What is the full taxonomic classification of the domesticated rabbit?
A: class Mammalia, order Lagomorpha, family Leporidae, subfamily Leporinae, Oryctolagus cuniculus
2. Which genera represent hares?
3. ____________ deficiency in rabbits is a model of _______________ in humans.
vitamin A; hydrocephalus
Acute respiratory distress syndrome can be be induced in rabbits how?
phorbol myrisate acetate
Name six cancer models of rabbits as listed by the AFIP.
VX-2 carcinoma tumor, spontaneous endometrial adenocarcinoma, monoclonal gammopathies, nephroblastoma, lymphoblastic leukemia, malignant fibroma
The VX-2 carcinoma arises from malignant transformation of __________________.
viral-induced Shope papilloma
What serological abnormality is evident with the VX-2 carcinoma within 4 weeks of implantation?
What is the approximate incidence of spontaneous endometrial adenocarcinoma in rabbits 5 years of age or older?
79% or higher
9. How is nephroblastoma induced in rabbits?
A: ethylnitrosurea to pregnant does
10. How is the rabbit model of beta-lymphoblastic leukemia created?
transgenic rabbit line which develops disease as weanlings
11. What is the WHHL rabbit, how is it unique, and what does it model?
A: Wantanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit; has marked deficiency of LDL receptors in liver and other tissues; selective breeding of WHHL rabbits will increase incidence of coronary artery atherosclerosis without increasing aortic atherosclerosis; used to study cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis
12. What is the St. Thomas Hospital rabbit strain, how is it unique and what does it model?
A: used to study cholesterol metabolism; has normal functioning LDL receptors but maintains a hypercholesterolemic state
13. The absence of second incisors (peg teeth) in rabbits in some rabbits herds is a __________ trait.
Which salivary gland in rabbits does not have a human counterpart?
T/F Mucous glands are a prominent feature of the rabbit esophagus.
False; no mucous glands in rabbit esophagus
Describe the musculature of the rabbit esophagus and stomach.
three layers of striated muscle that extend the length of esophagus including cardia of stomach; this is in contrast to humans and many other species who have separate portions of striated and smooth muscle along esophagus
T/F The stomach is never entirely empty in a healthy rabbit.
True; gastric contents often include ingested hair as part of normal grooming
Most of the maternal immunity that kits receive is active or passive?
passive via the yolk sac; the GI tract of rabbits is relatively impermeable to large molecules
19. Describe the content of cecotrophs.
high moisture content, rich in nitrogen-containing compounds, contain B vitamins niacin, riboflavin, pantothenate, cyanocobalamin.
20. Respiratory effort in rabbits is due mainly to what musculature?
T/F Compression and release of the chest wall in rabbits 30-45 times per minute is the most effective means of artificial respiration.
False; that method is ineffective due to the diaphragm being the primary muscle responsible for respiratory effort; artificial respiration is best performed by alternating the head up and down 30-45 times per minute while holding the animal
How many lobes of the rabbit lung?
6; cranial, middle and caudal on each side
T/F Lung volume in rabbits increases with age.
True; unlike in humans and dogs where lung volume decreases with age
What is unique about the rabbit heart compared to other mammals?
tricuspid valve has two cusps
T/F The aortic nerve in the rabbit responds to baroreceptors only.
True; the aortic nerve in rabbits subserved no known chemoreceptors.
T/F Blood supply to the rabbit brain is supplied mainly by the internal carotid arteries.
True; blood supply by the vertebral arteries is limited
T/F The rabbit kidney is unipapillate making renal cannulization more difficult.
False; the rabbit kidney is unipapillate but this facilitates cannulization
T/F The number of glomeruli in rabbits increase after birth.
True; unlike humans where all glomeruli are present at birth
Describe the clearance of creatinine in rabbit relative to insulin.
they are identical
GFR can be accurately measured in rabbits by measuring clearance of ____________.
Rabbit urine contains high concentrations of what compounds?
ammonium magnesium phosphate, and calcium carbonate monohydrate
T/F Albuminuria is normal is young rabbits.
Open orchidectomy in the rabbit must include what additional technique compared to dogs and cats?
the superficial inguinal ring must be closed to prevent herniation
What is the placentation in the rabbit?
T/F The neonatal rabbit is essentially ectothermic until day 21.
False; it is considered ectothermic until about day 7
T/F Anisocytosis is a normal finding in rabbits.
T/F Reticulocyte counts between 2-4% are typical in healthy rabbits.
Describe the neutrophil of the rabbit.
sometimes called "pseudoeosinophil" or "heterophil" due to presence of red staining granules in cytoplasm; some rabbits demonstrate the Pelger-Huët anomaly in which the heterophil nucleus is hyposegmented due to incomplete differentiation of the granulocytes.
How do rabbits differ from other mammals with respect to alkaline phosphatase?
A: most mammals have two isozymes (intestinal and liver/kidney/bone forms); rabbits have three (intestinal and two forms present in liver and kidney)
T/F Feeding a low fiber diet to rabbits can result in vitamin B deficiency.
True; low fiber diets result in less cecotrophs ingested and since rabbits rely on coprophagy for B vitamins, deficiency is possible.
Rabbits diets with high levels of alfalfa are high in _________ and can lead to _________ disease.
Rabbit diets either too high or too low in vitamin A can result in _____________?
reproductive dysfunction and congenital hydrocephalus
Vitamin E deficiency in rabbits is associated with _______________?
infertility, muscular dystrophy, fetal death, and colobomatous microphthalmos
Rabbit serum levels less than ________ are indicative of hypovitaminosis E.
What is the approximate water intake of the rabbit?
120 ml/kg of body weight (higher than most mammals)
T/F Rabbits are spontaneous ovulators.
