BB LRGPHOR Ch13 - Rabbit Bacterial Diseases Flashcards Preview

Rabbits > BB LRGPHOR Ch13 - Rabbit Bacterial Diseases > Flashcards

Flashcards in BB LRGPHOR Ch13 - Rabbit Bacterial Diseases Deck (91):
1

1. What is the most common bacterial pathogen of laboratory rabbits?

Pasteurella multocida

2

2. True or False: Pasteurellosis in rabbits usually begins in the nasal cavity following a carrier state, then spreads to other parts of the respiratory system by direct extension.

True

3

3. Transmission of Pasteurella multocida usually occurs by the __________ route.

oral or respiratory

4

4. The most common clinical manifestation of rabbit pasteurellosis is:

“snuffles” (rhinitis)

5

5. True or False: Animals with negative nasal cultures can be accepted as Pasteurella-free.

False-is prudent to perform 3 sequential cultures before accepting an animals as Pasteurella-free because approximately 30%jof infected animals may not be detected by a single culture.

6

What has been suggested as the drug of choice for treatment of Pasteurella-associated rhinitis or conjunctivitis, since there is a high rate of response when the drug is administered.

enrofloxacin

7

7. The term enterotoxemia is used to refer to enteropathy caused by toxigenic micro-organisms of the genus _________.

Clostridium

8

8. What group of rabbits is most susceptible to Clostridium enterotoxemia?

recently weaned rabbits

9

9. What is the most characteristic gross finding of Clostridium enterotoxemia?

Petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages on the serosal surface of the cecum

10

10. _______ is the causative agent of Tyzzer’s disease.

Clostridium piliforme

11

11. Which animal can be housed with rabbits to identify carriers of Clostridium piliforme?

Gerbils-are particularly susceptible to Clostridium piliforme infections. Gerbils can be expected to develop histologically evident Tyzzer’s disease when exposed to spores in the feces.

12

12. What is the causative agent of Pseudotuberculosis?

Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

13

13. The blue-green discoloration caused by ________ produced by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa organism.

pyocyanin

14

14. Virulent strains of Staphlococcus aureus possess which gene that mediates production of the extracellular toxin?

enterotoxin gene cluster (egc)

15

15. Which animal is considered to be the natural host for Chlamydophilia caviae?

guinea pig

16

16. Which bacteria is the most common cause of mandibular & maxillary abscesses in rabbits?

Fusobacterium nucleatum

17

17. True or False: Brucellosis is rare in domestic rabbits but common in wild lagomorphs, especially members of the genus Lepus.

True

18

18. Which animal is used to isolate Franscisella tularensis by intraperitoneal injection of the agent?

guinea pig

19

19. _______ is the only significant cause of tularemia in Europe whereas _________ or __________ subspecies can cause tularemia in North America.

F. holartica, F. tularensis, F. holartica

20

20. Which animal(s) are thought to be the natural reservoir of Brucella suis?

Wild boars & Hares

21

21. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli uses an outer membrane protein known as _______ to induce enterocyte effacement and promote intimate bacterial attachment to the host cell.

intimin

22

22. A presumptive diagnosis of rabbit colibacillosis can be made by demonstration of __________ in intestinal epithelium.

bacterial attachment and effacement of intestinal epithelium

23

23. True or False: Rabbits are an important reservoir of Tuberculosis.

True

24

24. Which group of rabbit is most susceptible to Listeriosis?

pregnant females

25

25. Which animal is the primary source of human exposure for Tularemia?

rabbits

26

27. The susceptibility of rabbits to staphylococci has made the rabbit an experimental model for which type of infections?

orthopedic & ophthalmic infections

27

28. _________ is the causative agent of Necrobacillosis or Schmorl’s disease in rabbits.

Fusobacterium necrophorum

28

29. Which disease in rabbits is characterized by inflammatory lesions of the genitalia?

Treponema paraluiscuniculi

29

31. _______ is the drug of choice for treatment of treponematosis in rabbits.

