BB LRGPHOR Ch18 - Rabbit Experimental Models Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in BB LRGPHOR Ch18 - Rabbit Experimental Models Deck (50):
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1. Compared to mice and rats, rabbits are more similar to humans with respect to
a. cardiac cellular electrophysiology and calcium transport
b. composition of lipoproteins and lipoprotein production in the liver
c. presence of cholesteryl ester transfer protein, a key regulator of development of atherosclerosis
d. all of the above

d

2

2. Atheroma lesions are inflammatory sites characterized by
a. proliferation and remodeling of smooth muscle cells
b. endothelial cell-monocyte interaction
c. deep intimal necrosis with cholesterol clefts, calcium deposits and neovascularization
d. all of the above

d

3

3. The Draize eye test and skin irritation tests are
a. adopted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
b. meet the testing requirements of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act
c. meet the testing requirements of the Toxic Substances Control Act
d. all of the above

d

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4. True or False: Hypercholesterolemic rabbits, with or without endothelial damage, are the most widely used model to study the “statin” drugs.

True

5

5. The preferred species for the Draize eye and skin irritation tests is the
a. French Lop rabbit
b. Rex rabbit
c. albino rabbit
d. Flemish Giant rabbit

c

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6. The most common model to evaluate pharmacologic therapeutics for atherosclerosis is _____________.

The cholesterol-fed rabbit

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7. In the cholesterol-fed rabbit, atheromas develop primarily in the ________ and ______________.

aortic arch and thoracic aorta including origins of intercostal arteries

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8. The hypercholesterolemic rabbit is also a model of
a. valvular heart disease
b. non-alcoholic, non-obese, non-insulin-dependent fatty liver
c. all of the above

c

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9. True or False: Rabbits fed high cholesterol diet and inoculated intranasally with Chlamydia pneumonia develop atheromas at a significantly accelerated rate compared to non-infected rabbits or rabbits infected and treated with azithromycin.

True

10

10. The Spontaneous hypercholesterolemic rabbit
a. develops atherosclerosis by 3-5 months of age
b. is the WHHL strain
c. has been used extensively in the development of the statin drugs
d. all of the above

d

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11. True or False: By 22 months of age, 60% of WHHL rabbits will have cholesterol deposits in the skin, cornea and digital joints

True

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12. Similar to humans affected by familial hypercholesterolemia, WHHL rabbits
a. have a severe lack of LDL receptors in the liver, adrenal glands, spleen and lymph node
b. increased plasma LDL cholesterol
c. decreased HDL
d. all of the above

d

13

13. True or False: Transgenic New Zealand White and transgenic WHHL rabbits have been developed to aid atherosclerosis research.

True

14

14. True or False: Myocardial infarction and reperfusion occurs when plaques rupture and block arteries of the heart, leading to acute coronary syndrome, the leading cause of morbidity and mortality.

True

15

15. Myocardial infarct-prone WHHL (WHHLMI) rabbits develop coronary artery disease at an incidence of _% by 30 months of age.

97%

16

16. True or False: Rabbits are an animal model of surgically induced myocardial infarction and reperfusion.

True

17

17. Bacterial endocarditis in rabbits may be induced via
a. ventricular catheterization and deposition of bacteria on heart valves
b. exposure of the carotid artery and placement of and indwelling catheter and intravenous inoculation of bacteria
c. a and b
d. none of the above

c

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20. Rabbit models of ventricular hypertrophy include
a. hind-limb ischemia/angiogenesis model
b. left ventricular pressure overload
c. right ventricular pressure overload
d. in-vivo arrhythmia models
e. volume overload
f. all of the above

f

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21. True or False: The rabbit is one of the most widely used models in experimental ophthalmology.

True

20

22. True or False: Compared to pig eye anatomy, the rabbit eye anatomy is more analogous to that of humans.

False: Non-human primates and pigs share the closest eye anatomy to humans.

21

23. True or False: The effects of drugs on the retina of a rabbit are easily translated to humans.

FALSE

22

25. True or False: Rabbits have of a long time been used as a model of radiation-induced cataracts.

True

23

26. True or False: The anterior chamber of rabbit and human eyes are similar.

True

24

27. True or False: Rabbits serve as a valuable surgical model for cataract removal and replacement with intraocular lens.