False; ovulation is induced and occurs approximately 10-13 hours after copulation
T/F Vaginal cytology is generally the best method for determining estrus and female receptivity.
False; does do not have a distinct estrous cycle, but rather demonstrate a rhythm with respect to receptivity to the buck; receptivity is indicated by swollen, moist, dark pink-red vulva, and restlessness, and rubbing the chin on the cage
Gestation length in rabbits, and when can pregnancy be detected?
gestation 30-33 days; day 11 by radiographs, day 14 by palpation
Kindling usually takes place when, and lasts for how long?
early morning; 30-60 minutes
What interventions are required for a breech presentation during rabbit parturition?
none, it's normal
What is the normal nursing frequency of a doe?
once daily for several minutes; nursing lasts 5-10 weeks with weaning usually by 5-8 weeks
At what temperature range should rabbits be housed?
Most common rabbit isolates of Pasteurella multocida?
capsular types A or D and somatic types 3 or 12
Name six general ways Pasteurella multocida can manifest clinically in rabbits (not necessarily clinically apparent).
Rhinitis with or without sinusitis (snuffles) Pneumonia - chronic usually asymptomatic; can cause anorexia, depression, dyspnea, moist rales, death Otitis media which is usually clinically silent and can progress to otitis interna leading to torticollis Septicemia generally die acutely without any clinical signs Subcutaneous and/or visceral abscesses can be clinically silent for long periods Acute or chronic genital tract infections in males and females
What bacterial virulence factors of Pasteurella multocida allow it to evade host defenses?
resistance to phagocytosis by poymorphonuclear neutrophils Resistance to killing by serum and complement Toxin production Endotoxin production
Name and describe the etiologic agent for Tyzzer's disease in rabbits?
Clostridium piliforme; gram negative, bacillus-shaped, spore-forming, obligate intracellular pathogen
How is C. piliforme cultured?
cannot be grown in artificial media; must be cultured in embryo named eggs or tissue culture
Tyzzer's disease is most common in what age group of rabbits?
young, particularly around weaning
How does Tyzzer's disease typically present?
profuse, watery diarrhea, anorexia, dehydration, lethargy; rabbits after die 1-2 days after exhibiting clinical signs; mortality can be up to 90% in acute outbreaks; chronic disease can manifest as weight loss and wasting
Name two stains used to identify C. piliforme.
Warthin-Starry or Giemsa
What surface disinfectants are efficacious again C. piliforme spores?
1% per acetic acid, or 0.3% sodium hypochlorite
Primary etiologic agent of enterotoxemia in rabbits?
What other species can be associated with enterotoxemia in rabbits?
C. difficile, C. perfringens type A, C. welchii type A
T/F Similar to humans, acute inflammatory exudate and pseudo membrane formation is characteristic of C. difficile infections in rabbits.
False; acute inflammatory exudate and pseudomembrane formation has not been reported in rabbits
Rabbit fecal smears demonstrating helically coiled and semicircular organisms are characteristic of _________________?
How is enterotoxemia definitively diagnosed?
at least isolation of causative organism, but may also analyze supernatant from centrifuged cecal contents for iota toxin
How is C. spiroforme cultured?
Centrifugation of intestinal contents followed by culture of the supernatant-pellet interface.
T/F. There are no vaccines for enterotoxemia in rabbits.
True. Control of enterotoxemia in rabbits should focus on preventing disruption of GI flora through proper husbandry and veterinary practices.
Describe proper husbandry and veterinary practices to avoid enterotoxemia in rabbits.
Around time of weaning, do not over feed and give sufficient dietary fiber. Avoid abrupt changes in feed. Copper sulfate may be added to feed to reduce Clostridial toxin production. Use antibiotics judiciously and appropriately, and parenterally is better than oral.
How is enterotoxemia in rabbits treated?
Supportive fluid therapy, +/- judicious abx, oral cholestyramine (ion exchange resin) binds bacterial toxins
What is the strain and serotype of the most virulent E. coli affecting weanling rabbits?
strain Rabbit Diarrhea E. coli (RDEC-1), and serotype O15:H
E. coli strains expressing the ______ gene are the most _________ and ______________.
eae, common, pathogenic
What does the eae gene encode?
intimin, an outer membrane protein required for development of attaching and effacing lesions. Many strains expressing this gene are in the O103 serogroup.
What other serotypes of E. coli are important in rabbit colibacillosis?
O109:H2, O103:H2, O15:H, O128, O132; O109:H2 most often cause of neonatal diarrhea with high mortality; O103:H2 or O15:H most often with weanling diarrhea with high mortality; O123, O128, and O132 usually cause weanling diarrhea with low mortality.
What are the typical clinical syndromes of colibacillosis in rabbits?
4-6 week old weanlings most commonly affected, but 1-2 week old suckling rabbits can also be affected. Three clinical syndromes depending on strain: neonatal diarrhea with high mortality, weanling diarrhea with high morality, weanling diarrhea with low mortality.
What are the typical clinical presentations of colibacillosis in rabbits?
suckling rabbits with severe yellow diarrhea and high mortality; weanlings with profuse watery diarrhea with dehydration, anorexia, weight loss, stunted growth, and death if highly virulent strain; diarrhea can be mild in weanlings with low virulent strains
What is the floor space required for a rabbit less than 2 kg?
Up to 4 kg?
Up to 5.4 kg?
More than 5.4 kg?
Less than 2 kg: 1.5 ft2
Up to 4 kg: 3.0 ft2
Up to 5.4 kg: 4.0 ft2
More than 5.4 kg: At least 5.0 ft2
Height requirement is technically 16 inches, but as long as ears aren't touching top of cage, performance standard will be applied.