Penicillin

30

32. What are the characteristics of Pasteurella multocida

Gram-negative nonmotile coccobacillus. Historically of serogroup A

31

33. What are the characteristics of Clostridium piliforme

Gram-negative, spore-forming, motile, obligate intracellular rod shaped bacterium

32

34. Clinical signs of Tyzzer's disease

profuse watery to mucoid diarrhea

33

35. Tyzzer's disease is most commonly seen in what age rabbits?

3-8 weeks

34

36. Ernst Tyzzer first described Clostridium piliforme in what animal?

Japanese waltzing mouse

35

What is the mortality rate of rabbits clinically affected by C. piliforme?

90-95%

36

Common pathological lesions of Tyzzer's disease

Intestinal - mucosal necrosis, serosal edema of distal ileum, cecum, proximal colon Liver - white spots of focal necrosis Heart - white streaks

37

Diagnosis of C. piliforme

cannot be cultured in artificial media serology, IFA, PCR histological confirmation of organism at periphery of necrotic foci

38

Differential diagnoses for diarrhea in rabbits

C. piliforme, enterotoxemia, E. coli, Eimeria stiedae coronavirus, rotavirus

39

Differential diagnoses for white spots on the liver in rabbits

C. piliforme, Eimeria stiedae

40

Agents that cause enterotoxemia

Clostridium spiroforme (iota toxin) C. difficile (Toxin A, Toxin B, binary toxin) C. perfringens type E (uncommon); iota toxin

41

Characteristics of C. spiroforme

Gram-positive, spore-forming, helically coiled, semicircular, anaerobic bacteria

42

Clinical signs of C. spiroforme enterotoxemia

diarrhea, fecal soiling, cyanosis, peracute death

43

Epizoology of C. spiriforme infecction

acquired from envrronment, weanlings predisposed antibiotic dysbiosis

44

Pathogenesis of C. spiroforme infection

iota toxin binds to host cell receptor

45

Pathologic lesions associated with C. spiroforme infection

primarily in cecum - enlarged with gas, serosal hemorrhage, liquid, sometimes bloody contents mucosal necrosis with PMN infiltrates and edema in the lamina propria

46

Diagnosis of C. spiroforme

clostridial culture, iota toxin via assay, PCR

47

Treatment of enterotoxemia

serum neutralization of iota toxin (C. spiroforme, C. perfringens) transfaunation antibiotics diet change

48

Characteristics of Clostridium difficile

Gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobic bacillus

49

Clinical signs of C. difficile enterotoxemia

anorexia, depression, diarrhea, fecal-staining of the perineum, decreased fecal output, abdominal distention, and death

50

Epizoology of C. difficilie

nonclinical carrier animals antibiotic dysbiosis weanlings most susceptible newborn rabbits REISSTANT - no toxin receptors

51

pathogenesis of C. difficile

Toxin A - enterotoxin Toxin B - cytotoxin disrupt Rho-subtype intracellular signaling molecules that disrupts actin cytoskeleton Binary toxin produced in some strains - actin-specific ADP-ribosyltransferase

52

Pathology of C. difficile

fluid filled cecum and colon severe jejunal mucosal hemorrhage, necrosis, submucosal edema

53

diagnosis of C. difficile

Tissue culture cytotoxin assay for Toxin B - Gold Standard PCR

54

Differential diagnosis for peracute death in rabbits

Clostridium spp, enterohemmorhagic E. coli (EHEC)

55

Treatment of C. difficile

transfaunation, cholestyriamine for prevention

56

What are the pathotypes associated with E. coli

1. enteropathogenic (EPEC) 2. Shiga toxin-producing (STEC), aka, enterohemorrhagic (EHEC) or verocytotoxin-producing (VTEC) 3. enterotoxigenic (ETEC) 4. enteroaggressive (EAEC) 5. enteroinvasive (EIEC) 6. diffusely adherent (DIEC)

57

what are the clinical syndromes associated with E. coli

enteric/diarrheal urinary tract sepsis/meningitis

58

Which E. coli pathotypes are associated with natural disease in rabbits?