True

25

29. Rabbits are a useful model for studying Herpes simplex type 1 viral keratitis in humans because
a. rabbits have a large cornea
b. rabbits have abundant conjunctiva associated lymphoid tissue
c. rabbits have corneal lymphoid follicles and similar ultrastructure
d. all of the above

d

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30. Rabbits reliably develop herpetic keratitis after ocular inoculation with HSV-1 and follow a course of disease similar to that seen in humans including
a. corneal tissue destruction and edema
b. corneal opacification
c. corneal scarring and neovascularization
d. all of the above

d

27

31. True or False: Rabbits with inherited glaucoma are not used for glaucoma research.

True

28

32. Glaucoma may be induced in rabbits by using__________or____________.

corticosteroids, intraocular injection of alpha-chymotrypsin

29

33. True or False: Rabbits are not a useful model of the pathogenic process of glaucoma.

True

30

34. True or False: Rabbits are a useful model for surgical and medical treatment of glaucoma in humans.

True

31

35. Toxin-induced uveitis rabbit model (EIU)
a. largely replaces the experimental auto-immune uveitis rabbit model
b. is clinically and histopathologically similar to uveitis in humans
c. is often used in pre-clinical trials
d. all of the above

d

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36. True or False: Rabbits are extensively used as an induced model of proliferative vitreoretinopathy.

True

33

37. True or False: Because of the relatively large size of the eyes, rabbits are one of the most widely used models to investigate drug delivery to the posterior segment of the eye for treatment of vitreoretinal disease.

True

34

41. True or False: A rabbit model of age-related macular degeneration has been developed wherein drusen accumulation may be induced in rabbits by injection of glycoxidized microsperes with albumin into the subretinal space by sclerotomy.

True

35

42. True or False: Rabbits are a useful model of Coccidiomycoses in humans because the induced disease in rabbits closely mimics the central nervous system involvement in humans.

True

36

43. Rabbits inoculated with Coccidioides immitis may have an expected ____________ clinical course of disease before euthanasia is necessary.

2-7 week

37

44. Clinical features common to humans and rabbits with Coccidiomycoses include
a. progressive pleocytosis
b. hyperproteinemia
c. arteritis and infarction
d. granulomatous cerebrospinal meningitis
e. all of the above

e

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45. True or False: The rabbit model of listeriosis requires inoculation of organisms directly into the cisterna magna.

True

39

46. True or False: Inbred New Zealand White strains of rabbit are more susceptible to tuberculosis than outbred NZW strains.

True, duh.

40

49. True or False: Transgenic rabbits have been developed to express human major histocompatibility class 1 gene, HLA-A2.1, enabling the use of rabbits to study Human Papiloma Virus biology and pathogenesis.

True

41

50. True or False: A naturally occurring syndrome has been reported in Dutch belted rabbits that mimics hemolytic renal syndrome in humans with disease associated with E.coli.

True

42

51. Compared to rodent models, the rabbit subscapularis model more closely mimics _________injury in humans.

rotator cuff

43

52. Rabbits have proven useful models of
a. Campylobacter infection
b. osteomyelitis and implant infection
c. endotoxemia
d. anterior cruciate ligament injury and osteoarthritis of the knee
e. cartilage repair
f. pneumococcal pneumonia
g. all of the above

g

44

53. Although transgenic and knockout mice have largely replaced rabbits for studies of pathogenesis of Candida infection, rabbits are still used to investigate treatment for _____________ and _____________ .

Candida meningoencephalitis (HCME) and ocular candidiasis

45

54. True or False: The rabbit is the only small animal model for small pox in humans in which natural aerosol transmission has been reported.

True

46

55. The rabbit model of orthopox (small pox) infection is characterized by
a. intradermal inoculation with either rabbit pox virus (RPV) or Western Reserve vaccinia virus (VV-WR)
b. clinical disease within 2 days of intradermal inoculation
c. rapid progression of disease necessitating euthanasia within 6-9 days of inoculation
d. all of the above

d

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56. True or False: Treponema pallidum is the agent of syphylis in humans and can be sustained for prolonged periods using artificial media.

False: The organism can’t be sustained for prolonged time in artificial media.

48

57. In the laboratory setting, Treponema pallidum is propagated invivo by ___________.

intradermal inoculation in rabbit testes

49

58. True or False: Similar to the disease in humans, rabbits inoculated intradermally with Treponema pallidum develop stage 3 neurologic disease.

FALSE

50

59. To create a model of late stage neurosyphylis, rabbits are inoculated ____________ or ___________.

intracisternally or intravenously