Micro Drugs, Exam 1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Micro Drugs, Exam 1 Deck (74):
1

Vancomycin

"MRSA coverage
Blocks cross linking of newly synthesized cell wall to existing cell wall, Binds D-Ala dipeptide
Requires 12 hrs to work "

2

Clindamycin

"Shuts down exotoxin production (Protein synth. Inhibitor)
May allow growth of clostridium dificile, causing pseudomembranous enterocolitis "

3

Rifampin / rifamycin

"Great mucosal penetration
Prophylactic for meningitis (neisseiria won't develop resistance), treats Tuberculosis
Turns urine and contact lenses red
Inhibits initiation of transcription"

4

IV Immunoglobulin

Neutralizes superantigen

5

Drotecogin alpha, activated protein C

"Anti-thrombotic, anti-inflammatory and fibrinolytic
Slows clotting in purpura fulminans "

6

Corticosteroids

Prevent Inflammation if damaging (e.g. meningitis)

7

Phosphonomycin

"Class???
Acts in Cytoplasm
PEP analogue, block UDP-NAG to UDP-NAM"

8

D-Cycloserine

"Acts in Cytoplasm
Blocks addition of terminal D-ala dipeptide to UDP-NAM
Good for TB (second line)"

9

Bacitracin

"
Acts in membrane
Blocks regeneration of bactoprenol pyrophosphate, required cell wall precursor carrier (Blocks pyrophosphatase
Group A strep VERY sensitive"

10

Penicillins

"Beta-lactams
Block the transpeptidation reaction, displaces terminal D-Ala
Acts on the cell surface
Binds Penicillin binding proteins (PBP)"

11

Cephalosporins

"Beta-lactams
Block the transpeptidation reaction, displaces terminal D-Ala
Acts on the cell surface
Binds Penicillin binding proteins (PBP)"

12

Monobactam

"Beta-lactams
Block the transpeptidation reaction, displaces terminal D-Ala
Acts on the cell surface
Binds Penicillin binding proteins (PBP)"

13

Carbapenems

"Beta-lactams
Block the transpeptidation reaction, displaces terminal D-Ala
Acts on the cell surface
Binds Penicillin binding proteins (PBP)"

14

What are 4 beta lactams?

"Penicillin
Cephalosporin
Monobactam
Carbepenem"

15

Clavulanic Acid

"Inactivates Beta-lactamases
Used with Amoxicillin as Augmentn "

16

What beta lactams have S group, leading to sensitivity?

"Penicillin
Cephalosporin
Carbepenem"

17

What PBP confers resistance to beta lactams? Most common in _

PBP2a, Staph Aureus

18

Benxyl Penicillin (Pen G)

"Penicillin
Beta lactamase sensitive, good Gram + activity"

19

Phenoxymethyl Penicillin (Pen V)

"Penicillin
Beta lactamase sensitive, good Gram + activity"

20

Procaine Penicillin

"Penicillin
Beta lactamase sensitive, good Gram + activity"

21

Methicillin

"Penicillin
Penicillinase Resistant, Good gram + activity "

22

Oxacillin

"Penicillin
Penicillinase Resistant, Good gram + activity "

23

Nafcillin

"Penicillin
Penicillinase Resistant, Good gram + activity "

24

Cloxacillin

"Penicillin
Penicillinase Resistant, Good gram + activity "

25

Dicloxacillin

"Penicillin
Penicillinase Resistant, Good gram + activity "

26

Flucoxacillin

"Penicillin
Penicillinase Resistant, Good gram + activity "

27

Amoxicillin

"Penicillin
Moderate Spectrum "

28

Ampicillin

"Penicillin
Moderate Spectrum "

29

Piperacillin

"Penicillin
Moderate Spectrum "

30

Augmentin

"Penicillin
Amox + Clavulanic acid
Extended Spectrum "

31

Carbenicillin

"Penicillin
Extended Spectrum (Also treats Pseudomonas "

32

Ticarcillin

"Penicillin
Extended Spectrum (Also treats Pseudomonas "

33

Cefalexin

"First Gen Cephalosporin
Moderate Spectrum (Mainly gram +)"

34

Cephalothin

"First Gen Cephalosporin
Moderate Spectrum (Mainly gram +)"

35

Cephazolin

"First Gen Cephalosporin
Moderate Spectrum (Mainly gram +)"

36

Cefaclor

"Second Gen Cephalosporin
Moderate Spectrum (Mainly gram +, with anti haemophillus)"

37

Cefuroxime

"Second Gen Cephalosporin
Moderate Spectrum (Mainly gram +, with anti haemophillus)"