EPEC STEC

59

Pathogenesis of E. coli infection in rabbitsq

EPEC - eae gene encodes for inimin, which induces attaching and effacing lesions in the intestine

60

Clinical signs of E. coli

bloody diarrhea and sudden death (EHEC O153)

61

Epizoology of E. coli

fecal-oral transmission coinfection of EHEC and EPEC

62

Pathology of E. coli

paintbrush hemorrhages of cecal serosa peticia/echymotic hemmorahage attaching and effacing lesions with pedestal formation nephropathy (EHEC)

63

Diagnosis of E. coli

culture on blood agar, MacConkey agar, selective media after broth enrichment PCR

64

Causative agent of rabbit syphilis

Treopnema paraluiscuniculi

65

Characteristics of Treponema paraluiscuniculi

spirochete, non-cultivable

66

Causative agent of human syphilis

Treponema pallidum

67

Causative agent of clinical syphilis in hares

Treponema paraluisleporis T. paraluiscuniculi causes seroconversion but no clinical disease

68

Pathology of rabbit syphilis

macules, papules, erosions, uclers, crusts

69

Clinical signs of rabbit syphilis

lesions on anal region, nose, eyelids, lips, ear, face, prepuce

70

Epizoology of rabbit syphilis

horizontal transmission in adult rabbits more common in adults than young tprK gene thought to code for virulence factors

71

Diagnosis of rabbit syphilis

serology microhemaggluination test PCR

72

Differential diagnoses for skin lesions on the lips, anus, eyelids

rabbit syphilis trauma mycotic infections acariasis

73

Treatment of rabbit syphilis

self limiting

74

Causative agent of proliferative enteropathy

Lawsonia intracellularis

75

Characteristics of Lawsonia intracellularis

Gram-negative, curved to spiral shaped, obligate intracellular bacterium

76

Clinical signs of proliferative enteropathy

watery, pasty, seimifluid diarrhea in young rabbits depression, anorexia

77

Epizootiology of proliferative enteropathy

isolated cases usually rabbits can serve as reservoir host

78

Pathogenesis of Lawsonia intracellularis

IFN-gamma limits intracellular infection and increased cellular proliferation Lawsonia surface antigen (LsaA) - attachment and entry into intestinal epithelial cells

79

Pathology of Lawsonia intracellularis

distension and diffuse mucosal thickening of jejunum and proximal ileum enlarged cranial mesenteric lymph nodes observation of bacilli using Toluidine blue in apical cytoplasm of mucosal epithelial cells proliferative lesions in the cecum, SR, small intestine

80

Diagnosis of Lawsonia intracellularis

isolation of 16S rRNA PCR

81

Differential diagnosis for proliferative enteropathy

Lawsonia (on warthin-Starry stain) mycobacterium avium (on acid fast staining)

82

Differential diagnoses for this presentation include all but which of the following

a. Listeria monocytogenes

b. Clostridium spirofome

c. Encephalitozoon cuniculi

d. Eimeria stiedae

Q image thumb

b. Clostridium spirofome

C. piliforme should be included as ddx however

83

Intestinal necrosis associated with what cause?

a. coliform bacteria

b. clostridial bacteria

c. rotavirus

d. mucoid enteropathy

Q image thumb

b. clostridial bacteria

84

Intestinal lesion assoicated with what cause?

a. coliform bacteria

b. clostridial bacteria

c. rotavirus

d. lawsonia

Q image thumb

a. coliform bacteria (E. coli causes villous atrophy)

Closridia causes necrosis

Rotavirous causes vacuolation of villous tips

Lawsonia causes proloferative enteropathy

85

Idenifty the organism:

a. Fusobacterium necrophorum

b. Treponema cuniculi

c. Encephalitozoon cuniculi

d. Lawsonia spp.

Q image thumb

a. Fusobacterium necrophorum

86

What disease is associated with this histopathology of the intestines?

a. Proliferative enteropathy

b. Enterotoxemia

c. Myxyomatosis

d. Mucoid enteropathy

Q image thumb

d. Mucoid enteropathy

87

What organism is associated with this lesion (left is normal intestine, right is abnormal)?

a. Clostridia spp.

b. E. coli

c. Rotavirus

d. Lawsonia spp.

Q image thumb

d. Lawsonia spp. - proliferative enteritis

88

Causative agent?

Q image thumb

Pasteurella multocida

89

Associated organism

Q image thumb

Treponema paraluiscuniculi

90

Treatment for this condition

Q image thumb

self limiting

91

Causative agent of this condition

Q image thumb

Pyocyanins produced by Pseudomonas arugenosa