayer
- negatively charged capsule

lipid bilayer
peptidoglycan layer
capsule

19

A typical gram positve bacterial cell wall is _ percent cross linked vs. _ percent for a gram negative cell wall

gram + is 75, ve 25% for gram -

20

What are the 2 components of the bacterial cell wall? Which is crosslinked within the cell wall? Which extends to the cell membrane? What about the gram positive outer membrane?

Lipotechoic acid - Extends to cell membrane
Techoic acid - crosslinked within the cell wall
Outer membrane doesnt exist is gram positive cells

21

What is an advantage for bacteria of having ther peptidoglycan be composed of D amino acids?

Humans don't recognize D amino acids, therefore cannot degrade them

22

What are 2 organisms that are able to produce O-acetylated peptidoglycan? What are the resulting illnesses?

Streptococci - rheaumatic fever (arthritis, carditis)
Neisseria - post-gonococcal arthritis

23

How does O-acetylated peptidoglycan cause disease in humans? Why?

Accumulates in joints and causes arthritis and inflammation
It is very hard to degrade, highly inflammatory

24

Why do doctors treat streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis with corticosteroids?

The inflammation produced by the o-acetylated peptidoglycan from the organisms is responsible for increased fatality

25

Proteins, techoic acids or lipotechoic acids that creat a fuzz layer on the surface of bacteria are known as _. The function of this structure is mainly _ (2)

Fimbrae
Adhesion and antiphagocytosis

26

What is the main protein that forms the fimbrae of streptococcus pyogenes? How does it accomplish its protective activity?

M protein
It is antiphagocytic because it prevents the deposition of complement

27

What is the main protein that forms the fimbrae of staph aureus?

Ribitol techoic acid

28

What is the individual subunit of flagellae? What is the name of flagella that surround the bacteria? What is the name of flagella that are only on the ends of bacteria? What is the function of flagella on ends of bacteria?

Flagellin
Peritrichous flagella
Polar flagella
Motility

29

Between rods and pathogenic cocci, which is most likely to have flagella?

Rods are more likely to have flagella

30

What are MSCRAMMs? What is their function? On what pathogen are they found? What is the main component of the capsule of this organism?

Microbial Surface Component Recongnising Adhesive Matrix Molecule
Stick to host cells
Streptococcus pyogenes
Hyaluronic acid