38

Cefamandole

"Second Gen Cephalosporin
Moderate Spectrum (Mainly gram +, with anti haemophillus)"

39

Cefotan

"Second Gen Cephalosporin
Moderate Spectrum (Mainly gram +, with anti anaerobic activity)"

40

Cefoxitin

"Second Gen Cephalosporin
Moderate Spectrum (Mainly gram +, with anti anaerobic activity)"

41

Ceftriaxone

"Cephalosporin (3rd generation)
Broad spectrum (Gram + and -)"

42

Cefotaxime

"Cephalosporin (3rd generation)
Broad spectrum (Gram + and -)"

43

Ceftazidime

"Cephalosporin
Broad spectrum with antipseudomonas activity"

44

Cefepime

"Cephalosporin 4th generation
Broad spectrum, enhance gram + activity and beta lactamase stability"

45

Cefpirome

"Cephalosporin 4th generation
Broad spectrum, enhance gram + activity and beta lactamase stability"

46

Imipenen

"Carbepenen
Broadest spectrum of Beta lactams "

47

Aztreonam

"Monobactam
Single ring, lowest chance of cross reactivity "

48

Tazobactam

Beta lactamase inhibitor

49

Sulbactam

Beta lactamase inhibitor

50

Naladixic Acid

"Quinolone
Target DNA gyrase (DNA replication)
Prevents formation of phosphodiester bonds"

51

Ciprofloxacin

"Fluoroquinolone
Target DNA gyrase (DNA replication)
Prevents formation of phosphodiester bonds, treats Tuberculosis
Risk of enterocolitis, tendons bursting"

52

Norfloxacin

"Fluoroquinolone
Target DNA gyrase (DNA replication)
Prevents formation of phosphodiester bonds
Risk of enterocolitis, tendons bursting. Treats UTI"

53

Ofloxacin

"Fluoroquinolone
Target DNA gyrase (DNA replication)
Prevents formation of phosphodiester bonds
Risk of enterocolitis, tendons bursting"

54

Metronidazole

"Nitroimidazole
Used for UTI - Trichomonas vaginalis
Anaerobic bacteria and microaerophillic bacteria
Intercalates In DNA, blocks replication"

55

Chloramphenicol

"Good CNS penetration
Good against gram -
Rare use today, aplastic anemia "

56

Erythromycin

"Macrolide antibiotics
Used when penicillin allergy
Protein Synthesis Inhibitor "

57

Azithromycin

"Macrolide antibiotics
Used when penicillin allergy
Protein Synthesis Inhibitor "

58

Clarithromycin

"Macrolide antibiotics
Used when penicillin allergy
Protein Synthesis Inhibitor "

59

Gentamycin

"Aminoglycosides
Good for hard to kill gram -, cause amino acid misreading
Treats pseudomonas in CF patients
Ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity "

60

Amikacin

"Aminoglycosides
Good for hard to kill gram -, cause amino acid misreading
Treats pseudomonas in CF patients
Ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity "

61

Kanamycin

"Aminoglycosides
Good for hard to kill gram -, cause amino acid misreading
Treats pseudomonas in CF patients
Ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity "

62

Tobramycin

"Aminoglycosides
Good for hard to kill gram -, cause amino acid misreading
Treats pseudomonas in CF patients
Ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity "

63

Tetracycline

"Tetracycline
Protein synthesis inhibitor, broad spectrum, bacteriostatic
Binds Calcium, stains teeth "

64

Doxacycline

"Tetracycline
Protein synthesis inhibitor, broad spectrum, bacteriostatic
Binds Calcium, stains teeth "

65

Mupirocin

"Protein synthesis inhibitor
Treats strep and staph impetigo, decolonize nose of staph aureus before surgery (+ chlorhexidine)"

66

Linezolid

"Oxazolidinones
Treats MRSA, resistance developed quickly "

67

Polymyxin B

"Membrane active (causes toxicity in all organisms)
Used to remove LPS from columns"

68

Daptomycin

"Causes membrane disruption
Used for MRSA (not as good as vanco)"

69

Sulfonamide and Trimethoprim

"Synergistic combo
Broad spectrum, aerobic and facultative bacteria (blocks folic acid metabolism)
Pneumocystis carinii - Fungus
Anaerobes are resistant "

70

Isoniazid

"Blocks cell wall synthesis
Good for mycobacterium (TB), used in combination "

71

Pyrazinamide

Good for mycobacterium (TB), used in combination

72

Ethambutol

Good for mycobacterium (TB), used in combination

73

Capreomycin

"Amino glycoside
Good for mycobacterium (TB), used in combination "

74

Clofazimine

"Good for mycobacterium (TB), used in combination
Also Leprosy"